Influence Of Emotion On Job Performance Of Secretaries In An Organization

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Influence Of Emotion On Job Performance Of Secretaries In An Organization


Abstract


This study was carried out on the examination of the influence of emotion on job performance of secretaries in an organization using Osun State Government Secretariat as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of secretarial staff in Osun State Government Secretariat. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 45 respondents and 43 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation Statistical Tools, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between emotions and the commitment level of secretaries in an organization. The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between emotions and the productivity of secretaries in an organization. It was also found that there is a significant relationship existing between emotions and overall job performance of secretaries in an organization. Therefore, it is recommended that in organisations that experience inexplicable low employee morale and low worker commitment which can also result in poor performance of employees(Secretary or not), it can be a viable remedy to look into the employees’ emotions as a means of curbing the prevailing problem with their employees. Also, top officials in various organizations should treat their subordinates with dignity and respect, hence avoiding all manners of abuse be it sexually, verbally and otherwise.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The secretary is an important officer in any establishment. The contributions and effectiveness of a secretary can either enhance or diminish the efficiency of an organization(Onasanya, 2010). He also stated that the title secretary may either refer to a chief administrator of an organization or to a person who performs the functions of organizing and recording the proceedings of a meeting. According to Stanwell and Shaw (1978), a secretary is a staff who is concerning with the preparation, preservation and transmission of all types of communication as well as the conventional secretarial duties of confidential nature at various levels. Eni (1989) also defined the secretary as a member of clerical staff whose fundamental function are concerned with the preparation of correspondence or communication in all form with and outside the organization. From the above definitions, it can be seen that secretary is an indispensable management personnel in an organization and outside environment.

Similar to other employees, the job performance of a secretary can be increased or decreased as a result of several factors, among which include emotional sentiments. According to Brief and Weiss (2002) emotions normally are associated with specific events or occurrences and are intense enough to disrupt thought processes. Organisations are mostly concerned about having secretarial employees who perform at their best with the human resource being the life blood of any organisation. Given that emotions are said to bear an effect on workflow, there is need to investigate if this disruption on workflow can also translate to affect the performance of secretaries. However, Dunnette and Hough (2000) claim that in organizations there is little concern for the plight of secretaries in this regard, they bring out that the business world is more familiar with narrowly focused fads and management programs, recognized by their three letter acronyms like MBO (Management By Objectives), BPR (Behaviorally Anchored Rating), PCT (Paired Comparison Technique) and probably others(Nilku, 2015).

Furthermore, Brief and Weiss (2002) claimed that emotions normally are associated with specific events or occurrences. However according to Kegan (1982) in most organizations emotions are perceived as irrational phenomena and portrayed as opposing the voice of reason and thus are basically ignored.According to Pervez (2010) there is an increasing interest in the effect of emotions in organizational secretaries in general as researchers now broadly recognize that emotions play a significant role in organizational life, as well as the staff. From the aforementioned, this study intends to determine the influence of emotion on the job performance of secretaries in an organization.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Emotions are pure human psychological phenomena, and can be triggered by various elements. According to Bowman(2012), an employee is critically affected by their behaviors in the workplace. Specifically, the emotions and overall temperament of secretaries have a significant impact on their job performance, decision making skills, team spirit, and leadership and turnover(Ganji, 2011). In most organizations in Nigeria, secretaries are treated as subordinate staff and as such their bosses or leaders result to treating them like minorities through abusive verbal expression, sexual harassment etc. In determining the factors contributing to the emotion of secretaries, Onyenna(2015), discovered that the lack of effective working tools, unhealthy work environment and mostly the reoccurring delay in the payment of salaries especially in Government organizations affects the secretaries emotionally as it results to feeling sad and dissatisfied in their job. Undoubtedly, emotions directly influence decision making, creativity and interpersonal relations. Due to the abstract nature of emotions little attention has been directed towards looking into their potential effect on employees effectiveness, with some organizations even downplaying their essence to workers life. Thus, this study aims at examining the influence of emotion on job performance of secretaries in an organization.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine influence of emotion on job performance of secretaries in an organization. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Identify the factors that triggers the emotions of secretaries in an organization.
  2. Determine whether emotions affects the commitment level of secretaries.
  3. Determine whether emotions affects the productivity of secretaries in an organization.
  4. Ascertain whether a relationship exist between emotions and job performance of secretaries.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the factors that triggers the emotions of secretaries in an organization?
  2. Does emotions affect the commitment level of secretaries in an organization?
  3. Does emotions affect the productivity of secretaries in an organization?
  4. Does any relationship exist between emotions and job performance of secretaries?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following hypothetical statements will be validated in the course of this study;

  1. H01: There is no significant relationship between emotions and the commitment level of secretaries in an organization.
  2. H02: There is no significant relationship between emotions and the productivity of secretaries in an organization.
  3. H03: There is no significant relationship existing between emotions and overall job performance of secretaries in an organization.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study seeks to find out if secretaries’ emotions affect their performance. In the event that there is a correlational link between the two constructs, this study shall serve as a wake-up-call for organisational leaders to consider their secretaries’ emotions as these will have a profound effect on their job performance. The findings of this study shall show how organizations can be able to establish an ideal organizational climate that can lead to positive emotions on the part of employees.

Given that the issue of emotions has been ignored largely due to the complexity of this construct, this study shall reveal if whether emotions are really a cause for concern in organisational life particularly with regards to job performance.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the influence of emotion on job performance of secretaries in an organization.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the influence of emotion on job performance of secretaries in an organization. However, the study will further identify the factors that triggers the emotions of secretaries in an organization, determine whether emotions affects the commitment level of secretaries, determine whether emotions affects the productivity of secretaries in an organization, and ascertain whether a relationship exist between emotions and job performance of secretaries.

The participants for this study will be obtained from Osun State Government Secretariat.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Secretary:

Is an employee in the office working as the personal assistant to an executive, dealing with letters, filling, typing and making appointments and arrangement.

Emotions:

These are complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thoughts; behavior and are a driving force behind motivation.

Job Performance:

This is a behavior that an employee exhibits directed towards organisational goals that are relevant to the job or role. It is something that is done by the employee.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms.

The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, empirical review, and chapter summary. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration.

The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the influence of emotion on job performance of secretaries in an organization using Osun State Government Secretariat as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to identify the factors that triggers the emotions of secretaries in an organization, determine whether emotions affects the commitment level of secretaries, determine whether emotions affects the productivity of secretaries in an organization, and ascertain whether a relationship exist between emotions and job performance of secretaries..

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 43 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were secretarial staff in Osun State Government Secretariat.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The factors that triggers the emotions of secretaries in an organization encompasses of toxic colleagues, ineffective communication, unfriendliness of superiors, sexual assault, verbal abuse, lack of effective facilities, and reoccurring delay of salary.
  2. There is a significant relationship between emotions and the commitment level of secretaries in an organization.
  3. There is a significant relationship between emotions and the productivity of secretaries in an organization.
  4. There is a significant relationship existing between emotions and overall job performance of secretaries in an organization.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. In organisations that experience inexplicable low employee morale and low worker commitment which can also result in poor performance of employees(Secretary or not), it can be a viable remedy to look into the employees’ emotions as a means of curbing the prevailing problem with their employees.
  2. Top officials in various organizations should treat their subordinates with dignity and respect, hence avoiding all manners of abuse be it sexually, verbally and otherwise.
  3. Employees whether secretary or not should have it noted in their mind that there is no organization where the settings they desire can be found completely, in other words, every organization has its own issues. Therefore it is important to inculcate the skills or qualities of emotional intelligence where necessary.

5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies

This study was delimited to the influence of emotion on job performance of secretaries in an organization using Osun State Government Secretariat as a case study. Therefore, the research recommends that further studies should be carried out investing the need for emotional regulation of junior staff in organizations.


Influence Of Emotion On Job Performance Of Secretaries In An Organization


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Influence Of Emotion On Job Performance Of Secretaries In An Organization


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Frequently Asked Questions


Do emotions in the workplace affect employee’s job performance?

This research study analyzes the effects of emotions on employee’s job performance and investigates relationship between anger, interest, and trust of individual in work place with job performance. Results showed that emotions in the workplace were considered important in relation to employee well being and job satisfaction only.

How can the emotions of managers be transferred to employees?

The emotions of managers can be transferred easily to employees and this actually determines how employees relate with one another. The positive emotions of managers encourage creativity in the organization which subsequently improves the level of success in the organization (Vince 1996, p. 20).

What is the role of emotions in Organizational Behavior?

The positive emotions of managers encourage creativity in the organization which subsequently improves the level of success in the organization (Vince 1996, p. 20). The emotions displayed by leaders are a critical determinant of their relationship with group members and their ability to communicate emotionally evocative symbols (Beer 2000, p. 66).

How does emotional state affect acceptance of change within an organization?

Acceptance of change within an organization depends on the emotional state of employees and managers. The behavior, feelings and attitudes of employees within an organization are influenced by their emotions (Zerbe 2008, p. 173). 

How do emotions affect workplace behaviour?

Employee is critically affected by their behaviors in the workplace. An employee’s emotions and overall temperament have a significant impact on his job performance, decision making skills, team sprit, and leadership and turnover .What employee’s feel and how they express their emotions affects their performance.

Why is emotional well-being important in the workplace?

Modern workplace cultures encourage people to be themselves, because that’s the best way to get their strongest ideas to the table and unlock their potential. It also makes more space for emotions in the workplace. And that’s great, but it also means that learning to regulate emotions and handle others’ emotions are now key management skills.

Do you feel unhappy with your emotional response at work?

In a recent survey on emotions in the workplace, we asked a group of managers: “Have you ever felt unhappy with how you managed your emotions or reacted to a situation at work?” You might have guessed it — 100% of respondents said YES. We’re all human, and emotional responses are only natural.

How do emotions affect individual’s personality or professional career?

Both positive and negative emotions effect individual’s personality or his professional career. An emotion is a mental and psychological state related to wide range of feelings, thoughts, and changes in body behaviors.

Why is managing emotions in the workplace so difficult?

If you are in a position of leadership, you have the added pressure to set the tone for others to follow. That’s why managing emotions in the workplace is never an easy thing to do when you’re also trying to manage a team to productivity.

How do you manage an emotional employee?

Sometimes providing space and time for employees to deal with what’s going on at their own pace is the most effective way to manage an emotional employee and help them move beyond the situation in a constructive way, especially when they are going through extreme emotions or distress.

How can managers manage negative feelings at work?

According to our survey on managers’ emotional experience at work, negative feelings stem from: Here are some tactics for managing your emotions in these situations. It’s natural to feel some pressure as a manager, but this pressure often comes from within. Try empowering yourself instead of putting pressure on yourself.

Why do employers need to manage their employees’ emotions?

Similarly, employers need to manage their employees’ emotions as they can impact organizational behavior and give rise to a negative work environment. Moreover, some employers require their employees to perform emotional labor, i.e., regulating their emotions according to the organization’s requirements.

Are emotions and moods part of organizational behavior?

As mentioned, emotions and moods were dismissed by OB for a long time. One of the primary reasons was the “Myth of Rationality” that suggested that OB comprised rational concepts and applications and emotions and moods were seen as highly irrational. Emotions were thought to be disruptive of organizational activity and decreased productivity.

What do we know about the role of emotions at work?

The study of the role and effect of emotions at work was a topic of interest for scholars of OB in the years before World War II ( Weiss and Brief 2001 ). Emotions also feature prominently in Terkel 2004, an acclaimed book, in which the author reports the results of interviewing hundreds of US workers about their jobs.

What is emotional intelligence in Organizational Behavior?

Emotional intelligence and organizational effectiveness. Emotional intelligence can best be described as the ability to monitor one’s own and other people’s emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Salovey et al.

What is the history of emotion in Organizational Management?

Mastenbroek 2000 provides a history of emotion in organizational management. Emonet. The formation of the group in 1997 had a major effect on promotion of research into emotions in organizations. The group sponsors the annual book series Research on Emotion in Organizations, now published by Emerald. Hochschild, Arlie Russell.

What are the emotional phases through an organizational change?

Emotional phases through an organizational change 1 Share the key facts about the change and the reasons for it 2 Say it more than one time 3 Know what channels of communication work for your audience 4 Use different methods and verbiage 5 Encourage them to get involved and give input

Why does the change process involve emotions?

However, the change process involves emotions because nobody likes to surrender the comfort associated with the status quo or surrender what they value. Despite that, leaders will have to succeed in the mist of these challenges, among which are the emotions of those to be affected by the change.

Who is affected by change in an organization?

People affected by change in an organization – including leaders and employees – are often faced with multiple changes at the same time. Change is persistent and necessary, which culminates in complex emotional responses.

How do employees react to organizational change?

Change agents can apply the Spectrum of Employees’ Reactions to Organizational Change as a unique model that illustrates how employees react to change. This model is based in the concept that the degree of employees’ acceptance of or resistance is an important factor that change agents should examine. 

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