Effects Of Stress On The Performance Of Secretaries (A Case Study Of Selected Banks In Owerri)

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM


This research work has designed to find out the effect of stress on the performance of the secretariat in selected banks in Owerri, Imo State. The populations of the study comprised of 70 Owerri Imo state, 70 of the secretaries were used as the sample of the study .the instrument for data collection used was the questionnaire, which consisted for 6 research analysis used for the study.

The result of the study showed that stress is inevitable and have a lot of effect on the secretaries but conclusion be avoided if adequately managed. Conclusion were based on the result of the findings while recommendations were proffered based on the conclusion down from the findings.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One:


  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Purpose of the study
  • Research questions
  • Significant of the study
  • Scope of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • Environmental stressor
  • Kinds of stress
  • Organizational stressor
  • Effects of stress on the secretary’s performance
  • Psychological consequences of stress
  • Secretarial functions that are most stressful
  • Summary of literature reviewed

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • Design of the study
  • Area of the study
  • Population of the study
  • Sample / sampling techniques
  • Method of data collection
  • Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • Discussion of findings

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Restatement of the problems
  • Summary of findings
  • Limitations of the study
  • Implications of the results
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestions for further research
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Background of the study

Different people have different feelings to the same event, some negative and some positive. According to cook, Honaker and emotional and physiological responses to any demand that is viewed as threatening to a persons well being. Stress is a natural phenomenon that started right from the existence of man.

These are natural changes that a person has to cope within certain environment conditions either by confronting them (fight) or by avoiding them (fight). Stress is created by a multitude of overlapping factors such as over whelming work load, time pressure and deadline demands of work on one’s relationship family, keeping up with new technology, sickness or death of a loved one, close friend or family member, marital problems change in job responsibility conflicts among staff and turnover.

However according to Bootzein, bower and Crocker (1991) about four (4) million years ago, violent collision of rock and ice along with dust and gas led to the formation of a new planet earth. The planet survived more than hundred million years of melt down to give birth to microscope life. These first organisms endured the harshness of conditions such as lack of oxygen, explosive to sun in order to survive. Brinier (1991) opined that stress can sometimes stimulates us but too much stress for too long a time has negative effects on both the quality of work and personal life of an individual.

The work of secretary in the commercial bank is very challenging. She performs roles such as production and dispatch of letters, typing of statement of account of the bank numerous customers, preparing of voucher for payment of workers salary, writing and typing of minutes of meetings. Herbal contribution is required to perform these duties effectively stress can be caused by personal problems which can one way or the other create hindrances to the secretary’s performance of these challenging roles. As a matter fact, Feldman (1989) observed that many factors have been traced to be the effect of stress these stressors are grouped into different categories they are.

Personal / physiological stressor which is connected with a persons mind and the ways in which it works. Example, anxiety, depression and threat to self esteem environmental/philosophical stressor which involves nature and meaning of human life. It also involves a particular system of believed for knowledge about life and the universe. Organizational / sociological stressors which has to do with nature and development. Examples are stress that secretaries are phone to in the offices and banks in Owerri. Other factors which can contributed to stress on the performance of secretaries are: material, conflicts, sudden lay – off from a job motivating dept, sudden change in responsibilities, commitment to crime and angry reactions.

Statement of the problem

Psychological and behavioural problems to the secretary. Most often , these symptoms may not be obvious at first but gradually, they develop to create hazards to life. The secretary who is passing through a period of stress is prone to suffer some psychological consequence of stress such as elevated blood pressure, increased heart beat rate. Profuse sweating heart disorder and headaches; these could lead to serious health problems that may stop the secretary form working for a long time.

Psychological consequences of stress on the secretary include boredom, anxiety, depression, tension and irritability. All these district the feelings of well being and contribute to proconcentration, indecision and decreased attention span. If the secretary is unable to altar or escape these stressors, she may resort to psychological substitutes such as anger, negativism, criticism, feelings of persecution, displacement regression, procrastination, defense mechanism apathy and forget fullness.

Behavior consequences or stress includes sleeping disorder changes in eating habits, fidgeting, redness to others etc. In other words it is obvious that some people are more prone to stress than others, some people do react to stress with a high psychological reaction which takes a toll to their health. These people often get angry, anxious and depressed easily. These problems will make the secretary to produce unity works, have problems with co–workers her boss and loose interest in their jobs. Finally stress contributes to the secretary lower output and makes her less attentive to feeling of others with all these organizational objectives will be difficult to achieve.

Purpose of the study

The major objective of this research work is to determine the effects of stress on the performance of secretaries in selected banks in Owerri metropolis Imo State. Especially, the paper attempted to achieve the following objectives.

  1. Analyze the secretarial functions that are most stressful.
  2. Explain the various kinds of stress.
  3. Discuss the effects of stress on the secretary performance
  4. Identify the effects of stress to the secretary.

Research questions

To achieve the purpose of the study, the following research questions were formulated as a guide

  1. What are the secretarial functions that are most stressful?
  2. What are the various kinds of stress?
  3. What are the effects of stress on the secretary’s performance?
  4. What are the effects of stress on the secretary?

Significance of the study

It is clear that what constitutes stress depends on the individuals in question and stressors may vary from one moment to another in the same individual.

However the study will help the secretaries to devise strategies for turning those situations that might be viewed as stressful onto pleasant ones.

The study will be beneficial to prospective secretaries to identify the symptoms of stress, know how to avoid them and manage them if they accidentally surface.

The study will be beneficial not only to the secretaries, but to the employees of labour, student, lecturers, curriculum planners and employers on the method or procedures of managing or coping with stress since the word “ stress” is a general phenomenon, that is inevitable.

The study will also help practicing secretaries to identify and know how to manage such roles which in one way or the other unfold the effects of stress on the secretary’s office function and establish ways of eliminating them.

The study will be beneficial to different business organizations on the greater effects of stress on their workers / secretaries and their function that are most stressful which will help their positive decision making to their secretaries and the entire organization as a whole.

It is essential for the overall improvement of the business enterprises because this study will narrates step by steps procedure of managing stress in the business enterprises.

Finally the study will provide areas of further research to other students.

Scope of the study

The study is delimited to the effects of stress on the performance of secretaries in a selected banks in Owerri.

Chapter Five

Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations

This chapter presented a restatement of the problem, summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendation. It also contains the limitation of the study for further research.

Restatement of the problems

This study was earlier stated to investigate the secretaries working in commercial banks. A survey of selected banks in Owerri stress has been as a threat to the well being of secretaries. It has also been viewed as a threat that make secretaries to suffer from physiological and behavioral consequences of stress which can metamorphose to a serious health problems that may stop the secretary from working for a long time and secretaries to produce less, become less attentive to the feeling of others.

However, the study has discovered ways through which stress can be managed such as relaxation, exercise and seeking of help. If secretaries will be efficiently productive.

This research work has (3) research questionnaires containing a total of nineteen (19) question which was accurately answered by the respondents it adopted the survey method which was effective since the opinion of secretaries working in selected banks in Owerri was sought. A population of seventy (70) secretaries was draw from the selected commercial banks in Owerri and because population was relatively small, it was used as sample size. This was done to reduce sample bias and to get for representation. The sample mean score on a four point scale was used as method of data analysis and mean score of 3.00 and above was accepted significant.

Summary of findings

Based on the findings the following observations and facts were revealed.

  1. It was found I research question one (1) that secretaries working in selected banks in Owerri need to understand the concept of stress, so as to know what stress is all about and need to know how to handle it effectively.
  2. Research question two (2) revealed the secretaries working selected banks in Owerri should be aware of the various kinds of stress to the secretary in order to know the proper was of managing them.
  3. It was found in research question three (3) that secretarial should be aware of the effects enhance their work output, accuracy and perfection.
  4. In addition it was found in research question three (3) that secretariat working in selected banks in Owerri should know those secretarial functions that are most stressful in order to know the remedies to achieve adequate performance.

Limitation of the study

The research in the process of carrying out the research work encountered minor constraints which include: lack of finance, poor response from the respondents and time factors due to other secretaries working in selected banks outside Owerri metropolis.

All these contributed to the delay in souring out for the research work.

Implications of the results

As regards to the implications of the results, stress can affect the performance of secretaries and workers in every perspective if not properly handled. However, this went further stilling the stress could be managed. Based on these implications of the results, the following was revealed.

  1. It was revealed that stress is inevitable i.e. It can affect anyone and the security is not an exemption carrying out the routine functions
  2. It was also needed that those wop tend to react to stress with high psychological reaction are more prone to stress than others. These people are often angry, anxious and depressed easily.
  3. It was revealed that stress could be positive and negative. It is also positive when it relates to a happy event and negative when it relates to sadful events.
  4. Finally, it can metamorphose to physiological emotion and psychological threat to the secretaries in the other hands, it can be managed.


In this light of the findings in the research work the following conclusion was reached that:

  1. The secretary performs a wide range of duties some which are more stressful than others
  2. Both domestic and official affairs can cause stress to the secretary and this can indeed be depressing.
  3. However, it was also concluded that stress has a lot of effects on the secretary which could be psychological, physiological or behavioral some causes of stress has greater effects on the secretary, example: death of a loved one, divorced etc.


Based on the conclusion reached, the following recommendations are hereby proffered.

  1. The secretary should clearly outline her numerous official and domestic functions daily, place them in order of their priority giving due attention to both programming them in such a way that realistic time is allowed to them.
  2. The secretary should attend to her official and domestic duties adequately, maintain a cordial relationship with spouse and in laws. This would make them to understand her and encourage her in her official responsibilities.
  3. Secretaries should learn to put their emotions under control in time of stressful events, example: death of a loved one, and divorce. Avoiding running into crisis.
  4. The secretary should identify the stressors to avoid the psychological, physiological, and behavioral effects which they bring. She should also find ways of averting them.
  5. Secretaries should learn how to manage their stress by practicing time and role management increased social support, family planning and exercise.

Suggestion for further research

This study could be extended to selected banks ministries in Owerri, Imo state and even beyond.
It could be extended to secretaries in institutions of higher learning.

Effects Of Stress On The Performance Of Secretaries (A Case Study Of Selected Banks In Owerri)

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