Effects Of Stress On The Performance Of Secretaries (A Case Study Of Selected Banks In Owerri)

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Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM


This great work is dedicated to God Almighty the most superior for his love, mercy and grace upon me and my family throughout the period of this work. I also dedicate this work to my lovely sister Dr. Goodness and my lovely parents Mr. and Mrs. Titus Anyamene, Engr. Chinonso Anyamene, Barrister Izuchukwu Anyamene, Master Chibuike Anyamene, my beloved brother Ben Anyamene, Chidi Anyamene and to all my well wishers for their moral and financial support .


I would like to place on record my profound gratitude to the various authors whose work was consulted such as textbooks, article journal etc. through which relevant information was drawn as reference.

My sincere appreciation goes to my project supervisor Mr. Chris Nwosu for the excellent supervision and assistance during the period of this research work and those supervisors that made me great objectivity.

My gratitude also goes to my lecturer in the office technology management department, head of department Mrs. Ani C. and other lecturers Mr. Ibe, Mrs. Nwosu. A.N, Mrs. Oguoma and Dr. Mrs. Chukwumezie H.O, and others. My indebtedness is dully acknowledged, may God almighty bless you all.


This research work has designed to find out the effect of stress on the performance of the secretariat in selected banks in Owerri, Imo State. The populations of the study comprised of 70 Owerri Imo state, 70 of the secretaries were used as the sample of the study .the instrument for data collection used was the questionnaire, which consisted for 6 research analysis used for the study.

The result of the study showed that stress is inevitable and have a lot of effect on the secretaries but conclusion be avoided if adequately managed. Conclusion were based on the result of the findings while recommendations were proffered based on the conclusion down from the findings.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page i
  • Approval ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract vi
  • Table of content vii

Chapter One:Introduction

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Purpose of the study
  • Research questions
  • Significant of the study
  • Scope of the study

Chapter Two:

  • Review of related literature
  • Environmental stressor
  • Kinds of stress
  • Organizational stressor
  • Effects of stress on the secretary’s performance
  • Psychological consequences of stress
  • Secretarial functions that are most stressful
  • Summary of literature reviewed

Chapter Three:

  • Research methodology
  • Design of the study
  • Area of the study
  • Population of the study
  • Sample / sampling techniques
  • Method of data collection
  • Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:Presentation And Analysis Of Data

  • Discussion of findings

Chapter Five

  • Summary of findings
  • Restatement of the problems
  • Summary of findings
  • Limitations of the study
  • Implications of the results
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestions for further research
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Background of the study

Different people have different feelings to the same event, some negative and some positive. According to cook, Honaker and emotional and physiological responses to any demand that is viewed as threatening to a persons well being. Stress is a natural phenomenon that started right from the existence of man.

These are natural changes that a person has to cope within certain environment conditions either by confronting them (fight) or by avoiding them (fight). Stress is created by a multitude of overlapping factors such as over whelming work load, time pressure and deadline demands of work on one’s relationship family, keeping up with new technology, sickness or death of a loved one, close friend or family member, marital problems change in job responsibility conflicts among staff and turnover.

However according to Bootzein, bower and Crocker (1991) about four (4) million years ago, violent collision of rock and ice along with dust and gas led to the formation of a new planet earth. The planet survived more than hundred million years of melt down to give birth to microscope life. These first organisms endured the harshness of conditions such as lack of oxygen, explosive to sun in order to survive. Brinier (1991) opined that stress can sometimes stimulates us but too much stress for too long a time has negative effects on both the quality of work and personal life of an individual.

The work of secretary in the commercial bank is very challenging. She performs roles such as production and dispatch of letters, typing of statement of account of the bank numerous customers, preparing of voucher for payment of workers salary, writing and typing of minutes of meetings. Herbal contribution is required to perform these duties effectively stress can be caused by personal problems which can one way or the other create hindrances to the secretary’s performance of these challenging roles. As a matter fact, Feldman (1989) observed that many factors have been traced to be the effect of stress these stressors are grouped into different categories they are.

Personal / physiological stressor which is connected with a persons mind and the ways in which it works. Example, anxiety, depression and threat to self esteem environmental/philosophical stressor which involves nature and meaning of human life. It also involves a particular system of believed for knowledge about life and the universe. Organizational / sociological stressors which has to do with nature and development. Examples are stress that secretaries are phone to in the offices and banks in Owerri. Other factors which can contributed to stress on the performance of secretaries are:material, conflicts, sudden lay – off from a job motivating dept, sudden change in responsibilities, commitment to crime and angry reactions.

Statement of the problem

Psychological and behavioural problems to the secretary. Most often , these symptoms may not be obvious at first but gradually, they develop to create hazards to life. The secretary who is passing through a period of stress is prone to suffer some psychological consequence of stress such as elevated blood pressure, increased heart beat rate. Profuse sweating heart disorder and headaches; these could lead to serious health problems that may stop the secretary form working for a long time.

Psychological consequences of stress on the secretary include boredom, anxiety, depression, tension and irritability. All these district the feelings of well being and contribute to proconcentration, indecision and decreased attention span. If the secretary is unable to altar or escape these stressors, she may resort to psychological substitutes such as anger, negativism, criticism, feelings of persecution, displacement regression, procrastination, defense mechanism apathy and forget fullness.

Behavior consequences or stress includes sleeping disorder changes in eating habits, fidgeting, redness to others etc. In other words it is obvious that some people are more prone to stress than others, some people do react to stress with a high psychological reaction which takes a toll to their health. These people often get angry, anxious and depressed easily. These problems will make the secretary to produce unity works, have problems with co–workers her boss and loose interest in their jobs. Finally stress contributes to the secretary lower output and makes her less attentive to feeling of others with all these organizational objectives will be difficult to achieve.

Purpose of the study

The major objective of this research work is to determine the effects of stress on the performance of secretaries in selected banks in Owerri metropolis Imo State. Especially, the paper attempted to achieve the following objectives.

  1. Analyze the secretarial functions that are most stressful.
  2. Explain the various kinds of stress.
  3. Discuss the effects of stress on the secretary performance
  4. Identify the effects of stress to the secretary.

Research questions

To achieve the purpose of the study, the following research questions were formulated as a guide

  1. What are the secretarial functions that are most stressful?
  2. What are the various kinds of stress?
  3. What are the effects of stress on the secretary’s performance?
  4. What are the effects of stress on the secretary?

Significance of the study

It is clear that what constitutes stress depends on the individuals in question and stressors may vary from one moment to another in the same individual.

However the study will help the secretaries to devise strategies for turning those situations that might be viewed as stressful onto pleasant ones.

The study will be beneficial to prospective secretaries to identify the symptoms of stress, know how to avoid them and manage them if they accidentally surface.

The study will be beneficial not only to the secretaries, but to the employees of labour, student, lecturers, curriculum planners and employers on the method or procedures of managing or coping with stress since the word “ stress” is a general phenomenon, that is inevitable.

The study will also help practicing secretaries to identify and know how to manage such roles which in one way or the other unfold the effects of stress on the secretary’s office function and establish ways of eliminating them.

The study will be beneficial to different business organizations on the greater effects of stress on their workers / secretaries and their function that are most stressful which will help their positive decision making to their secretaries and the entire organization as a whole.

It is essential for the overall improvement of the business enterprises because this study will narrates step by steps procedure of managing stress in the business enterprises.

Finally the study will provide areas of further research to other students.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of samphina.com.ng a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials. A musician as well as a developer with the interest of Nigeria students at heart. If you need a professional website, contact him via WhatsApp or phone call @ 08143831497 to get the best.

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