The Effect Of Administrative Control On The Executives In Imo State (A Case Of Imo State Civil Service)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


The attainment of independence of the nations civil service was structured into four main regions. This structure was ratified after the adoption of God Wits report of 1954 and essentially based as in all common wealth. Africa in essence was patterned on the British model. At the professional classes, below it is the effective class, the technical and general class at all, within thirty, forty seven years of our existence.

The civil service has further been divided into the contest on the mode of control of the civil service. Arguments have being made as to whether the executive or bureaucratic class in control of administration in view of incessant struggle between the higher bureaucratic and executive, be it civil or military dispensations. Infact, this context is as old as the nation itself.

In conventional administrative sphere, the civil service makes the higher bureaucrats in the instrument, both for policy, advice and implementation of the will of the state as determined by legitimate political institution to which the service must be both subordinate and subservient. MaxWeber indeed warned that the subjection of the civil service to political control is necessary to stop the institution from becoming a master rather than the servant of the society as well as ensuring the effective discharge of its functions.

In this research, an attempt would be made to examine the roles of executive in the machinery of such control and its efficiency. The methodology used for this research centered mainly on discussions. Oral interview and administration of questionnaires.

The focus of the study views mainly on policy, ministries. Non-ministerial and extra ministerial departments (civil servants) were also selected from stratified random sampling techniques. Findings revealed that it is absolute necessary to control administration such as control, should be done based on capability than mere occupation of political powers.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • (Other function of the topic)
  • Reference

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Methods of sample size
  • 3.4 Population and sample size
  • 3.5 Sampling technique
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Analysis of data
  • 4.4 Interpretation of result(s)

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Over the years, arguments have been made as to whether it is reasonable to control administration school of thought has it that if administration is not controlled by a superior authority within the polity, would over-stretch its powers to a point of dictatorship.

P.E Ollana (1975) argues that is necessary to control administration in order to compete it to more in the same state with the ruling party else, the ruling party would wake up and discover that its programmes and policies have been dis-oblige on the alter of bureaucratic sabotage. In this vein, the concept of using the higher bureaucrats as a confidential advisor to the political class, the minister as in the west minister, parliamentary model is quite as in the know in inter-developed democracy of the third world.

Mition Esman, et al (1969) said, when he contended that the control of bureaucracy in the context of most of the developing countries is a misplaced priority on that, might seriously retard the rate of progress. We ought to be more concerned with the increase in the capacity of bureaucracy to perform and this we see as a function of greatly enhanced professional capability and operational autonomy, rate the further controls.

Esman point of emphasis is vital as they under-score the rate or true intention of development of administration which is increase in state and bureaucratic control over individual human being.

Based on the above, it then means that a measure of control of administration is a sine qua-non in any given political system. It is a civil polity or military dispensation control of administration by a superior responsibility policy and programmes are made good, it is necessary for the political execution to carry out and implement the policies of the political executive.

Administration is an instrument for achieving public policy. It could sometimes be an impediment. The civil service is fashioned in a manner that will develop a procedure which sometimes makes the acceptance of new policy and programme difficult. This is much more fervent when a former political executive had stayed in office for long and had gathered a lot of loyalist and support, some cases in point abound.

The British labour government after (1945) met some resistance from the conservative administrative class in British civil service. The same was experienced in Germany during Wilmer republic. These resistances were associated with the policy thrust of the government support and loyalty to the regime. If system were not check-mated, it becomes obvious and its programmes and policies would suffer undue setback, it therefore becomes plausible to review and adopt a means for the control of bureaucracy.

In Nigeria, the collapse of the first republic and the attendant military bureaucratic relationship, posed a hurdle on the control of bureaucracy. When the military struck on the 5th of January 1966, all the political structures of the state were disbanded, the leadership vacuum this created was filled by the higher civil service bureaucrats.

First by incorporation and lately accretion as of right. General T.V Aguiyi-Ironsi enacted them. “the 1966, this act transferred the functions of individual member of the year 1966 federal executive council (F.E.C) to appropriate permanent secretaries and the heads of extra ministerial departments”. This led to an unjustified high level of political involvement of the part of higher administration with a great commissioner.

This action resulted into an undue grip of the service and made administration exist in an unparallel manner, in any attempt to control it consequently, they are of super-permanent secretaries emerged.

These permanent (super) secretaries held an undue siege on any government in power until 1945, when the late general Murtala Mohammed carried the first and foremost civil service, purged in an attempt to control administration. It was the conclusion of the 1975 purge that became explicit to the higher administration that it controls even a guest manner.

For the avoidance of doubt, a meaningful success of July, 1975 purge, was an affirmation that political neutrality of the civil service is a fundamental feature of a democratic government and too essential for its efficient operation. It must be maintained even at the cost of some loss of political liberty by certain, of those who elect to enter into services.

Most important to be observed is the truth already, so much and so fortunately insisted upon by our civil service reformers.

Namely that administration lies outside the proper sphere of politics.

Administrative questions are not political questions. Although politics sets the task for administration, it should not be suffered to manipulation of its offices, this is distinction of high authority.

In course of this discourse, a pertinent question that would be answered will revolve on the role of the executive politics in the control of administration with Imo state civil service as a case study.

The process or modus operandi for such a control and how efficacious they are answerable to these questions from the premise of the study.

1.2 Statement Of The Problems

The need to control administration by a superior authority has been a tropical issue it has generated a great deal of controversy among scholars and commentators on national issues.

Much as it is argued that the control of administration would enhance speedy decision making, efficient information system, problem solving of administration is seen as a panacea for removing obstacles in decision making that requires immediate political action.

Administration is accused of convert and over delay in the ability to respond to issues. Since administration appears too centralized in its modus oprandi, its control would result on decentralization of division of course of events and’ quick implementation.

Consequently the main thrust or the critical issues of the project intends to investigate are:

  1. Is it necessary to control administration?
  2. What is the modus operandi or machinery in the control of administration?

The present work is fundamentally concerned with the issues raise above.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

Whenever a social scientist engages in a research, be it political or educational, he must have an objective or purpose. Also such a scholarly exercise must have some significance either in contribution to some already existing body of knowledge or entirely a new professor, David singe has rightly asserted that a researcher is usually motivated by some objective to seek answer to certain questions about social phenomenon. He puts thus “basically the purpose of any scholarly activities is the acquisition and condition of in turn to aid, solving certain human problems or to satisfy the intellectual or unrealistic desire or objectives.

The study clearly defines the actual study the researcher is involved with. Further investigation on the relevance of administrations and reasons for which it is necessary that administration should be controlled or how best the control would be modified.
This is why this study is centered on the control of administration by the executive politician.

1.4 Research Questions

The research questions are:

  1. What is Administration?
  2. What is administrative control?
  3. How does this administrative control affect the executive?
  4. To what extent can the need for control measures be installed in the administrative machinery of the government
  5. Does the general control, regulation and supervision of the civil service whether at the federal or state level fall under the schedule of the federal and state civil service commissions respectively?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

It this work is successfully completed, the management of federal character commission in public and that of Nigerian Public in general will benefit from the work, since the work will expose in controlling of admission.

This will help the executive to control the administration in the case of policy makers to formulate good recruitment policies in common.

This awareness will equally be created among the staff within the services as it will help them in better understanding between the roles of the executive in the control of administrative issues.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The study covers the major element in the role of the executive in the control of administration, such as civil service, public servants, which include; planning, controlling, directing as well the implementation of administration with a particular reference to Imo state service.

1.7 Limitations Of The Study

In the process of research the following are the limitations I encountered.

Firstly, there is limitation imposed by lean financial resources, which expressly affected the number of visits to the selected ministries.

Secondly, given the tight schedule of the researcher, time available for the work, was also a limiting factor.

Thirdly, a lot of difficulties were encountered in the course of collecting information and data for the study; these constraints attitude of respondents and unwillingness of the parts of administrative to release, some official documents, all these hampered availability of certain information that would have helped the researcher.

Finally, the high cost of transportation, occasionally ill health were also encountered.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

Imo State Civil Service:

Is the arm of the federal civil service carried out for the people of Imo state.


This is an amalgam of politically elected officials of appointees vested with the power to implement the policies and programmes of the government.

Control of Administration:

This relates to the central of bureaucratic class by the political executive in the act of government

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary Conclusion An Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

The final analysis on this research which involves the summary, conclusion and recommendations, remains the same that administration should be controlled in order to remove the dainty of officials, down in all the instruments in the government of the state.

5.2 Summary Of Findings

In the final analysis, this research is of the same view that administration should be controlled by the political class executive, if there is no control, it is an administrative stratum.

In a particular administrative nuance, the power or position of fully developed bureaucracy is always great under normal condition, over-towering the political master that is the executive always funds himself vis-à-vis the trained, facing the expert from all indication, bureaucracy appears to be or possess an autonomous quality which put it beyond control.

The fact remains that administration should be controlled in order to remove the dainty of officials, down in all the instruments in government of the state.

Be as it may, control of administration by political executive is needed a central requisite of democratic government, since it is changed with carrying out of policy and programme of the executive.

5.3 Conclusion

The civil service is a body of public servants which is the direct employers of the federal or state government. It is therefore avoidance of doubt, employees in armed forces, navy, air force and police are not civil servants.

The components of the civil service exclude persons holding political appointment.

The decision of government has its roots in old China an Greece

The civil service assists the political authority in gathering and supporting of facts an information which indeed enable those in authority to make decision.

It sometimes points out various alternatives in decision making by the political authority but such alternative are not mandatory that it must be accepted.

5.4 Recommendations

It is obvious from the study that inspite of the executive control nature of the civil service, it occupies a unique state in the over-all governance of the state.

Its status, relates to the situation of a “pond” in spite of any manner of circulations, the journey of the pedestrian must put leg inside it.

It is therefore recommended that;

  1. The civil service should be restructured in a manner that, at the higher level it should not only continue to be neutral executor of policy (ies) made by the executives.
  2. While it is recommended that the political master should control bureaucracy at the higher and middle levels, the concept should be adjusted and emphasized in the state.
  3. Since the preoccupation of any regime revolves on the development of the state, economic, political and social, the executive should add to the traditional role of the civil service and bureaucracy to awaken more responsible role in the process of goal setting.

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