The Role Of The Civil Service In The Execution Of Public Policy In Kwara State

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The Role Of The Civil Service In The Execution Of Public Policy In Kwara State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the role of the civil service in the execution of public policy in Kwara State. The study was specifically carried out to find out whether civil service is an integral mechanism for expression of good governance in Kwara state, find out the extent civil service play a significant role in the implementation of public policy in Kwara State, find out the level of civil service effectiveness in the implementation of public policy in Kwara state, and find out the factors affecting the civil service execution of public policy in Kwara state. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of civil servant in Offa Local Government in Kwara State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of civil service effectiveness in the implementation of public policy in Kwara state is low. The study also revealed that the factors affecting the civil service execution of public policy in Kwara state includes: lack of job satisfaction, individual behavioural propensities, lack of compliance with ethical precept of the profession, unconducive environment, lack of adequate training and development, and lack of supervision. Therefore, it is recommended that civil servant need to be retrained in order to upgrade their skills. Aptitude test should be conducted among the civil servant by an independent and qualified body in order to screen quack and get qualified workers. Close monitoring and supervision should be given to the civil servant while discharging their responsibilities in the various places of assignment. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Public policies are useless if not properly implemented into tangible projects and programmes. Governments develop policies in response to growth and develop plans of a particular nation, which addresses the yearning and aspirations of citizenry. The institution or system called “civil service” is established to take charge of the implementation of crafted public policies and deliver services in an objective and professional manner in order to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. The civil service system is also designed to act in a neutral and impartial technique. Their operational principles encourage neutrality between politics and citizenry, ignoring unnecessary internal and external governmental interventions, and emphasizes on ethical considerations in service delivery. Therefore, it is undoubtedly important machinery in the running of every government.

The role of Civil Service in promoting service delivery cannot be overemphasised especially amongst the developing countries like Nigeria. The role of Civil Service is primarily to offer professional and transparent service, playing a pivotal role in the execution of public policy for the sustainable development of the country especially among the developing countries like Nigeria and Kwara State in particular. The role of Civil Service is being accomplished through advising government on public plans, undertaking research for effective formulation, implementation and monitoring of public policies, coordinating, evaluating, and renewing public policies and plans. It also ensures that policies are translated into practical and cost efficient programmes and projects and maintains vigilant, oversight of the implementation of policies by the various government departments, parastatals, and agencies assigned with this responsibility. In addition to, other responsibilities are assigned to it from time to time. The duties and responsibilities of the civil service are set by the direction of the government wants to take or go. Also, the Civil Service plays the role of the stabilising influence on political life of the country especially during transition from military to civilian government or from one system of government to another system of government.

The roles of the Civil Service are carried out through sector ministries or agencies which are responsible for policy issues, manpower, and financial matters as well as exercising overall supervisory, monitoring and coordinating powers over technical departments in the respective sectors, ministries are organised into various departments in accordance to their functions and tasks. Furthermore, there are various departments and agencies under the ministries which are responsible for the implementation of the policies, plans and programmes of the ministry peculiar to them.

Kwara State too is not left out, for the need to promote and attain economic growth and development. The State established Civil Service not only to maintain law and order but to provide quality service delivery of the State by participating in policy formulation and implementation through providing social service, education, health, human capital development, employment opportunities, infrastructure, public utilities, micro loans etc. This shows that Civil Service is paramount in promoting service delivery of the state. Kwara State Civil Service was set up as a result of the need to employ people to execute public policy of the state. The civil service is set up to manage men, money, material and time for the purpose of achieving government targeted objective. The civil service is to be manned by people recruited by the civil service commission, under the Nigerian constitution. The agreed and approved conditions of service include security of tenure; permanence, political neutrality, anonymity and expertise. Kwara State Civil Service has rapidly increased both in population as well as expansion on government institutions and activities to meet the needs of the people. These changes situated in rules and procedures of even restructuring of the civil service and redesigning the shapes, size sometimes salaries and wages review. Other attempt at institutional objectives of all these exercise was to give new direction in order to; focus on development administration, establish a civil service that is result-oriented, build a virile economy and democratic policy, and establish a just and egalitarian society.

Civil Service in Nigeria has undergone series of structural reforms since independence, some of these Civil Service reforms are the Morgan salaries and wages commission (1963); the commission recommended a review of grading officers and corresponding salary structure to take care of the discrepancies in various parts of the country on a uniform salary grade level, conditions of service and uniform remuneration for officers performing the same duty in different parts of the country. It also recommended the award of a minimum living wage although; this was turned down by the government. Some of the commission‟s recommendations were turned down, and the implementation of the accepted ones did not achieve the intended goal that continued to result performance in the Civil Service.
The Adebo Commission (1971); it made a number of recommendations on the structure and organization of the Civil Service. Udoji Public Service Review Commission of 1974. The Dotun Philips Civil Service Reform Commission of 1988 was set up by the Babangida regime, under the chairmanship of Dotun Philips. Allison Ayida Civil Service Reform (1995, Obasanjo Public Service Reforms, and Oronsaye Reports on Public Service had recommended the elevation of the Code of Conduct Tribunal to Anti-Corruption Tribunal to try all graft cases. With this development, regular courts (where more than 55 cases are stalled) will no longer try corruption-related matters among others. All these reform are pointer to development of a better system of Civil Service that can promote service delivery from the federal government down to the state government. Though there is peculiarity depending on the state, not all the reforms that were completely implemented by the Kwara State Government, though some were implemented in the State.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The public sector in Nigeria exists, among other functions, to provide services and to guard against the control of the economy from foreign domination and exploitation but, the performance of the sector has been replete with varying contradictions (Adeyemo and Salami, 2008). The civil service in Nigeria for example, seems unable to cope with the prevailing ideological, political and economic changes as well as the management innovations; such that the institutional and capacity weakness of the civil service is considered one of the fundamental causes of socio-political upheavals and economic crisis (Chukwuemeka and Eme, 2011:17). Okpala (2012:114) reported that Nigeria lost several hundred billions of Naira over the last few decades due to flagrant abuse of procedures, lack of transparency and merit in the award of contracts in the public sector.

According to Briggs (2007) the efficiency and effectiveness of any workplace (whether the private or the public sector) largely depend on the caliber of the workforce. Civil service is the workforce in the public sector that the efficiency of the public sector largely depends on it. In spite of government‟s best efforts to address ethical issues in the public sector (with limited success) through civil service reforms (Ogunrotifa, 2012) and privatization (Adeyemo and Salami, 2008), what is left of government‟s stake in the public sector is still grappling with challenges that tends to undermine the efficiency of Civil Service in execution of public policy in the long run which Kwara State is not excluded. The Kwara State civil service was set up to execute public policy for the purpose of achieving government targeted objective. It was equally established to focus on development administration; to be a result-oriented service, to build a virile economy and a sharing democratic policy, to establish a just and egalitarian society through initiating and implanting policies and programmes of government.

Kwara State is among the state where over 80%of its population lives below poverty line of less than $1 a day. 85% of the populations are in rural areas with low literacy level and more than 65% classified as very poor (United Nation Development Programme Report 2005). Civil Service in Kwara State might have been plagued with ideological, political and economic challenges that tend to undermine its performance in promoting service delivery. This point to the direction that much is needed to be done by the Kwara State Government through the Civil Service to implement policies and programmes that will improve in the execution of public policy in kwara state.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the role of the civil service in the execution of public policy in Kwara State.

Other aims of this study are:

  1. Find out whether civil service is an integral mechanism for expression of good governance in Kwara state.
  2. Find out the extent civil service play a significant role in the implementation of public policy in Kwara State.
  3. Find out the level of civil service effectiveness in the implementation of public policy in Kwara state.
  4. Find out the factors affecting the civil service execution of public policy in Kwara state

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Is the civil service an integral mechanism for expression of good governance in Kwara state.
  2. What is the extent civil service play a significant role in the implementation of public policy in Kwara State?
  3. What is the level of civil service effectiveness in the implementation of public policy in Kwara state?
  4. What are the factors affecting the civil service execution of public policy in Kwara state?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The civil service is not effective in the execution of public policy in Kwara State.
  • Ha: The civil service is effective in the execution of public policy in Kwara State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The Study would cover the gap by discussing the role of the civil service in the execution of public policy in kwara state. That is the study would focus on the role of Kwara State Civil Service in implementing policies and programmes that stimulate service delivery.

The findings and recommendations in this research work would be of great significant. First to the Kwara State Government; the findings in this work would open the eyes of the government on the role of the civil service in the execution of public policy in kwara state. The recommendation would enable government to restructure the Civil Service to facilitate rapid service delivery in the state.

More so, to the Kwara State Civil Service, the study would motivate and encourage the servants on how to operate efficiently and effectively. And let them be aware of the significance of their career in the execution of public policy in Kwara State. The study would serve as a valuable reference material for upcoming researchers in the field of Public Administration and other social sciences.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the the role of the civil service in the execution of public policy in kwara state. Hence, the study will be delimited to Offa Local Government in Kwara State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of the Terms

Civil Service:

People who are employed by the government to maintain day to day activities and facilitate public policy making and implementation of government programmes who are often career servants paid from the government treasury, irrespective of which government or party is in power.

Public:

Government institutions like ministries, departments, agencies and parastatals; general people within the country.

Policies:

Government action and activities; plan of actions or things.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the role of the civil service in the execution of public policy in Kwara State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the role of the civil service in the execution of public policy in Kwara State. The study was specifically carried out to find out whether civil service is an integral mechanism for expression of good governance in Kwara state, find out the extent civil service play a significant role in the implementation of public policy in Kwara State, find out the level of civil service effectiveness in the implementation of public policy in Kwara state, and find out the factors affecting the civil service execution of public policy in Kwara state.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were civil servant in Offa Local Government in Kwara State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The civil service is an integral mechanism for expression of good governance in Kwara state.
  2. The extent civil service play a significant role in the implementation of public policy in Kwara State is low.
  3. The level of civil service effectiveness in the implementation of public policy in Kwara state is low.
  4. The factors affecting the civil service execution of public policy in Kwara state includes: lack of job satisfaction, individual behavioural propensities, lack of compliance with ethical precept of the profession, unconducive environment, lack of adequate training and development, and lack of supervision.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There should be proper setting of ideological and innovative factor for the civil service, the ideology of joining the civil service should not be for employment reason but the desire to work diligently and honesty. People should be employed base on the required criteria for employment to fill vacancies.
  2. Economic factor is determinant factor for other things in the civil service, therefore should be given due consideration. They should be prompt payment of civil servant salaries, and the salaries need to be increase to make the their profession attractive. Also Government should introduce welfare packages to encourage children to go to schools.
  3. There should be less political interference in the employment of civil servant; merits should be the bases where civil servants are employed. Appointment of head of departments should be base on merit and seniority in line with civil service rules. Awarding of contract should follow due process and sincerity of purpose.
  4. Civil servant need to be retrained in order to upgrade their skills. Aptitude test should be conducted among the civil servant by an independent and qualified body in order to screen quack and get qualified workers. Close monitoring and supervision should be given to the civil servant while discharging their responsibilities in the various places of assignment.

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