Challenges Of Human Capital Development In Nigeria’s Federal Civil Service
The study examined the challenges of Human Capital Development in Nigeria Federal Civil service under Goodluck Jonathan Administration (2010-2015), the study reviewed the contributions of Scholars and literature in fields of human capacity building; with particular attention to the training and capacity building in Nigeria Civil Service of the Federation, human capital theory was adopted for the study. Questionnaire were distributed, collated and analyzed with percentage and likert scale was used to analyse data generated from the study. four hypotheses were formulated and tested using chi square test, the result showed that the most outstanding challenges confronting Human Capital development in Nigeria Federal Civil service is inadequate budgetary allocation/training cost and lack of data on training needs/ uncoordinated training programmes, it was also discovered that the administration of Goodluck Jonathan made some remarkable improvement in Human Capital Development (HCD). The research findings also indicate among others that three pillars of human capital development such as health care, training and development, conducive working environment and good welfare packages received minimal attention and funding. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made. The study concluded that the ability of government to find solution to the challenges of human capital development depend highly on adequate policy implementation and funding the programme.
1.1 Background to the Study
The 1999 Constitution defines the Civil Service of the Federation as ‘service of the Federation in a civil capacity as staff of the Office of the President, the Vice-President, a Ministry or department of the Government of the Federation assigned with the responsibility for any business of the Government of the Federation’’ b(part iv,318 (1). The civil service of the federation is the organ of the government that is responsible for the implementation and execution of Federal Government policies, programs and decisions; they are often regarded as the fourth tier of government. Their roles and functions are so crucial and indispensable that no government can do without them.
The Nigeria civil service is an important institution of the state, which affects the lives of the citizens daily. It is essential to modern life because of the roles it plays in ensuring that the policies and programs of government are translated into action and brought to reality. Ezeani (2004:188) highlighted that “the civil service remains a vital instrument for rapid socio-economic development of any nation, for any meaningful development and achievement to take place, the civil service must be properly positioned and equipped”.
In view of the above, for civil service to achieve her objectives, the personnel have to be fully developed and equipped properly. This view is supported by, Moscher in Nwizu, and Nwapi (2011:15) who formulated four propositions about the civil service:
The decision and behaviour of the civil service have tremendous influence upon the future and development of our society, our economy, and ur policy.
- The great bulk of decisions and activities by government are determined or heavily influenced by administrative officials.
- The kinds of decisions and activities the officials take depend upon their capacities, their orientations and their values.
- The attributes depend heavily upon their background, their training, education and other current associations
From the above we can deduce that Civil Service can tremendously influence the development of our society, economy and policy, the same Civil Service determine most of the government actions and inactions, the performance of Civil Service is also dependent on their capacity and competence which is equally dependent on their background, training, and education. The implication of the above is that Human Capital Development must be given priority in Nigeria Civil Service
This view is supported by Theodore W. Schutz (1961) who sees human capital to refer as the stock of productive knowledge and skills possessed by workers. He believes that human capital is like other capital that can be invested through education, training and enhanced benefits that would lead to an improvement in the quality development of a nation: that in order to get the best of human capital and in view of the fact that no nation can develop higher than the human capital base of her Civil Service, then the need for development and continuous development of this human capital become a sine qua non for national development.
According to Onah (2014:188) “Human Capital Development, refers to a process that relates to training, education and other professional initiatives in order to increase the level ofknowledge, skills, abilities, values and social assets of an employee which will lead to an employees, satisfaction, high performance, and eventually increase in organizational productivity”. Human Capital Development is all about investing in personnel training and growth to ensure that the total objectives and organizational, goals are met Yesufu (2000:321) in Ojbolo: opined that the essence of Human Capital Development is to ensure that workforce is continually adopted or upgraded to meet the new challenges of its total environment. This implies that those already on the job require re-training, re-orientation or adaptation to meet the new challenges, Ijaiya (2004:34) sees Human Capital Development as a process of acquiring and increasing the number of people who have the skills, education and experience which are critical for the economic and the political development of a country. According to him, Human Capital Development is therefore associated with investment in man and her development as creative and productive resources.
Human Capital Development henceforth is concerned with the development of human resource in an organization. Development means improving the existing human resources in the organization and helping them to acquire new capabilities required for the achievement of the corporate as well as individual goals
Based on the above definitions of human capital and Human Capital Development, with respect to Nigeria Federal Civil Service, we can also say that Human Capital Development of Civil Service is aimed at equipping the personnel and employees of the federal Civil Service with all the necessary education, and training to improve their competencies and values in order to fully equip and empower them to be able to effectively and efficiently deliver on their core functions.
The need to improve the HCD of the Civil Service of the federation has become more obvious given the growing complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in economy and advancement in technology, climatic and environmental changes, global economic meltdown, the continued dwindling of the value of naira, and the global terrorism, among other things. As a matter of national interest, the success of the Civil Service can be measured in terms of its responsiveness to the varied changing requirements of the environment, this responsiveness can only come about if the Civil Service is manned by highly trained, qualified, experienced, and competent staff working under a conducive environment (good remuneration , infrastructure, healthcare and healthy legal and industrial relation policy) with a clear understanding of the dynamics of the environment and very proactive in tackling the challenges that may occur. Human Capital Development is not limited to trainings, education and development of personnel or employees; it also includes her welfare, condition of service, and other related matters that are capable of influencing, and affecting her productivity. This was adequately captured by Onah (2014:188) in the following words “other necessary activities in the process of human capital include adequate health care, and welfare of employees.
1.2 Statement of problem
Over the years, government seems to have neglected the serious decay in both infrastructure and Human Capital Development and hence, the low productivity in the Nigeria economy for many decades. During the second development plan of Nigeria between 1970-1974, it was noted that the major constraint to the plan implementation was inadequate absorptive capacity due to shortage of skilled manpower, this shortage of skilled manpower which is characterised by mediocrity and inefficiency now led to the following:-
- Serious neglect of government in funding of education sector.
- Political instability which cause frequent changes in education policies.
- Low measure of budgetary allocation to human resources development and its relative indices and.
- Low quality of education which affected Human Capital Development.
One of the biggest challenges facing Africa in this 21st century is the challenge of development, harnessing the capabilities of its teeming population in order to escape from the tragedy of poverty, illiteracy, and economic stagnation.
Some alleged that the problem of Nigeria Federal Government is not policy formulation but the implementation and execution of these policies over the years. The Federal Civil Service as an institution has experienced institutional failures, backward, static to change, lack of initiation and creativity. It is on these premises that a lot of reforms were introduced to address the lapses and shortfalls. .Unfortunately, despite the numerous reforms and investment, the Nigeria Civil Service is yet to gain a global competitive advantage even locally.
For instance, in terms of the human development index, according to UNDP human development index 2009 quoted Harry D.M (2010: 146)“most developing countries of Africa and Asia are ahead of Nigeria. Nigeria is in the 158th position out of 182 countries assessed worldwide. This, certainly, is not a good report for a country that wants to become one of the 20 largest economies in the world. “This should be a source of serious concern to Nigerians.
It is against this background that this study is set to examine the challenges of Human Capital Development in the Nigeria Federal Civil Service under Goodluck Jonathan Administration.
Consequently, the study will address the following research questions:
- What is the state of Human Capital Development in Nigeria Federal Civil Service?
- Are there efforts made by the Federal Government of Nigeria in the Federal Civil Service with respect to developing Human Capital under Goodluck Jonathan Administration?
- What are the implications of inadequate Human Capital Development in the development of effective Civil Service in Nigeria?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study has both broad objective and specific objectives. The broad objective of the study is to study the state and nature of Human Capital Development in the Nigeria federal Civil Service with the view of identifying its challenges under Goodluck Jonathan Administration.
While the specific objectives of the study are to:
- Find out the state of Human Capital Development in Nigeria Civil Service.
- Examine the efforts made by the Federal Government of Nigeria in the Federal Civil Service with respect to developing Human Capital under Goodluck Jonathan Administration
- Ascertain whether inadequate Human Capital Development have some implications in the development of effective Civil Service in Nigeria.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study has both theoretical and empirical significance, theoretically, the study, among other things, will advance the frontiers of knowledge and add to the existing literature on Human
Capital Development in the Federal Civil Service, the findings of this research will be useful to scholars, researchers, and students. The research is also justified because it is in accordance with national priority of “change” of the incumbent Federal Government, hence it is timely, topical and auspicious.
Empirically, the study is significant because it will raise the awareness of the importance of Human Capital Development especially in Federal Civil Service. Thus the findings of this research will serve as a working document and can guide the government especially at the Federal level that just assumed the power/responsibility of repositioning and transforming the Federal Civil Service for the challenges ahead.
It will also be of significant benefit to policy makers, administrators who have been making good policies without seeing to its effective implementation owing to the incompetence’s and poor training of the civil servants. It will also accord the government an insight on how to make a maximum use of human capital, by investing on it as he will invest in order capitals for profit making, because human is the most important factors of production.
Finally, the findings and recommendation of this research will lead to increase in budgetary allocation and more policy formulation that will guarantee improved Human Capital Development.
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study
Scope of the study covers Human Capital Development in Nigeria federal Civil Service and its challenges under Goodluck Jonathan administration. It discussed Human Capital Development in the Federal Civil Service it also focused on the office of Federal Civil Service Commission and office of the Head of the Civil Service of the federation which are the umbrella bodies of all the civil federal ministries in Nigeria.
Some of the limitations encountered in the course of the research include the uncooperative and unnecessary bureaucratic attitude of some of the staff who feels that information the researcher is requesting is not meant for public consumption.
Notwithstanding the time limit and cost of carrying out this research, another major limitation is the bureaucratic bottle neck that makes getting information from the federal Civil Service very difficult and time consuming.
Finally, data are poorly managed in the Federal Civil Service, in view of this; getting needed information is always hard. Notwithstanding the above limitations, the researcher was able to surmount them to obtain valid and reliable information.
Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion
Human Capital Development has been globally recognised as the most important factors of production among land, capital and equipment. Human Capital Development entails improved education, training, skills and knowledge acquisition, enhanced health care services and improved good working condition both in times of physical working conditions and incentives
It is no doubt that improved Human Capital Development is a catalyst to national development through increase in performance, productivity, and output, the resultant effect is increase in gross domestic product(GDP) and gross national product (GNP) upon which any nation’s economic growth is measured and determined.
It has been observed that many countries of the world including Nigeria, is yet to tap into and explore the benefits accruable from Human Capital Development. This is in spite of the fact that there is a global rise in the rate of technological, climatic and economic changes. Nigeria still has a long way to go in this regard and this is evident in her position in the human capital index of 2014 as 158th out of 180 in the world. It was on this premise that the study is set to ascertain the challenges of Human Capital Development in Nigeria Federal Civil Service under Goodluck Jonathan’s administration.
This study is necessary and timely because at this time most countries and government are investing heavily in and reaping the advantages in Human Capital Development Nigeria is yet to be identified among such nations despite being blessed with abundant human resource workforce. Furthermore if the vision 20 2020 is to be achieved, then it is imperative that the machinery of the government charged with the responsibility of implementing government policies and projects must be adequately positioned to meet up with whatsoever challenges that might confront it.
This study addressed the following five research questions: :
- What is the state of Human Capital Development in Nigeria Civil Service?
- What were the efforts of the Federal Government of Nigeria towards Human Capital Development in the Federal Civil Service under Goodluck Jonathan Administration?
- Are there some challenges limiting the efforts of the Federal Government towards Human Capital Development in the Nigeria federal Civil Service?
- Does inadequate Human Capital Development have some implications in the development of effective Civil Service in Nigeria?
- How can these challenges be resolved?
The study has both broad objective and specific objectives. The broad objective of the study is to study the state and nature of Human Capital Development in the Nigeria federal Civil Service with a view to identifying its challenges under Goodluck Jonathan Administration While the specific objectives of the study are to:
- To find out the state of Human Capital Development in Nigeria Civil Service.
- To examine the efforts of the Federal Government of Nigeria towards Human Capital Development in the Federal Civil Service under Goodluck Jonathan Administration?
- To identify the challenges limiting the efforts of the Federal Government towards Human Capital Development in the Nigeria federal Civil Service.
- To ascertain whether inadequate Human Capital Development have some implications in the development of effective Civil Service in Nigeria.
- To recommend solutions on how these challenges can be resolved
The following hypotheses were postulated for this study;
- The Human Capital Development in Nigeria Federal Civil Service under Goodluck Jonathan administration was in a poor and neglected state.
- The ability of Federal Government of Nigeria to improve on Human Capital Development depends highly on her ability to confront a host of challenges confronting it.
- Inadequate Human Capital Developments are responsible for poor performance, ineffectiveness and inefficiency of federal Civil Service.
Primary and secondary sources of data collection were used in this study. Questionnaire and interviews constitute the primary sources while books, journals, official documents etc constitute the secondary sources of data collection. The survey research design was used and quantitative analysis, simple percentage and chi square were used to analyse the data.
This study made some findings which include among others that
- There are programmes and policies on Human Capital Development in Nigeria Federal Civil Service.
- Among the three pillars of Human Capital Development, health care received the maximum attention and funding. The researcher was able to find the reason behind this which is the introduction of National health care insurance scheme, which takes 90% care of health needs of all the registered civil servants through a contributory process while the civil servant takes care of 10%.
- Most of the civil servants have benefited from the human capacity/resource training and development programmes of the Nigeria federal Civil Service.
- The nature of Human Capital Development in Nigeria Federal Civil Service under Goodluck Jonathan administration is in a good state, this findings is factual and is in line with the previous finding, the relationship is based on the fact that all the factors that are responsible for the improved Human Capital Development in the Nigeria Federal Civil Service took effect under Goodluck Jonathan Administration.
The major challenges confronting Human Capital Development in Nigeria Federal Civil Service are inadequate budgetary allocation/Training cost and lack of data on training needs/ Uncoordinated training programmes, others include political interference and corruption, Lack of monitoring mechanisms, Mischief on the part of the trainees, over-centralization of decision-making systems, inadequate linkage between training output and the duty post and Non- existent/ non-robust training policy
- The federal government should as a matter of urgency increase the budgetary allocation to Human Capital Development in Nigeria Civil Service.
- Staff should be motivated with in service training A/B, study leave with pay, scholarship and technical assistance as this will accelerate their performance and output and reduce brain drain and job dissatisfaction.
- Our educational curriculum should be designed in line with what is obtainable in the labour force in order to reduce the training cost and redundancy.
- There should be an independent body established under the presidency whose responsibility will be to liaise with MDAs of government in identifying the areas of training and ensuring that these trainings are carried out effectively.
- The monitoring mechanism currently in place is very poor and weak, the government should set up a special and independent task force to monitor participants undergoing training and put in place measures that will be used to appraise staff performance before and after any training.
- The efforts of Goodluck Jonathan administration in improving Human Capital Development in the Nigeria Federal Civil Service should be sustained and improved upon by the successive administrations.
- There should be frequent and periodic evaluation of Human Capital programmes and policies carried out in the Nigeria Federal Civil Service to be in line with environmental and technological changes, societal needs and goals of the government.
- Efforts should be made to improve the physical working condition of the Federal Civil Service equipping the same with the state of the art facilities like ICT, mobility and file indexing in order to enhance their speed of service delivery.
- The federal government should equip, restructure and mandate the office of the statistics to ensure that it is up to date with national data and that of the civil servants in order to enhance planning.
- Civil servants should be consulted when issues and policies regarding their welfare and working conditions are being made.
Based on the research findings and analysis, the research work has unearthed the fact that the administration of Goodluck Jonathan has improved the state of Human Capital Development in the Nigeria Federal Civil Service, that notwithstanding, the service is still bedevilled with a lot of barrage of challenges hindering it from discharging its enormous task of service delivery and policy implementation.
From the existing literature reviewed in the study, the study discussed the three pillars of Human Capital Development but more emphasis was laid on training and development of the staff which is the cardinal pillars of HCD.
The study was specifically meant to unravel the challenges of Human Capital Development in the Nigeria Federal Civil Service under Goodluck Jonathan administration, the data collected from the survey was analysed using tables and percentage and the human capital theory was adopted in the analyses
The research has shown that the greatest force that will accelerate National development and increased productivity lies in developing Human capacity, it recommends increased budgetary allocation to HCD which should be seen as investment that will bring back returns just like investing in machines and not seen as expenditure. It concludes by identifying the major challenges facing Human Capital Development in Nigeria Federal Civil Service and suggests ways through which such challenges can be addressed
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