Improving The Efficiency And Productivity Of Nigeria Civil Service
This study is on improving the efficiency and productivity of Nigeria civil service. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Enugu civil service, Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made auditors, procurement officers, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background Of The Subject Matter
At the federal level, the Nigeria civil service is the most important sector of the nations economic systems. At the same time, when viewed from the state level, it is seen as the most important sector of the state economic system. Specific ally using Enugu state as a case study one can observe that the civil service of the state is performing below expectations.
This ineffectiveness not with standing one sees it as a testimony that much priority is given to the administration and general welfare of the state. If the civil service perform sub-optimally, our health, education and general welfare must be adversely affected, productivity in private organization dwindles, profits position becomes poor, social responsibility of business manager and entrepreneur becomes neglected, employees are paid off taxes stop flowing into the government pursue and contribution to the nations growth generally are affected.
Besides efficiency and productivity in the civil service lies a multiplier effect on the service and profit making activities of business enterprise. According to walker an economist, productivity and profit are linked firmly with progress because progress requires growth of both to adequately meet the aspiration of today’s business.
The Enugu state private sector is brought because of the activities of the small scale industrialists and merchants and the existence of large manufacturing companies like Niger gas at Emene in Enugu state, the Enugu, Anambra motor manufacturing company (ANAMMCO) Emene (a joint venture between the private and public sector with the government holding the equity and controlling share).
The state private sector is this important on its own, but not as important as civil service which employs the greatest labour and spends more than 60% of its total revenue. The important of the state civil service will be appreciated not only considering the amount of capital it spends or amount of labour it employs but the number and kind of service it renders to its people, such as health, education, agriculture, information rural development and general welfare.
In fact, it is a center of great importance because other activities of the state depends on it the important of the Enugu state civil service, likewise other states cannot therefore be over emphasized. Its efficiency or otherwise will affect the general well being of the people off the state. Thus, education health and other basic comforts will be enjoyed or adversely affected, and the private sector will flourish or ware economically.
The Enugu state government therefore, has a special role to play in other to improve the efficiency and productivity of the civil service.
1.2 Problems Associated With The Subject Matter
Recently, the Nigeria civil service as a whole has come under incessant attack from all quarters. It has been called all sorts of names. It has been generally criticized for being inefficient, unresponsive, bureaucrat and lacking commitment to work the productivity of the civil service employee is know to be relatively low compared with that of other counterparts in the private sector. Ranks and tiles of employee of the civil service are blamed, no one is exonerated not ever the management.
According to Dr. D.I the incontrovertible facts that many managers in the Nigeria public sector have tend to produce results that are far below what is feasible with the resources available to them.
In Enugu state the inefficiency, ineffectiveness and low productivity has been attributed to some certain administrative short coming jobs are often abandoned during official hours in favour of personal gains, nepotism and lack of employee motivation, supervision, performance appraisal etc. agree with the researchers that before this present decade the work force in the country can be said to being heavily imbued with a set of values generally characterized by the term work ethnics” work then was regarded as hairy a spiritual meaning buttressed by such behavioural norms as punctuality, honesty, diligence and regality. One’s job then was a central life interest and provide the dormant due in interpersonal assessment. A work force with these sets of values is amendable to a more effective use by any management in its pursuit of the value of productivity, efficiency and effectiveness. But today, there is growing evidence that work ethnics as people are becoming less committed to work.
The big question one mighty however ask as this how do you measure efficiency, productivity and effectiveness in the civil service, since it is not composed of business enterprise, where productivity could be measured in terms of sales of unit of production, share of the market, net profit etc. in the sense of the civil service you cannot really measure productivity or efficiency in any of these terms.
Efficiency is defined as the relationship between what is accomplished while productivity is defined as the ration of useful obtained, to the resources expended in expended in obtaining them.
We can this, go from here to define productivity in terms of the civil service.
Low productivity and inefficiencies not only result in goals but being accomplished quickly due but in addition heads to money being wastefully expended on idle time as wages and salaries and perhaps over time.
1.3 Problems That The Study Will Be Concerned With
Perhaps only very few researchers do not encounter problems during their investigation, considering the various kind of scope and limitation one can encounter in conducting a research. These scopes and limitation vary between one environment and another depending on such factors as the tempo rent of the respondent one is going to use
the nature of the research (whether extensive or restrictive) level of education of te respondents, availability and reliability of secondary data. Other constraints are those within the researchers such as finance time and possible in accuracy of sample used.
1.4 Objective Of The Study
The objectives of the study are
- To determine the causes of low productivity and poor level of efficiency at the Enugu state civil services.
- To ascertain the relationship between staff efficiency and productivity and staff incentive
- To ascertain whether Nigeria civil servants salary are paid on time
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there are no causes of low productivity and poor level of efficiency at the Enugu state civil services.
H1: there are causes of low productivity and poor level of efficiency at the Enugu state civil services.
- H02: there is no relationship between staff efficiency and productivity and staff incentive
H2: there is relationship between staff efficiency and productivity and staff incentive
1.6 Significance Of The Study
This research is to give clear insight on improving the efficiency and productivity of Nigeria civil service. The study will be beneficial to government of Nigeria and government workers. The study will help show on how to improve efficiency and productivity at work various government works. The study will serve as a reference to others researcher that want to embark on this topic
1.7 Scope And Limitation Of The Study
The scope of the study covers improving the efficiency and productivity of Nigeria civil service. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability Of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Efficiency refers to very different inputs and outputs in different fields and industries. Efficiency is very often confused with effectiveness. In general, efficiency is a measurable concept, quantitatively determined by the ratio of useful output to total input.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production. A productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership
1.9 Organization Of The Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain improving the efficiency and productivity of Nigeria civil service. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of the efficiency and productivity of Nigeria civil service
This study was on improving the efficiency and productivity of Nigeria civil service. Three objectives were raised which included: To determine the causes of low productivity and poor level of efficiency at the Enugu state civil services, to ascertain the relationship between staff efficiency and productivity and staff incentive, to ascertain whether Nigeria civil servants salary are paid on time. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Enugu civil service, Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made auditors,procurement officers, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
The civil service is a unique body that is well placed to play a major role in the effective functioning of any government. It is the “action” part of government and its shield in times of crises. It is not in contest that development, in all its multifaceted nature, can hardly occur without this important organ of government. Cooperation among all stake holders has become more imperative today than perhaps at any period before. This cooperation is necessary in order to arrest the disruption and confusion engendered by the sustained military dominance of the policies and management of the country as well as undue interference from especially political office holders. Harmonious working relations are also a prerequisite for lessening the incidence of conflict and stemming the tide of the collapse of public institutions. For the people, workers inclusive, they expect fulfillment of promises of motor able roads, potable water, good hospitals, better housing, and support for agriculture. While on the one hand the modern state today requires for its functioning an efficient and effective service, the civil service on the other hand need the active support, respect and cooperation of government for it to perform. A number of fundamental things need to be given due attention: equity, social justice and so on from the two sets of public servants. They would neither be supported nor respected if they are seen to build empires for themselves and ignore the basic needs of others.
There is an urgent need for developing countries such as Nigeria to adopt civil service performance-improvement programme such as the New Public Management to enhancing good governance that will engender economic growth and sustainable development. These include provision of improved education, infrastructural and health care facilities. For the New Public Management approach to be rooted in the civil service culture, the enabling environment must be created. The social security of the people must be vigorously addressed because NPM unlike the traditional public administration is driven by market forces which see the public as client rather than citizens. The spate of corruption which has hindered a lot of policies should be reordered. This is coming on the heels of the poor implementation of some people- friendly policies such as the monetization of fringe benefits which was introduced in 2003 with a view to reducing the cost of governance by monetizing the gale fringe benefits accorded the army of public servants in the country. More synergy between the public and private sector in the formulation and implementation of government policies is important for proper management of state resources. Another critical area is the legal framework to ensure that policies are implemented and anything short of standard should be sanctioned according to the provisions of the law. Reforms in public sector are definitely considerable for socio-economic improvements in any country. Since reforms imply innovation, to make a new or create a new form as opposed to the old order therefore things like systems of production and distribution of goods and services, improvement of public health, education, housing and living condition in general are to be considered on high regard during reform process. However, the only challenge is to identify the suitable grounds for public sector reforms in relation to the context of a respective location where the reforms are to be carried out. NPM is taking a lead in reforming public sector at every corners of the world, although it has shown some successes in other climes but to some other parts of the global community like Africa, the story may be different due to incompatibility existing in local structures such as administrative cultures and development setups.
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