A Critical Assessment Of The Potentials Of Coastal And Marine Tourism In Nigeria
This study intends to examine socio economic and cultural impact of coastal and marine tourism on local people. The study was carried out in Elegushi beach Lagos. The study used mixed research methods including survey questionnaires, focus group discussions, semi-structure interviews and direct observations. All these were carried out to grasp important information required for addressing the research objectives and questions. The study used two theoretical approaches for examining the impact of tourism activities to the local people. Integrated coastal management approach was used to assess the conflicts over resources use between local people and other tourism stakeholders including investors. The Sustainable livelihood approach was used to examine the resilience of local people from development of tourism activities in terms of security, recognition and participation in tourism development. The combined approach was useful to allow local people to cope with the changes brought as results of the development of the tourism sector and allow them to participate in the tourism development while minimizing the negative impacts associated with tourism activities. Findings from this study show that tourism in the main economic activities in both Paje and Nungwi villages. However, tourism activities were observed to have some effects to the local people and their society in general. It was observed that, the increase of social change, pollution, drugs and alcohol, conflict over resources use and high rate of immigrants in the villages were the main challenges impacting the local people hence hindering their participation in the tourism industry. Low education and poor awareness among the local community members were also observed to hinder local people participation in tourism businesses. As results most of the businesses and job opportunities related to tourism are taken by foreigners and immigrants. Although tourism industry is a fast-growing sector but some tourism activities tend to have some negative impacts to the communities and the environment. The participation of local people in tourism activities is important for reducing their vulnerabilities. Investors should maintain good relationships with the adjacent local communities to ensure sustainability of the tourism activities in the villages. It is important to mainstream coastal and marine tourism issues in the education system, ensure participatory formulation of tourism policies, increase scholarships for training local people, facilitate village natural resource committees and invest in the tourism for all campaign.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Nigeria is among the richest country in terms of natural resources such as tropical forests, miombo woodlands, wildlife, mountains and water bodies. The presence of favorable habitats for wildlife makes Nigeria to be among the countries with large number of national parks in the world. Therefore, with such many national parks inhabiting different wild animals in Nigeria, the tourism industry is one of the fastest growing sector in the country contributing significantly to the national economy (Kazuzuru, 2014). Compared to other trading commodities, the tourism sector in Nigeria is leading in bringing foreign exchange (Anderson, 2013). It contributes to the economic development through businesses and construction of facilities and provision of various services such as hotels, restaurants and transport. Studies indicate that, the contribution of the tourism industry to the national income – gross domestic product (GDP) increased by 40% from 2000 to 2008 (Kazuzuru, 2014). The sector contributes to creation of employment opportunities, improvement of social services such as construction of schools and health centers, availability of clean water in the villages, transport services as well as improvement of communication services (Kazuzuru, 2014; Lange, 2015). The transformation of the environment in undesirable ways as a results of the development of tourism activities has affected the livelihoods and culture of the adjacent local communities in different localities (Dwyer, 2018). In some places, land grabbing has resulted into relocation of people residing along the coastal zones of Nigeria. The land is then used for construction of hotels and resorts for tourists making villagers short of lands for agriculture and other activities (Dwyer, 2018; Sharpley & Telfer, 2015). In Elegushi beach, the land used to build resorts is greater than city hotel with an average density land use values of 284 m2 per bed (Gössling & Peeters, 2015).
There are several types of tourism and different people have defined the term tourism differently, but coastal and marine tourism is among the common type of tourism in the world. Coastal tourism is defined as a type of tourism involving travelling to destinations outside the usual environment to mainly recreational activities along the coastal zone (Rangel-Buitrago et al., 2019). Coastal tourism is among major types of tourism practiced in Nigeria due to the presence of the beautiful beaches along the Indian Ocean. This type of tourism is popular in Lagos (Lagos and Pemba) and mainland Nigeria (Mafia islands). These islands are densely populated with many endangered and rare species of corals, fishes, seagrasses, mangroves, flora and fauna (Lange, 2015). The islands are also designated as world heritage site due to its outstanding materials, manifestation of cultural fusion and harmonization at the same time served as the best example of the Swahili coastal trading towns of East Africa (Bourdeau & Gravari-Barbas, 2016). The development of tourism in Lagos stated in 1986 where government started to strongly promote tourism globally (Gössling & Schulz, 2005). The focus of tourism development has been concentrated in the East Coast of the Lagos islands, where large areas along the coast have remained uninhabited, and where the sand beaches provide the precondition for infrastructure development (Gössling, 2001a). The high rate of tourism activities along the Nigerian coastal area is also influenced by the uniqueness of the culture and nature of the environment which attract many tourists to experience the beauty of the coastal zones. Empirical evidence from Mutayoba & Mbwete (2013) indicate that the number of tourists arriving in the coastal zones of Nigeria has tripled within fourteen years from early 2000s.
However, costal tourism has impacted local people surrounding the coastal zone in both positive and negative ways. Large hotels and resorts located along the coastal zones tend to use local supply markets hence helping the indigenous people to earn money by selling the locally produced goods to the hotels (Picard, 2015). The resort and hotels also anticipated to provide on job training and internal company tourism programs, which help to build vital professional capacities to the adjacent communities enabling them to serve tourists in different services (Masalu, 2000). However, the increasing investments and number of tourists in the coastal zones can also destruct the environment, hence compromising with the sustainability of natural resources management and therefore mentioned benefits to local communities (Khamis, Kalliola, & Käyhkö, 2017; Picard, 2015). In some places the hotels provide all-inclusive packages to tourists hindering the opportunities of the people from the local communities to save the tourists. Hotel operators also tend to block access to the seashores from other users especially local communities for activities like fishing, sea food collection and farming (Khamis et al., 2017; Mustelin et al., 2009). While the hotel owners would like to have the beaches intact and clean for their customers, seaweed farmers who are mostly locals need the same areas for conducting their farming activities along the forefront of the coast and use the beaches to drying the produces hence resulting into resource use conflicts between locals and hotels operators or owners (Khamis et al., 2017).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The uniqueness of the coastal areas, beaches, the beautiful biodiversity rich marine ecosystem, the Swahili tradition and culture in Nigeria are the main factors used for promoting the country as the best destination for tourism activities worldwide. The costal tourism therefore has become potential sector in the economy of Nigeria (Lange, 2015). The development of coastal and marine tourism is anticipated to improve, not only the life of locals who are currently depending on fishing and agricultural activities along the coastal areas but also increase the contribution of the tourism sector to the national economy. On the other hands Coastal tourism has been a potential driver of social change, destruction of culture and tradition and environment degradation (Gössling, 2003; Lange, 2015). The increased investments on infrastructure along the coast areas with the high restriction of access to the beaches by the local people affects their livelihoods and welfare in general (Ashley & Mitchell, 2009; Mwaipopo, 2008). Further, the socio-economic and culture impacts of coastal and marine tourism has been discussed by a number of scholars (Ashley & Mitchell, 2009; Dwyer, 2018; Gössling, 2003; Gössling & Peeters, 2015; Gössling & Schulz, 2005; Gustavson, Kroeker, Walmsley, & Juma, 2009; Mwaipopo, 2008) and conclusions in these studies are diverse. Despite the extensive literature on the coastal and marine tourism globally, the socio-economic and cultural effects of coastal and marine tourism development in Elegushi beach in Lagos are not well documented. This study is therefore intended to contribute to the body of knowledge on the effects of coastal and marine tourism on culture by finding out how local communities in Elegushi beach are affected by the coastal and marine tourism. This study for assessing and understanding the effects of coastal and marine tourism development is important for shaping and changing the attitudes of the local communities participating in the tourism industry. The documentation of these socio-economic effects will also create awareness to stakeholders involved in tourism sector especially on the key issues which are sensitive to local communities and those which need to be promoted.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Generally, this study seek to critically assess the potentials of coastal and marine tourism in nigeria. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to:
- Assess the participation of local people in tourism business operations and activities in Elegushi beach in Lagos.
- Evaluate the awareness and involvement of local communities in policy and regulations related to coastal and marine tourism development in Nigeria.
- Examine the costs and benefits of coastal and marine tourism in terms of social and culture of the local people in Elegushi beach.
- Analyze the economic factors associated with tourism investment on coastal areas in Nigeria.
- Investigate the awareness and measures taken by government to minimize the negative impacts associated with coastal and marine tourism development.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the participation of local people in tourism business operations and activities in Elegushi beach in Lagos?
- What is the awareness and involvement of local communities in policy and regulations related to coastal and marine tourism development in Nigeria?
- What is the costs and benefits of coastal and marine tourism in terms of social and culture of the local people in Elegushi beach?
- What are the economic factors associated with tourism investment on coastal areas in Nigeria?
- What is the awareness and measures taken by government to minimize the negative impacts associated with coastal and marine tourism development?
1.5 Significance of the Study
A key challenge is the availability of data to measure the economic impact of CMT. In Nigeria, there is currently (2018) limited data available relating to the economic impact of CMT which could provide a better understanding of the economic contribution of CMT and its potential contribution towards tourism in Nigeria. No studies have been conducted in Elegushi beach to determine its the economic impact, which is what the town is predominantly known for. Therefore, this study will assist in a greater understanding of the contribution of shark cage diving tourism on the coastal economy of Elegushi beach area to better inform the contribution of the oceans to job creation, growth of the GDP and unlocking the potential of the oceans as highlighted by Operation Phakisa. Since this is the first study of its kind in Elegushi beach, it can benefit marine destinations all over Nigeria. This study will serve as a basis of understanding the need to invest in more research on CMT as well as give an indication of the potential contribution of marine based activities to the economy.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is a critical assessment if the potentials of coastal and marine tourism in Nigeria, with emphasis on Elegushi Beach, Lagos.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes.
Also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land.
Marine tourism as ”the sector of the tourism industry that is based on tourists and visitors taking part in active and passive leisure and holidays pursuits or journeys on (or in) coastal waters, their shorelines and their immediate hinterlands.
1.9 Organizations of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on a critical assessment of the potentials of coastal and marine tourism in Nigeria.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to critical assess the potentials of coastal and marine tourism in Nigeria. The study was specifically carried out to assess the participation of local people in tourism business operations and activities in Elegushi beach in Lagos, evaluate the awareness and involvement of local communities in policy and regulations related to coastal and marine tourism development in Nigeria, examine the costs and benefits of coastal and marine tourism in terms of social and culture of the local people in Elegushi beach, analyze the economic factors associated with tourism investment on coastal areas in Nigeria, and investigate the awareness and measures taken by government to minimize the negative impacts associated with coastal and marine tourism development.
Tourism industry is a fast-growing sector not only in Nigeria but also globally. It benefits a number of people or groups of different people such as tourism investors, migrants and foreigners. The investments in the tourism sector tend to also benefit the local people due to the multiplier effects from the activities. Despite the benefits, some tourism activities tend to have some negative impacts to the communities and the environment. Although tourism investors focus on generating income for their companies, the livelihoods of local people and their involvement in the sector is also important. This is crucial for addressing the vulnerability of the local people due the development of tourism activities. Local people become vulnerable due to increased costs of living and lack of job opportunities for them which are taken by outsiders hence compromising their livelihoods. The participation of local people in the tourism activities is crucial for reducing their vulnerabilities. The participation of local people in tourism is mainly passive as they are not involved in the tourism planning and decision-making process. Local communities are rather participating in generating income through engaging in low status job and unskilled jobs. The poor participation in tourism activities results into poor awareness, low rate of employment, low income, lower social changes and conflict over resources.
Generally, the awareness of local people regarding tourism policy and regulations are still low. The involvement of local people in the formulation of tourism policy and regulations was not participatory making the local communities unaware of their rights regarding tourism. While village leaders were involved in the initial stages of policy and regulations formulation, local communities’ complained of not being involved in the process. For achieving sustainable livelihoods in the communities, the involvement of local people in making decision is very important. Increased corruption, discrimination over land uses and failure for stakeholder’s integration for sustaining benefits from tourism activities are among the factors affected the involvement of local people in the formulation of policy and regulations.
Maintaining good relationships with the adjacent local communities is vital for ensuring sustainability of the tourism activities in the villages. The good relationship is built in many different ways including adherence to the code of conducts, respecting local communities’ culture, engaging in village development projects as part of the social cooperate responsibilities and participating in village conservation activities. It might be difficult to engage in all these activities but participating in some may have strong positive impacts to the communities.
The benefits that local people get from coastal and marine tourism activities depends on individual efforts to generate more income from multiple sources. In a collective thinking, tourism does not offer tangible benefits but rather they provide support to the communities’ projects such as education, health stations, infrastructure like roads and supporting disabled people. It is empirical that support in education was the main sustained benefit in the communities. The increasing rate of negative impacts from tourism related activities make local people prefer engaging themselves in other income generating activities than the tourism related ones. Engaging in multiple income generating activities is important for improving the living standard and ensuring that the livelihoods of local people becomes sustainable. It is important for them to work in different activities because tourism is seasonal activities hence during the low season it may affect local people who rely only on tourism activities for earning more income. Coastal tourism activities should focus on generating more income and empowering local people through education and trainings in order to improve their living standards. The integrated coastal and marine tourism management, involvement of all stakeholders in decision making and collaboration in tourism development will ensure sustainability of local people through maximizing the benefits and minimizing the negative impacts associated with coastal and marine tourism activities.
Based on the findings, it is recommended that:
- The government should mainstream coastal and marine tourism in the education system in the lower level classes and considered in the curriculum for educating local people to create awareness on utilizing the potentials in the sector and minimizing the negative impacts associated with tourism activities.
- The formulation of tourism policy and regulations should be participatory and involve all stakeholders starting from local levels to the national level. All community members should share their ideas and feelings through regular meeting about the ongoing tourism development in their villages.
- There is a need to increase the scholarships for training local people at all level of educations in tourism related skills to make them competitive in the labour markets especially for the managerial positions.
- Integrated multisectoral approach need to be promoted for minimizing the negative impacts associated with tourism activities in all levels.
- The government must ensure that all hotels registered under the Revolution Government of Lagos operates under the stipulates laws and regulations.
- The government should ensure that each village have a natural resource committee working closely with Non-Government organization and tourism investors for supporting village development projects.
- The tourism for all campaign needs to focus on people’s ability to respond to changes through self-organization, traditional knowledge for protecting the environment, and collaboration with other tourism stakeholders.
How To Get The Complete Material For “A Critical Assessment Of The Potentials Of Coastal And Marine Tourism In Nigeria“
The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps
Quick & Simple…
Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to Any of the Account Below
|Acc No: 0811003731|
|Acc No: 1225513212|
|Acc No: 8143831497|
Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card
|FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA|
|CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($20)|
|FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS|
|Make Payment of 100 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Osabutey | MTN MoMo|
Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment
- Payment Details
- TOPIC: A Critical Assessment Of The Potentials Of Coastal And Marine Tourism In Nigeria
The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply