The Role Of Aviation In Hospitality And Tourism Industry In Nigeria
The purpose of this research work is to examine the role of aviation in hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey using a case study of Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Ikeja Lagos state. Employees, staff and workers in Murtala Muhammed International Airport were chosen as the population. A sample of 100 respondents was selected. A simple random sampling procedure was used for further selection of the sample for the study. Structured questionnaire was administered to respondents and the contents of the questionnaire were clear enough to elicit accurate responses from the selected organization. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyze the research questions. From the findings, the roles were shown to include Aviation facilitates the expansion of travel and tourism (87%), Boosts economic growth and development (88%), Maintains an international standard for the tourism and hospitality industry (92%), Improves national image and perception around the world (89%), Accelerates the movement of tourist from one choice of destination to another (84%), Facilitates inter-regional movement of tourists (88%), Provides a trusted world-wide transportation network necessary for tourism and hospitality business (82%), and Contributes to sustainable development by facilitating tourism and broadening people’s leisure and cultural experiences (93%). The problems are shown to include Airport Facilities (72%), Air Transport Safety (77%), Loss of confidence in Aviation Sector (83%), Access Roads to the Airports (73%), Non-Construction of Perimeter Fencing (65%), Addressing Passenger Complaints (71%), Climatic Changes (79%), and Regulation/Legislation (82%). the strategies to promote the contribution of aviation to the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria were shown to include Institutionalize world-class safety and security standards (81%), Development of Infrastructure (89%), Reformation of institutions, develop capacity and increase professionalism (85%), Transformation key airports into a network of domestic and international hubs (91%), Growth of domestic airlines and create financial stability (84%), Development of airport cities (Aerotropolis) to transform airports into major centres of employment, shopping, trading and business leisure (83%), and Creation of national carriers (82%). In conclusion, aviation is a global business with a goal standards geared towards the safety of lives and engine for sustainable economic development and growth.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Research Objectives
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisation of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Historical Development of Air Transportation in Nigeria
- 2.3 Impact of Aviation on the Economy
- 2.3.1 Direct Impact
- 2.3.2 Indirect Impacts
- 2.3.3 Induced Impacts
- 2.3.4 Catalytic Impacts
- 2.4 Economic Benefits of Air Transport in Nigeria
- 2.5 Social Benefits of Air Transport
- 2.6 Transport as a Component of the Tourism Product
- 2.7 Problems Facing Air Transportation in Nigeria
- 2.8 Theoretical Framework
- 2.8.1 Systems Theory
- 2.8.2 Modernization Theory
- 2.8.3 Development Theory
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Design of the Study
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.5 Validation and Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background of the Study
For many decades, the aviation industry has played a significant role in developing economies around the globe. It is reported that there are over two thousand (2,000) airlines operating more than twenty-three thousand (23,000) aircraft that serves about three thousand seven hundred (3,700) airports around the world (Aerospace Global Report, 2011). This makes the industry the gateway to any economy aspiring to develop, enabling globalization, trade facilitation and tourism development. It is very crucial in the promotion of foreign direct investment (FDI) (Ladele, 2012). One can therefore say that the industry is crucial to the growth of the economy and national development. Ladele (2012) in her study of FDI, noted that as the emerging economies grow, their demand for air transportation will grow as their citizens becomes more financially empowered with increased disposable income. Development of air transport infrastructures in these emerging economies will further fuel the growth of the industry. However, Stephens (2011) noted that even with the growth, less than 10% of the population will still be able to afford air travel as the gap between the rich and the poor is rapidly expanding, which prompted him to call for more investment in the land-based transportation.
Stephens (2009) forecasted that the Nigerian Civil Aviation industry will keep growing at an average of 15% domestic traffic so that by 2019 an estimated 12,461,043 million passenger will be carried domestically. An industry with this growth rate should be of great interest. Moreover, it is expected to be a crucial industry in general economic growth promotion for any nation. Therefore, the level of the importance of this industry is best appreciated if its contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP) is measured. The analysis will be more meaningful if the industry’s labour force contribution is measured and its significance is assessed in relation to those of other industry in the economy.
Transportation refers to the movement of people and goods from one location to a destination. Transportation is essential to the functioning of any society. It influences the location and range of productive and leisure activities; it affects the location of residence; it influences the range and provision of goods and services available for consumption. It invariably influences the quality of life. Indeed, it has been argued the developments in society can be closely correlated with the introduction of new or improved transport technology.
Air transport is one of the world’s most imperative businesses. Its improvement and specialized administration accomplishments make it one of the significant supporters of the headway of present day societal advancement. The development in the aviation unit can’t be compare by some other significant type of transport because of its detail and new advancements that is going ahead in the area. The above has helped such a great amount in economic and tourism improvement of the country and the world. Interest for air transport administrations has expanded the impact of air transport in the country and worldwide economy, along these lines upgrading fast development of travelers, products and enterprises to the local and world market. This as a result produces higher income to the economy by method for quick in and out stream of merchandise and enterprises. The flight business assumes a vital part in the part of work and recreation to individuals around the globe. The area advances and enhances personal satisfaction, expectations for everyday comforts of individuals inside the country. This produces monetary development and destitution lightening by method for giving business openings, expanding incomes from charges. The employment openings would be created through supply chain transformation from the air terminals (Nwaogbe, Wokil, Omoke, & Asiegbuet., 2013).
According to Edobor (2014) Air transportation has been a noteworthy player in the worldwide tourism industry and furthermore a remarkable development of the 21st century. The aircraft business is extremely unique what’s more, very innovation driven. It has developed from being a monopolistic area to an exceptionally aggressive composes. The deregulation period saw the rise of a few carriers embracing dynamic plans of action and techniques which molded the whole travel and tourism industry. Air transport affects the economy in different ways.
The history of aviation industry in Nigeria is dated to 1925, when the first flight into Nigeria landed in Kano. Aviation has become an integral part of the socio-economic life of the country. The development of airlines industry since then has been characterized by many opportunities, some gains and values. Mr. Bud Carpenter, who frequently undertook high-risk flights from Kano to Lagos, started the commercial airline business using the rail tracks as his guide (Deba, 2005). Nigeria had its first commercial flight in 1935. As a result of the series of economic activity in Nigeria, in particular, oil industry business, the aviation industry has been witnessing increase patronage which in turn generates high tax revenue and boom in tourism. In 2010, International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) in United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certifies Nigeria aviation with Category 1 Status because of the high performance in the air transport sector (aviation industry) (Abraham, Saheed, & Chinyere 2015).
As of 2014, the total number of international airports in Nigeria was nine (9) and domestic airport were twenty-two (22), apart from other landing stations for private organizations and the Nigerian military. The movement of both aircraft and passengers vary due to the economic situation of the country (origin-destination) and season. Air transport travelers conveyed in Nigeria was recorded at 3,752,531 as of 2013, as per the World Bank. Air travelers conveyed incorporate both local and global airplane travelers of air carrier enlisted in the nation. Air Nigeria (initially “Virgin Nigeria Airways” and after that “Nigerian Eagle Airlines”) was the national banner carrier of Nigeria, which operated scheduled local and reginal traveler services. The aircraft’s base was Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos, its head office was located in Lagos Island and its registered office was in Ikoyi, Lagos State (Owoputi, 2015).
Late years have seen considerable enhancements in the aeronautics business. The breaking down and non-operational facilities, for example, ventilating and baggage belt have been repaired. The whole airplane terminal has been cleaned and numerous new eateries and duty free stores are opened. Respective air services agreement enter into amongst Nigeria and different nations are being restored and new ones signed. These treaties have seen any likeness of Turkish aircraft; Emirates Ocean Air, Delta and China Southern Airlines Express concern and get landing rights to Nigeria’s biggest international Airport (ATAG 2012).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Air Transportation is the transportation of passengers and cargo by aircraft and helicopters. It is a transport system that involves the movement or carriage by air of persons or goods using airplanes and helicopters (WIE, 2011).It has become the primary means of common carrier traveling. Greatest efficiency and value are obtained when long distances are involved and high value payloads are moved, although, the time and cost efficiencies obtained decreases as distances traveled is reduced, air transport is often worthwhile even for relatively short distances. It also provides a communication link, which is sometimes vital, between the different groups of people involved (WIE, 2011).
Nigeria is classified as an emerging market and is rapidly approaching middle income status with its abundant supply of resources; well-endowed communication, financial sector and stock exchange (Wikipedia, 2011).Such a country and its economy needs efficient air transportation. Furthermore, the large size of the country coupled with geographically diverse regions, difficult terrain, water bodies etc necessitates the use of efficient air transportation. Efficient air transportation is a means of transport that conveys people and goods from one place to another safely, on time without delay or flight cancellation or any other problem. It also contributes to economic growth and development. However in Nigeria, it suffers from poor reputation for operational efficiency and safety (Wikipedia, 2011). The aim of this paper is to undertake overview of aviation and recommend how it can be made efficient for economic growth and development of the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria.
1.3 Research Objectives
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of aviation in hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria.
Specifically, the objectives include:
- To identify the role that aviation plays in the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria
- To determine the problems and challenges of the aviation industry in Nigeria
- To identify the strategies to promote the contribution of aviation to the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria
1.4 Research Questions
This project is designed to tackle the following reach questions;
- What is the role that aviation plays in the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria
- What are the problems and challenges of the aviation industry in Nigeria
- What are the strategies to promote the contribution of aviation to the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study the hypothesis is to be tested at 0.5 alpha levels.
- HO1: There is no significant influence of aviation on the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria
- HA1: There is a significant influence of aviation on the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be of benefit to all stakeholders in the Aviation sector particularly the Airline Operators, the travelling public and the Governments of Nigeria. The need to ensure adequate infrastructural development and control over air safety by following the ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices strictly in other to ensure the sustainability of local airlines contribution to economy development will be the focus of this study. The gradual approach to liberalization in the form of intra and extra regional co-operation will be highlighted with a view to assisting the Government via the regulator to develop the political will to implement and sustain the provisions of the Yamoussoukro decisions.
The Airlines will find the study useful as they may find sense in mergers and acquisition in order to compete favourably with the big airlines in the advanced economies of the world and join the “global alliance” groupings. Also the study will help to enhance the contemporary issue of billing, aviation fuel price and business models of airlines as it affect airlines role in their contribution to their primary economy.
1.7 Scope of Study
The study sought to examine the role of aviation in hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria. Precisely, the focus of this work will be on Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Ikeja Lagos state. The staff and workers in the airport will be the respondents for the study.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. There was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise. Also, the researcher faced time constraints and had to combine the research with other academic activities and coursework. Lastly, the researcher selected Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Ikeja Lagos state to represent the aviation sector.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Is the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as hot air balloons and airships.
The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, food and drink service, event planning, theme parks, travel and tourism. It includes hotels, tourism agencies, restaurants and bars.
The tourism industry, also known as the travel industry, is linked to the idea of people travelling to other locations, either domestically or internationally, for leisure, social or business purposes.
1.10 Organisation of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The study was carried out to examine the role of aviation in hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria. It is now important to note that, air travel and tourism cannot be over-emphasized. The fact is that without tourism, there will be no transport, and without transport, there will be no tourism. This is simply because they work hand in hand and dependent on each other for maximum growth. With that, we can say that tourism and travel are as old as time; because from time immemorial man has travelled from one place to the other using different modes of transportation. However, the expansion of travel and tourism has an impact on air transportation. Thus, they complement each other. The expansion of international tourism has a large impact on air travel, hence the growth in tourism industry reflects on the air transformation.
The tourism sector as noted is now a major player in growing the economy of any country hence, Nigeria as a country is an ideal destination for all kinds of tourism – eco tourism, cultural tourism, religious tourism, business tourism, health tourism among others. With this in mind, it is then important to maintain an international standard in the aviation sector that will make Nigeria Airports, particularly MMIA and PHIA a world – class aviation hub. This is because airports have grown beyond the concept of a place where passenger and cargo are boarded and lands. Rather they have become the main focal point of growth for the economy of a nation, which also contributes huge chunks to their Gross Domestic Products (G.D.P) Jetlife (2011:32). This, however, will give and improve the nation’s image and perception around the world, though such an image has been long overdue. Having said that, the on-going remodelling and reconstruction will improve safety at the aviation sector, but there is need to create ways to support and maintain it in the future.
As a result of this growth, there has been improved facilities and new technology on modes of transport which can accelerate the movement of tourist from one choice of destination to another. Air travel or transport has become that one mode of transportation which/that can meet or fill this gap. It plays a dominant role in inter-regional movement of tourists, which usually entails long-haul travel and routes. Therefore, to achieve this, airports have a major role to play because it is seen as the gateway of a nation and the first point of contact to international or domestic tourists,
The study concludes that aviation sector provides the only and trusted world-wide transportation network, which makes it absolutely necessary for tourism and global business. And Nigeria aims to have a world-class aviation sector that is self-sustaining and pivotal to socio-economic growth. With MMIA and the transformation going on, that has put in place modern facilities it will eventually facilitate the movement of tourist and give them the comfort they deserve. With this image being projected globally and the volume of work at these airports, including best practice in the end, Nigeria airports will surely meet the international standards of foreign airports. Having noted that, air travel contributes to sustainable development not only by facilitating tourism; it also generates economic growth and broadens people’s leisure and cultural experiences.
Based on the findings from this study, the following recommendations were put forward:
- Safety and Security: Airports across the country as well as airlines operators (domestic and international) should embrace safety and security standards to meet up to international standard. The government should endeavour to put all the security measures that our foreign counterparts are using to enable us meet their standard.
- Technological Improvement is likely to boost international tourists and increase the growth of the nation’s economy if there will be improvement technologically. Installation of all the modern facilities that the federal government has managed to install should be adequately maintained and checked regularly for best practice.
- Tourism has increasingly been viewed as a promising area of economic activity that could become a structural part of alleviating poverty and sustainable development. Therefore, Nigeria government should not dawdle in boosting the tourism sector through the aviation sector since it has been noted that the two work in pari passu. They should also maintain an air transport regulatory frame work.
- The quantum of deaths experienced in our aviation industry has seriously affected Nigeria in one way or the other. Therefore, government and the aviation ministry should try to regularly check the operators of all the airlines both domestic and international, the age of those aircrafts and their technical maintenance and updates them regularly. They also need regular checks and must be examined by aviation authorities before taking off and landing.
- Training is another part in the aviation sector that has been neglected for too long. Probably we do not do trainings in Nigeria or it could be attributed to not attaching importance to anything. Therefore, the pilots, crew members, weather forecasters, engineers, various airline and airport staff-NAMA, FAAN, NCAA, meteorologists among others needs regular trainings. There also should be bodies to monitor the expiration of any training they should undergo and consequently keep updating them. The trainings should be mandatory and properly scrutinized and checked to maintain best practice.
- The regulatory bodies and parastatals like FAAN, NAMA, and NCAA should also maintain their focus and take every aspect of their job titles and job descriptions seriously to avoid unnecessary loop-holes on the industry generally. The research feels that some of these bodies do not really know or better understand their job titles and descriptions.
The Role Of Aviation In Hospitality And Tourism Industry In Nigeria
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