The Effect Of Insecurity On Hotel Patronage In South East Nigeria
The physical attributes or features that signal safety and security are a critical part of the overall services cape of a hotel and help to define the service experience. This study sought to assess the effect of insecurity on hotel patronage in South East Nigeria. A sample of 375 respondents comprising 165 hotel staffs and 210 hotel guests were used for the study. Questionnaire was used for data collection. All the clusters of the questionnaire were structured on a 4-point scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (Agree), disagree (D) and strongly disagree (SD). The internal consistency reliability of the instrument was estimated to be 0.89 using Cornbrash alpha method. The data collected were analysed using mean, standard deviation and t-test of independent samples. The study identified cybercrime, stealing, fraud, fire outbreak, bickering amongst staffs, criminal minded guests, kidnapping, poison from the food and beverages, sexual harassment and indiscriminate clusters of building to the hotel environment as a threat to security and safety in the hotels. The causes of the identified threats are based on the attitudinal behaviour of different people and maladministration in the part of hotel management. The study suggested making security a top priority by engaging registered security company, control of all the access point both the entrance and the exit, having an updated emergency response plan and scheduling a regular public area patrol especially in vulnerable points. Installation of alarm systems and recordable devices like CCTV, VCR with corresponding WIFI to record and store footages; and alternating major power supply with renewable energy like inverters, battery and solar panel were also suggested. The study further suggested routine training of all the staff especially the kitchen and food and beverages departments by established institutions like NAFDAC, NTDC, etc on food administration and hygiene.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Research Objectives
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Historical Background of Hotel Industry
- 2.2 An Overview of Hotel Operations and Activities
- 2.3 Theoretical Literature
- 2.4 Empirical Literature
- 2.5 Theoretical Orientation
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Study Area
- 3.3 Sample and Population
- 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.5 Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Summary and Conclusion
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background of the Study
Accommodation industry is a commercial institution which offers its product and services to guests and tourists. The need for accommodation away from home emerges as a result of increase in travel mostly for business, health, cultural activities and other purposes. When people are out of their homes they require shelter because after their daily activities the next is where to stay to enable their body and soul rest for the day and get ready for the next day activities. Inns and hotels were the major forms of accommodation provided to the tourists in the highways and major town in the olden days. The modern accommodation has four main categories ranging from services accommodation, self-catering accommodation, houses of friends and relative and others like boats and youth hotels (Ghosh, 2011).
The UN conference of international travel and tourism held in Rome in 1963 recognized the importance of accommodation both in traditional and supplementary settings. Traditional accommodation comprises hotels and motels, while the supplementary accommodations comprise camps, and youth hotels. The traditional and supplementary are seen as incentives to international tourism. Nevertheless, hotels and motels form the largest sector in the accommodation industry. Though both differ in some aspect and also have similar except that motels are just road side accommodation with few packing space to accommodate tourists, while supplementary includes accommodation but not necessarily hotel services. It comprises government rest houses, tourist bungalows, dak bungalow, youth hostel among others (Ghosh, 2011).
Hotels offer its product and services to guests and tourists through it elements which comprises; facilities, services, image, price and location. This means that all the hotel product and services are imbedded in the aforementioned elements. Facilities in the hotel refer to bedrooms, bar, restaurant, functions rooms, conference halls and recreation facilities such as swimming pools. Services comprise the services provided through the hotel facilities, while the image refers to the way the hotel is perceived by guests. In addition, price expresses the value given by the hotel through its mentioned elements and the satisfaction derived by the guests and tourists from the elements. Location finally places the hotel geographically in a particular area (Ghosh, 2011).Accommodation contributes heavily in the tourism industry. Without accommodation tourists flow will decline in a destination. Accommodation is all about providing shelter to guests and tourists in the destination.
According to world tourism organization, “tourism is the movement of people to stay (visit) in places outside their usual home for at least twenty-four hours but not more than one consecutive years for leisure, business, cultural purposes and other purposes not related to any form of employment from within the place visited” (Okpoko, Okonkwo and Oiminyi 2011, p.7).
Tourism industry is one of the largest industries in the world and it has contributed heavily in the world market economy. But Nigeria is yet to benefit from the tourism opportunities. There is need for economic diversification which will help in the economic development. If Nigeria can invest in tourism it will help in terms of economic development (Ekundayo, 2014). Tourism is a growing industry which has great effects on the economy. If well harnessed, it can generate revenue more than crude oil. Generally, tourism industry is revenue driven. It creates job opportunities, eradicate unemployment and improve the standard of living to host country. Globally, African was rated second fastest tourism growing destination in the world. Despite the rated level, Nigeria is yet to join the race of tourism development due to poor tourism management (Bello, Bello and Raya, 2014).
Okpoko and Okpoko (2002) noted that the availability of tourism product and services enhances tourism activities. The scholars categorized tourism product and services into two components which includes essential and optional. The essential component comprises transportation, accommodation and sustenance; while the optional are recreational facilities, historical and site seeing attractions and shopping. Essential components mean those tourism product and services the tourists cannot do without. For instance, for tourists to move from point A to point B, the tourists must need transport to convey the person to the destination. Accommodation on the other hand means shelter. When tourists are out of their usual home definitely they must need accommodation to shelter themselves because after every activities the next is where to sleep and rest for the day and get ready for the next day activities. Sustenance means feeding. Feeding is another crucial service tourists require in the destination. (Okpoko &Okpoko, 2002).Sustenance gives tourists energy to carry out their activities. Without sustenance tourists will be like vehicle without fuel. The optional components formed the basic attraction in the destination while the essential components are those tourism product and services the tourists use to keep body and soul together while in the destination.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is a fact that tourism and accommodation are two Siamese twins which can never be separated. They are inter- twin and interwoven in nature. Tourism and accommodation complement each other. Tourism activities are incomplete without accommodation. Accommodation entails hotels, motels, inns, caravans, hostels, to mention but a few. It is expected to be home away from home because of its different products and services.
However, it is disheartening to note that globally, today, the industry is bedevilled with numerous threats to its security and safety. This includes but not limited to the religious threat, political threat, ethnic violence, herdsmen attacks, and terrorist attacks. Others include cybercrime, stealing, fraud, fire outbreak, bickering amongst staffs, criminally minded guests, kidnapping, poison from the food and beverages, sexual harassment, indiscriminate clusters of building within the hotel proximity to mention but a few. These, unarguably compromise the safety and security of the industry especially the hotel which is supposed to be primus inter pares.
Safety and security are necessary for providing quality service in the tourism industry. It is the pivot of all the activities in the hospitality sector. Hotels offer its product and services to guests and tourists through its elements which comprises; facilities, services, image, price and location. The safety and security of these elements determine to a great extent the sustainability of the hotel. Security and safety is the prism in which the guests or the tourists view the image of hotel mostly in this era of alarming insecurity in the world.
However, it is instructive to note that safety in the context of this work entails proper workings of interior elements in the hotel which enhances the safety of the staffers and the guests; while security could be threats occasioned by people and natural factor. Some tourism pundits are of the view that improper management of security and safety in the industry can lead to a sharp decline in patronage.
1.3 Research Objectives
The main aim of this study is to assess the effect of insecurity on hotel patronage in South-East Nigeria. Based on the problems identified above, this study tends to;
- To assess the level of insecurity in the selected hotels in South-East Nigeria
- To ascertain the implications of the insecurity on hotel patronage in South-East Nigeria
- To identify strategies for improving safety and security in the selected hotels in South-East Nigeria
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the level of insecurity in the selected hotels in South-East Nigeria?
- What are the implications of the insecurity on hotel patronage in South-East Nigeria?
- What are strategies for improving safety and security in the selected hotels in South-East Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- HO1: There is no significant influence of insecurity on hotel patronage in South-East Nigeria
- HA1: There is a significant influence of insecurity on hotel patronage in South-East Nigeria
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this research cannot be over emphasized. It will assist the hotel entrepreneurs, managers, hotel staffs, guests, to mention but a few in identifying various safety and safety threats militating against hotel operations. Again, the research explores the causes of the identified threats, review the existing security and safety measures in the hotel and implication of these threats to hotel operation. The research suggested an informed ways of overcoming these security and safety threats in the industry.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Safety is defined as services provided by the hoteliers to make sure that the guests and employees are safe in the destination.
Security in hotels refers to the personal safety of guest, tourists and their property in the destination. It includes an ability to become oriented in a strange environment, understand the local system of signs, indications and social conventions, and finally the security of shopping and consumer Services.
Hotel management here means the effective management of hotel activities to enhance economic maximization and to reduce safety and security threats.
1.8 Organization of Study
The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This research investigated the effect of insecurity on hotel patronage in south East Nigeria. The research identified various safety and security threats, and investigated causes of the said threats. The implication of these threat and various ways of improving safety and security standard in the hotels were also exhaustively discussed. However, the identified threats include cybercrime, stealing, fraud, fire outbreak, bickering amongst staffs and guests, kidnapping, poison from the food and beverages, sexual harassment and indiscriminate clusters of building to the hotel environment. The causes of the identified threats are based on the attitudinal behaviour of different people and maladministration in the part of hotel management. However, the research also identified that safety and security threats bring a negative image to the hotels which could lead to the decline or low patronage. Finally, the significant ways of improving the safety and security standard are by engaging professionals in different section of the hotels, and regular maintenance of the electronic and other high-tech equipment in the hotels.
The research shows that hotels provide home away from home, by providing its product and services to guests and tourists in the destination. The research also indicates that hotel industry depends heavily on guests and tourists for economic sustainability while guests and tourists depend on hotels for recreation and relaxation after their tourism activities in the destination. The most important factor guests and tourist consider before selecting or choosing a hotel is safety and security. Hotels whose security and safety are compromised will correspondingly go into extinction.
However, hotel operators should make security a top priority. They should engage the services of registered security consultants which depending on their terms of engagement pay compensation in case of security breaches.Again, there should be control in all the access points in the hotel premises. Based on this, allocation of security beats at the entrance and exit of the hotel will guarantee security in the hotel.
Furthermore, there should be an updated emergency response plan. Security threats like fire, crime or violence can happen unannounced. At this level, failing to have and implement a clear emergency plan/ procedure can put everyone (guests and staffs) at risk.
Also, having a regular update of access keys and locks in the absence of electronic cards is very paramount in ensuring security and safety in the hotel. Making use of access keys and locks without regular updates gives rooms for theft, burglary and criminal incursion.
More so, scheduling a regular public area patrol can enhance safety and security in a hotel establishment. Hotels are always busy and crowded with people on a daily basis. This is why scheduling a regular area patrol of the lobby, parking lots, restaurants, poolside; among others should be an everyday measure to keep the hotel safe and secure.
Hotel management should provide staffs with regular security awareness. However, planting staffs as informants disguising as customers especially in the bars, parking lots, poolside or within the hotel environment will mitigate risk and potential dangers in the hotel.
The use of high-tech security devices is indispensable in the present-day security. There should be an alarm system (internal) and contact alarm (external), closed circuit T.V (CCTV) and C.V.R with the corresponding internet (WIFI) which transmits the footage of all hotel activities. A department of trained I.T staffs should be there to analyse and synthesise all the data emanating from the video footage.
Uninterrupted power supply is sinequanon for adequate security and safety in the hospitality industry. It is certain that security and safety cannot thrive in darkness. It is suggested that alternative power sources like inverters, solar panels, batteries, etc should be procured at all cost to help personnel and machine in safeguarding hotel and guest properties.
Again there should be period training of kitchen, and food and beverages departments by designated government institutions like NAFDAC, NTDC, NIHOTOUR etc on food administration and hygiene. This will make the staff to be in tune with international best practices.
A huge percentage of the hotels budget should be channeled to maintenance of hotels structure and its appurtenance. This will reduce or by extension eradicate in-house accidents.
Effective safety should not be limited to only one source. The hotel management should work in collaboration with government, network companies and other stakeholders in the industry. The government can help in terms of swift response in case of distress calls. On the other hand; the network company can help in terms of detecting and forestalling cybercrimes.
Hotels in addition should have strategic and short term security and safety plan aimed at arresting security and safety threats within their domain. This will go a long way in averting breaches occurs.
- There should be period training of kitchen, and food and beverages departments by designated government institutions like NAFDAC, NTDC, NIHOTOUR etc on food administration and hygiene. This will make the staff to be in tune with international best practices.
- A huge percentage of the hotels budget should be channeled to maintenance of hotels structure and its appurtenance. This will reduce or by extension eradicate in-house accidents.
- Effective safety should not be limited to only one source. The hotel management should work in collaboration with government, network companies and other stakeholders in the industry. The government can help in terms of swift response in case of distress calls. On the other hand; the network company can help in terms of detecting and forestalling cybercrimes.
- Hotels in addition should have strategic and short term security and safety plan aimed at arresting security and safety threats within their domain. This will go a long way in averting breaches occurs.
The Effect Of Insecurity On Hotel Patronage In South East Nigeria
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