Production Of Assorted Snacks From Composite Flour With Special References To Sweet Potato

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Production Of Assorted Snacks From Composite Flour With Special References To Sweet Potato


Abstract


This research was carried out to know the usefulness of our local root and tuber crops as composite flour in bakery industry.

Also, to put the readers mind off on the use of imported wheat flour and allow varied menu in Nigeria diet. It is also to minimize government expenditure and eradicate difficulties in importing wheat flour.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background information
  • 1.3 Statement of problem
  • 1.4 Assumption
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Objectives of the study
  • 1.7 Importance of the study
  • 1.8 Scope and Limitations

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Review of relevant literature

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Methodology (Research procedure)
  • 3.2 The choice of sampling procedure
  • 3.3 Method of data collection

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Data computation
  • 4.2 Analysis

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • 5.5 References

Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

Definition

Flour can be defined as white powder-like substance made from tuber crops e.g. sweet potatoes, cassava, yam and cocoyam. Among tuber crops, potato is by far the most efficient tuber crops in Nigeria in terms of tuber yield and days to mature. It matures in about 80-90 days as compared to 9-12 months respectively.

Okonkwo, et al, 1984 states that tubers yield 15-30 tones under Nigeria condition. Because of the short maturity period, two or more consequences planting of potato is possible in a year making. It is the highest yielding tuber crop in the country. The total production in 2007 was estimated at 800, 000 tones and at the present price of N12, 000 per tone; this is equivalent to foreign exchange saving about N3.5 billion in the country. However, because of increase in population growth and economic depression of the country, the government now comes up with SAP (structural Adjustment Programme) staling that Nigeria will henceforth maximize the utilization of foreign resources and raw materials so that importation of foreign food and items will be reduced to the nearest minimize.
Because of this, the importation of wheat and been reduced, which could not meet the demand of people. So in order to solve this problem, we now look at possibility of doing much research on the use of locally available tuber crops, such as sweet potato on the production of bakery products, they may serve the same purpose as wheat flour. This project is therefore aimed at throwing light into composite flour as close substitute of wheat flour.

These flour mixtures are referred to as composite flour whether or not they contain wheat flour

These are usually two major types of composite flour.

  1. Mixture of wheat flour with local crop flour: the purpose is to substitute wheat flour with local crop flour to increase the nutritive value of the wheat flour.
  2. Pure mixture of potato flour: This is to known how good potato is in baking and in snacks.

1.2 Background Information

About 85% of the potato grown in Nigeria comes from Jos Plateau. The dry season production constitutes about 30% of the total production and the dry season crop is grown by those who have facilities for irrigation (Ene et al 2007). Potato is grown in both rainy and dry season. In Jos Plateau (14000m), Manbilla (18000m) and Bill (800m) Plateau.
Most Northern states such as Kano, Kaduna, Borno, Kwara, Yobe, Sokoto, Taraba Adamawa and Bauchi also grows potato during the harmattan months (November to February) when temperature is sufficiently low for potato production.

Introducing local tuber such as potatoes as substitute of wheat flour is the main objectives of this research work


1.3 Statement of Problem

Much research has not been made on the use of local materials to produce flour in Nigeria; rather, the craze is for what flour that is imported, which is costly and not always available all the time.

The problem of wheat flour scarcity has rendered the catering profession handicapped. Dependant on it could not open eye of people in making research and develop our own local materials for production of flour to make snacks and other pastry goods.

Therefore, this research work is to find a way of eradicating the problem.


1.4 Assumption (Causes)

  1. Scarcity and high cost of wheat leads to research on local materials for production of substitutes.
  2. Attempt to making rich snacks has led to making composite flour from sweet potato.
  3. Locally produced flour compares favourably, if well handled to the foreign wheat flour.
  4. It is assumed that snacks made from those local materials are not that attractive to the eye.

1.5 Hypothesis

  1. Composite flour suitable for snack making can be made from local materials.
  2. Tubers are in abundance for making composites flour in Nigeria.
  3. Snack made from composite flour derived from Nigeria tuber crops are comparable to that imported flour.
  4. It is assumed that snacks made from those local materials are not that attractive to the eyes.

1.6 Purpose of the Study

  1. To concentrate on the use of our locally produced flour in making snacks.
  2. To create more varied diets to Nigeria menu
  3. To minimize cost in production, this will lead to cheap availability of menu for the family.
  4. To put forward the best method of processing the local crops.

1.7 Importance of the Study

  1. To put the readers mind off on the use of imported wheat flour and to allow varied menu in Nigeria diet.
  2. To minimize government expenditure and eradicate difficulties in importing wheat flour.

1.8 Scope and Limitation

This research work will only cover the use of tubers crops to produce composite, with referenced to sweets potato.
There are a number of reasons that made the researchers to limit there comprehensive research to the above local materials. These reasons are TIME, SPACE AND FINANCES. These three factors limit our carryout a comprehensive study on this project.


Chapter Five


5.1 Summary

This research work which is mainly on utilization of sweet potato as composite flour is good substitute of wheat flour.

It was discovered in this project that without wheat flour it is possible to bake and get almost same result with the use of composite flour, such as sweet potato, cocoyam, potato etc. this can be used in baking cake and pastries.

As a result of composite materials used the preservation of each product will depends on the composite flour used in case of sweet potatoes lemon back or sodium benzoate can be used to preserve.


5.2 Conclusion

In this project it was observed that to get best result from composite flour more care is needed in mixing, also correct proportion must be used e.g. the ratio must be 2:1 or 3:1 that is wheat flour 50% or 75% while composite is 25% this will give best result.

It was also observed that some of the snack made from composite flour need to be taken hot. This will give best taste and flavour e.g. sweet potatoes doughnut and bread taste well when it is still hot or warm. For commercial purpose it must be kept warm.


5.3 Recommendation

This piece of work intends to contribute to the adaptation of using local crops as composite flour in the bakery industries.

However, some aspect still needs further research and attention.

  1. There should be more development in agriculture, it is clear that we have underdeveloped agricultural programe, this result in unsteady availability of food crops.
  2. The federal government should be ready to give out loan to the farmers and also give tractor for easy cultivation.
  3. Flourmills can also play a part in ensuring the successful implementation of composite investment in equipment to take care of some processes involved in processing local crops.
  4. There is also the possibility of introducing improvement to the existing baking methods practiced by Nigeria bakers. This can be achieved through work shops, seminars and periodic course been organized.
  5. It might stimulate secondary local flour with the additional advantages of more job opportunities.

Production Of Assorted Snacks From Composite Flour With Special References To Sweet Potato


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Production Of Assorted Snacks From Composite Flour With Special References To Sweet Potato


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