A Comparative Study On The Need For Effective Policies As A Panacea For Sustainable Hospitality And Tourism Industry
Managing sustainable tourism is recognized as an important aspect of tourism planning, is now receiving even greater attention. In managing sustainable tourism therefore, the adoption of planning and management techniques and process in developing sustainable goals and objectives is very paramount. This was what motivated the researcher to investigate a comparative study on the need for effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry. The followings are the objectives of the study: to survey the prevalence of effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry in the country, to inquire the impact of effective policies on the development of the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria and to analyze efforts taken by the government to ensure effective policies for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry in the country.
1.1 Background to the Study
Tourism and hospitality industry is increasingly gaining dominance in the socioeconomic development literature as a recognized tool for achieving sustainable development especially in developing countries. Its potential to contribute to sustainable development was emphasized during the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development by launching the ‘Sustainable Tourism –Eliminating Poverty (ST–EP)’. Economic and social development has been the driving force contributing to the growth of tourism, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. The United Nations Development Programme identifies tourism as a powerful engine for accelerating socio-economic development and safeguarding biodiversity and cultural heritage in developing countries. Moreover, Gossling et al. observe that the use of tourism as a means of achieving sustainable development has been the major focus of several development agencies, including Department for International Development, World Tourism Organization (WTO), the United Nations World Tourism Organization, World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. The need for policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry cannot be over emphasized.
Tourism policy/planning therefore is a process aimed to optimize the benefits of tourism so that the result is a balance of the appropriate quality and quantity of supply with the proper level of demand without compromising neither the trade’s socio economic and environmental development nor its sustainability (Geddner and Ritchie, 2006). Planning is important in tourism for a wide range of reasons. First, through the capacity of physical planning process to control development, it provides a mechanism for a structured provision of tourist facilities and associated infrastructure. The geographic dimension has become a more significant aspect of tourism as most forms of tourism planning were realized and site specific. Edgell (2006) reflecting thereafter limited horizons that originally characterized most pattern of tourism (Hall, 2000), but as the spatial range of tourists has become more extensive, the mobility levels have increased, planning systems that are capable of coordinating development over regional, national and even international spaces have become more necessary.
In terms of socio-economic development, tourism is considered to be one of the most significant phenomena over the years. Consequently, tourism recorded an unprecedented growth globally over the past half century and it is considered one of the world’s largest industries. Multi-national organizations, donor agencies and non-governmental organisations have long identified tourism as a sector which could effectively promote economic and human development by contributing to sustainable development. However, the literatures on tourism suggest that tourism activities can be damaging not only to the natural environment but social and cultural characteristics of a community. For instance, Stronza and Gordillo argue that tourism is infamous for its potential to cause damage to natural habitats and local communities. Moreover, the tourism industry has a general tendency to cause negative environmental and socio-cultural impacts such as water and air pollution, loss of cultural values and infiltration of foreign culture. The study explores a comparative study on the need for effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is increasing consensus that all tourism stakeholders play a role towards achieving sustainability. This includes tourism accommodation facilities which may contribute by responding positively to sustainability issues. This study explores a comparative study on the need for effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry. The complexity of tourism accommodation facilities development requires examination of these sustainability issues from a variety of perspectives. In addition, the principle of sustainable resort and hotel development appear to have been established by developed countries without considering the conditions in the developing countries. Most of the research and guidelines fail to provide a conceptual instrument for plan and strategy formulation to achieve sustainable resort and hotel development in those countries.
1.3 Research Questions
These are some of the questions the study is designed to answer:
- What is the prevalence of effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry in the country?
- What is the impact of effective policies on the development of the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria?
- What are the efforts taken by the government to ensure effective policies for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry in the country?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to examine a comparative study on the need for effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry and the specific objective are:
- To survey the prevalence of effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry in the country
- To inquire the impact of effective policies on the development of the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria
- To analyze efforts taken by the government to ensure effective policies for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry in the country
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is based on the fact that if findings of the researcher are well implemented, it will facilitate and improve the development of tourism. It is hoped that this study would answer some questions of what impacts religion have on hospitality and tourism industry. The study will also arouse researchers investigate ways of improving religion Tourism.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is limited only to Nigeria so that more in depth information could be obtained to propose proper recommendations to the Government for improvement and development of tourism and hospitality industry in the country.
1.7 Limitation of the study
The research work faced a lot of challenges but two of the challenges were memorable. One of it is the time constraint which limited the areas covered by the researcher. Another one was that the researcher encountered a lot of difficulties in gathering information from many hospitality and tourist centres in the country.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
The following terms were used in the course of this study:
The friendly and generous reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.
An answer or solution for all problems or difficulties
A course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual.
Pertaining to a system that maintains its own viability by using techniques that allow for continual reuse
Is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations for further studies.
5.2 Summary of Findings
This study was carried out to investigate a comparative study on the need for effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry using Ado-Ekiti State as a case study. To achieve this objective, three research questions were formulated to guide this study. A structured questionnaire was used as the main instrument to gather data from 91 from the respondents in Ado-Ekiti State. Out of this number, 81(88%) copies of questionnaire were appropriately completed and returned for data analysis.
The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using simple percentage and tables to analyze the research questions. The findings revealed that:
- The effectiveness of policies as a panacea for sustainable development aids hospitality and tourism industry.
- The perception of government towards the development of tourism and hospitality industry in Nigeria.
- There are challenges of effective policies for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria.
It is important to know that sustainable tourism development concerns the perspective and expectations that all stakeholders, particularly government policy-makers, have about tourism’s contribution at the local, regional and national levels. Many developing countries view tourism as a vehicle for economic development, given its potential to earn foreign exchange, create employment, reduce income and employment disparities, strengthen linkages among economic sectors and help to alleviate poverty. The challenge facing policy-makers is to have a broader perspective and better understanding that there can be both positive and negative effects from tourism development. Moreover, a broader perspective challenges all stakeholders involved with tourism from the community level to the national level to find the means to work together in more proactive ways that will increase the positive effects and minimize the possible negative effects of tourism development. Sustainable tourism development provides the opportunity to take proactive approaches based on broad participation by stakeholders, which would contribute to more effective policies and plans. This would increase the opportunities to realize the full social and economic potential of the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism development creates the opportunity for governments and all stakeholders in the tourism sector to aim at ensuring long-term prosperity and quality of life for future generations. Sustainable tourism development also creates opportunities to preserve natural and cultural heritages for tourists and local people in ways that address development problems and reduce risks to the environment and ways of life.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were put forward.
- Nigerian government should allocate development funds to projects that are unique to enhance tourism development, which will give the country a competitive advantage. The government should also encourage the development of three star hotels and should give the private sectors willing to engage in such project and other tourism development projects incentive such as tax break, pioneer status, land at concessionary rates and exiting disincentive such as hotel multi-registration regime should be removed.
- The government of Ado-Ekiti is advised to involve the private sector to partner with them in developing and managing the site to meet international standard.
- Finally, this is intended to increase more tourists’ visits and economic benefits associated with tourism and tourism initiatives need to be managed carefully if they are to yield the desired benefits without undermining the local economy and the environment, social traditions and cultural resources.
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