The Prospects Of Theatre Festivals In Nigeria As Tourist Attraction

Project and Seminar Material for Tourism and Hospitality

The Prospects Of Theatre Festivals In Nigeria As Tourist Attraction


Abstract


Lagos State in Nigeria is endowed with a rich culture, however its contribution to event tourism is not known. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of the theatre festival on event tourism development in Lagos State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were: to profile theatre festival products and their effects to event tourism development, to establish the strategies adopted to create awareness on theatre festivals to develop event tourism and to evaluate the influence of theatre festivals on event tourism development in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive research survey design to collect primary data using a mixed quantitative and qualitative method. The study targeted a population of 517 who comprised of 500 members of three theatre festival associations and 17 government officials. Slovin’s formula was used to proportionately select a sample size of 347subjects from a target of 500theatre association members. Simple random sampling method using lottery method was used to select the members of the theatre associations’ respondents. In addition, purposive sampling method was used to identify government official as expert respondents. The study used structured questionnaires to collect primary data from the theatre associations’ respondents, while the interview schedule was used to solicit information from government officials. Data collected from members of the theatre associations were cleaned, coded and entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences for descriptive statistical analysis. In addition, multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between independent and dependent variables. The findings of descriptive quantitative analysis were presented in tables and charts. Qualitative primary data solicited from government officials were thematically analysed and presented as key voices and verbatim reporting. The study, in conclusion, found that there is a variety of theatre festivals held in Lagos State. However, the theatre festivals, awareness strategies and their influence to tourism contributed to 21.0% to the development of event tourism in Lagos State. Though the three variables explored contributed little to event tourism development types of theatre festivals contributed the most (Beta=0.222) while awareness strategies of theatre festivals (Beta=0.033) contributed the least. The study recommends that the Nigeria Federal and State government together with stakeholder need to come up with policies and programmes to identify and promote theatre festivals as an event tourism product. The study also recommends for international marketing of the rich these theatre festivals reach the global customers. The findings will benefit the Nigeria Federal and State government together with stakeholders with vital information on the state of theatre festivals in Lagos State. This vital information will help Nigeria Federal and State government to develop policies and programmes for developing event tourism. The private sector, NonGovernmental Organisation and other stakeholders may use this document to identify opportunities for investment in cultural event tourism. Finally the study will benefit the world of academia since it will add to the literature on culture and event tourism.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Tourism is one of the major sources of income in the world, today, and an important export industry. International tourist arrivals reached a record of 982 million, an increase of 4.6% in 2010, while receipts grew by 3.8% to US$1.030 billion (UNWTO, 2016). According to World Travel and Tourism Council Travel & Tourism Economy employment is estimated at 1,375,000 jobs in 2009, 6.4% of total employment, or 1 in every 15.6 jobs. By 2019, this should total 1,811,000 jobs, 7.3% of total employment or 1 in every 13.8 jobs. The 443,000 T & T direct industry jobs accounted for 2.1% of total employment in 2007 and are forecast to total 581,000 jobs or 2.3% of the total by 2019 (WTTC, 2016).

WTTC (2016) estimates revenue related tourism and travel in Nigeria will exceed $10 billion 2015 and will account for approximately 6% of the GDP. In a related development, United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2012) observed that contribution of the Tourism sector to Nigeria government earning revenue from VAT levies recorded at N1149 billion in 2014 is considered to grossly understate the actual level of revenue received. One then wonders what is hampering the full event tourism development. Of the estimated 1.6 billion tourists arrivals projected for 2020 which will generate billions of foreign exchange, how many are Nigerians expecting?
Event tourism development is the systematic planning, marketing, and hosting of events elementarily as tourist attractions. Event tourism development research is up to date and inadequately developed in Lagos State, Nigeria.

The development is essentially driven by objectives related to economic benefits. Indeed, there has been significant research into events in general. The focus on contribution of theatre festivals only has been so significant that the related personal, cultural, and social development have not gotten significant interest especially in Lagos State nigeria. Getz (2012) asserts that theatre festivals, event tourism and its development should make out the requisite inputs in terms of event tourism development. The inputs include what goes into actualizing contribution of theatre festivals on event tourism development, the related bidding costs, development of facilities, marketing, and cultural events transformation processes. As well, when considering contributions of theatre festivals and event tourism development management, one should consider the outcomes of the theatre festival events whether they are the desired ones or otherwise. In the extant literature, theatre festival events on tourism development are measured as a subjective element, largely through interviews.

Theatre festivals are important niche tourism product. Many destinations globally rely on natural and physical products such wildlife, beach, mountains, lakes, and parks. Culture provides opportunities for contribution of theatre festivals on event tourism product development. In Nigeria, this has been identified with some policy and planning documents that are involved in the formulation and implementing these policies. According to 2013 tourism policy, the Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation (NTDC) and the Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism are charged with the responsibility of promoting, marketing, planning and management of various festivals and tourism destinations in Nigeria.

Thus, this is yet to be achieved because of lack of development and international recognition. The establishment of NTDC was to provide a way of boosting the economic, political, environmental, and social activities and also promote tourism potentials that are untapped.

Some organization such Hospitality and Tourism management of Nigeria (HATMAN) and National Association Hotel and tourism are responsible for the training of personnel for the tourism industry and management of tourism destination.

Contribution of theatre festivals have significance importance on the development conferences, seminars, exhibition and workshop on theatre festivals as well as a weapon for attracting tourist thereby, building tourist image within the different communities (Quinn, 2013). They are entertaining since they are usually.They help in passing religious content across. They help teach people particular social values. Theatre festivals also bring important benefits for the local community because they help to create a sense of belonging and recognition of the environment (Susic & Dordevic, 2013). Furthermore, the festivals are image makers and the raison d’être of city festivals that attract visitors and serve to raise the profiles of cities or regions (Quinn, 2013). They help create lasting cultural images and awareness.

Cultural tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region’s culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of such people and their art; architecture; religion(s); and other elements that helped shape their way of life. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals) and their values and lifestyle, as well as niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do (Richards, 2016).

Theatre festivals are associated with key calendar moments and linked specifically to particular seasons and heritage sites which should provide an avenue of festivals and event tourism development. Over the last decade, these have been changed and developed upon. There is now a broad and diverse range of festivals events taking place all over the world (Getz, 2012). Festivals provide tourists the opportunity to see how the local communities celebrate their culture and how this affects the community development, it also helps the visitors to interact with the host community and help people to enjoy and meet their leisure needs (Getz, 2012).

Theatre festivals tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region’s culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of such people and their art; architecture; religion(s); and other elements that helped shape their way of life. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals) and their values and lifestyle, as well as niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do and these were found not contributing to the development of event tourism in Nigeria (Richards, 2016).

However, festivals are considered to contribute significantly to the cultural and economic development wealth of a Nation. Festivals have a major impact on the development of cultural tourism to the host communities. The festival organizers are now using the historical and cultural themes to develop the annual events to attract visitors and creating a cultural image in the host cities by holding festivals in the community settings.

Ugwu (2014) opines that the ultimate meaning and crucial significance of festivals in the life of traditional Africans lies with the indigenous world-view, which is holistic, sacred and religious in character. Okpoko (2014) inferred that contributions of festivals should hold a great promise for contribution of theatre festivals events on tourism development”. Festivals attract as many tourists as fixed cultural attractions. Emphasizing more on the role of festivals in tourism development, Okpoko (2014) argued that African countries like Nigeria have theatre festivals that are rich in mythology, which can be harnessed to generate revenue.

Tourism gives economic benefits to a region (i.e.) small and medium-sized enterprises’ development, the creation of new jobs, provision of infrastructures etc. and this will, therefore, contribute to theatre festivals and event tourism development. Culturally, tourism can enhance the enrichment of the community; this is attributed to the meeting of different cultures (Adora, (2013) and Obafemi (2013). Also, tourism can positively contribute to the maintenance of natural environment by protecting, maintaining national parks and other protected areas (Okonkwo & Odum, 2014). Festivals are seen to contribute importantly to the cultural and economic development, which can have a major influence on the development of event tourism, especially to the host communities. Festival organizers use the event tourism to express the relationship between identity and place and play an important role of civic consciousness. Festivals are an important expression of human activity and contribute to the social and cultural life of their host communities (Raj &Vignali, 2013).

The festival events are seen as a significant weapon for attracting tourist and building the tourist s image within the different communities (Susic & Darvic, 2012). Furthermore, festivals are said to function as an image maker and the raison d”etre of city festivals that attract visitors and it serve to raise the profile of the city or region. It is in the same vain that Mayfild and Crompton (2013), Quinn (2013) see festivals and events as the fastest growing tourist attraction in the whole world today.

In addition, Ekanayake and Lonng (2012) observed event as a special type of tourism, which involves arranging and holding events to meet multiple tourist needs and helps extend the range of tourist products and boost event tourism development in the destination country. A destination might have potential elements for tourism growth and development in which the only thing needed is a guidance and proper execution in an organized manner, (Godfrey & Clarke 2013). Okpoko and Okpoko, (2014) have inferred that festivals hold great promise for tourism development. Of particular note in Nigeria and Lagos State, the Regatta festival is deep in culture and rich in tradition. However, Chio and Sikara (2012) opined that in Nigeria if tourism event was inappropriately planned it could destroy the very resources that are the foundation to the event development of the given area. According to Ngoka (2014) in Nigeria, there are challenges of marketing the state as a leisure destination as well as event venues. Other challenges include lack of properly packaged and branded destination, and lack of coordinated and consistent approach to positioning and promotion of Nigeria as a destination. While Lagos State, being a miniature Nigeria all the above and applicable to it.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A number of studies have been done on event tourism and theatre festivals in Nigeria. Obioma (2013) studied theatre festivals of local communities in Nigeria and found out that local communities hosting these festivals are ignorant of the importance of theatre festivals as a tourism event. Olekesusi (2012) studied demand and supply factors in the Nigerian tourism industry and found out that there are inadequate tourism attraction measures that can bring investors on board and there aren’t enough infrastructures to support event tourism. Viviers (2014) found out that theatre festivals can affect significantly the lives of host communities if the residents are enthusiastic about festivals happening in their localities. Theatre festivals and events are becoming alternative tourist attractions globally due to change of tourist tastes. Small, Edwards & Sheridan, (2005) observed that most of the available studies have focussed on measuring economic impact of theatre festivals and event tourism. UNEP (2013) noted that theatre festivals can be a source of tourist attraction to culture tourists and this can promote exchange of culture between tourists and local communities. A study by Delamere (2013) on event festivals, found out that event festivals have a significant contribution by creating a positive cultural effect in the community. Several studies have pointed to inconsistent and limited findings on influences of cultural and event tourism and their effect on job creation and social economic development, as well as local communities lacking awareness on the importance of event or cultural tourism (Ayeni and Ebohon (2013), Yasarata (2010) and Igbojekwe et al, 2014).

Most of the studies focus on economic contribution of theatre festivals to host communities, factors that affect theatre festivals as tourism attraction and in general, factors influencing event tourism development. There is limited literature on contribution of theatre festivals to event tourism and therefore this study sought to fill this gap in literature by establishing the contribution of theatre festivals to event tourism in Lagos State, Nigeria.


1.3 Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of theatre festivals to event tourism development in Lagos State, Nigeria.


1.4 Objectives of the Study

1.4.1 General Objective

To investigate the contribution of theatre festivals on event tourism development in Lagos State, Nigeria

1.4.2 Specific Objectives

This study was guided by the following specific objectives:

  1. To profile theatre festival products and their importance on event tourism development in Lagos State.
  2. To establish the strategies adopted to create awareness on theatre festivals to develop event tourism in Lagos State
  3. To examine the benefits of theatre festivals on event tourism development in Lagos State

1.5 Research Questions

  1. What are the types of theatre festival products available in Lagos State and how important is it to event tourism development?
  2. What strategies have been adopted in Lagos State to create awareness on the theatre festivals to develop event tourism?
  3. How do theatre festivals benefits event tourism development in Lagos State?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The government and the affiliated state agencies are major stakeholders involved in tourism development. The study findings highlighted the factors that can contribute to event tourism development of the host communities, state and Nigeria in general. The government has the responsibility of formulating policies, planning and execution, marketing and promotion of tourism related activities at the national level. And as such, the study findings would be of great importance to the government and affiliated state agencies to formulate policies to exploit the contribution of theatre festivals to develop event tourism in Lagos State, Nigeria.

The study will also benefit the private sectors who are also major stakeholders of tourism development. The study findings will benefit them since it will inform them on the opportunities available in theatre festival events and engage tourism business. The local community is an important stakeholder in tourism development since they own tourism attraction resources. The findings of this study will go along in offering first-hand information on the status of theatre festivals in Lagos State that will help the community to develop theatre festivals.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study was restricted to the contribution of theatre festivals to the development of event tourism in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study only focused on profiling the theatre festival products and their benefits on event tourism development, strategies adopted to create awareness on theatre festivals and the benefits of theatre festivals to develop event tourism. Research data was collected from three major theatre festival associations involved in theatre festival events in Lagos State in November and December 2016. The study targeted 347 respondents who comprised of members of three theatre associations. The study also involved 10 Nigeria Federal Ministry of Culture and Tourism and seven (7)Lagos State government tourism officials. These however, constitute a total of 364 respondents involved in the study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The study also experienced challenges of collecting data from the respondents due to limited time frame of this study. This resulted on extension of data collection beyond the scheduled time because of the unforeseen circumstances such as geographical spread and large number of respondents. This limitation was alleviated by incorporating more research assistance. The local communities were not cooperative enough because they believe that the researcher was going to make money out the work. This constraint was solved by ensuring them the study was purely an academic exercise meant to develop new knowledge in the field of event tourism.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the summary of the study findings, conclusions, recommendations and areas for further research are presented. The study sought to investigate the contribution of theatre festivals on event tourism development in Lagos State in Nigeria. Summary of discussion is presented according to the study’s objectives. The study was guided by the following specific objectives; to profile types of theatre festival products and their importance to event tourism development; to establish the strategies used to create awareness of theatre festivals to developing event tourism and to determine the benefits of theatre festivals on event tourism development.


5.2 Summary of the Study findings

The summary of the study findings are presented in sections below according to objectives.

5.2.1. Profile of Theatre festival Products and their Effects to Event Tourism Development

The first objective sought to profile types of theatre festivals and their importance to event tourism development in Lagos State of Nigeria. The results revealed that a wide range of theatre festivals are available and held in Lagos State. The theatre festivals are; Horse riding (1.4%), Muslim religious festival (49.7%), Christian religious festival (56.1%), Regatta festival, Masquerade dancing, traditional mass wedding, carnival street dance, yam festival, wrestling and traditional religious festival’s among others. Some of the festivals like Islam and Christian festivals cut across three communities explored. However, some festivals were unique to certain communities. It emerged from the study that majority (44.6%) of the attendees were local and invited guests all coming from different parts of Nigeria. The numbers of local and international tourists were small which less than 21% was low as compared to other attendees.

All the theatre festivals products explored were found to have low contribution (regression Adjusted R=0.210) to event tourism development. Largely, the study established that theatre festivals products contribute little to the development of event tourism. These results calls for stakeholders in tourism development in Lagos State to double their efforts towards exploiting the rich theatre festivals. This will ensure theatre festivals play a greater contribution to event tourism development. Overall, the study established that the theatre festivals are poorly developed as a tourism product. The regression model indicated that overall the independent variables had a variance of 21.0% on the dependent variable. This was confirmation that cultural tourism festivals are not developed enough to drive event tourism development in Lagos State.

5.2.2 Strategies used to Create Awareness on Theatre festivals to Develop Event
Tourism

The second objective sought to establish the strategies used to create awareness of theatre festivals so as to develop event tourism in Lagos State of Nigeria. The study found that Federal and local government together with local communities were the main stakeholders of theatre festivals accounting for a 76.6% share. They are involved in funding and organising of cultural events. The State government is not directly involved in hosting theatre festivals. Also, the stakeholders wer involved in marketing, promotions, advocacy and provision of incentives among others. Promotion of conferences, meetings and exhibition tourism was the major role played by stakeholders to develop event tourism.

A wide range of strategies were used to create awareness of theatre festivals as a tourism product for developing event tourism. These strategies included; marketing of cultural products by advertising locally (62.9%), provision of incentives (15.0%) for tourism development, focus on product development and diversification. Other strategies focused on branding, development of event facilities and promotion of emerging tourism like conferences, meetings and exhibitions. These strategies are relevant in creating awareness of theatre festivals as a tourism product. However, it emerged from the studies that all the strategies adopted have not largely contributed to event tourism development. Overall, the study established that the strategies adopted to create awareness on theatre festivals were not adequate to spur development of event tourism. This was confirmation that cultural tourism festivals are not developed enough to drive event tourism development in Lagos State, Nigeria.

5.2.3 Benefit of Theatre festivals to Event Tourism Development

The third objective sought to examine the benefits of theatre festivals on event tourism development in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study established that theatre festivals have positive and negative benefits on the community and the state at large. The positive benefits included; development of small businesses and employment creation. Employment creation was driven by selling foodstuffs, sales of handcrafts, revenue from transporting guests: using tax, motorbikes and buses; and revenue from accommodations available. Another important positive impact of theatre festivals is the use of the occasion to foster community integration. The theatre festivals are used to solve inter-tribal conflicts as it brings them together occasionally thus providing a momentous platform for sharing communities concerns.

Aside the positive impact the study established that the theatre festivals had a dark side especially that occasioned by social vices like robbery, prostitution, unwanted pregnancies and hiking of prices among others. On the benefit of theatre festivals on tourism attraction, the theatre festival events were found not to have a favourable benefit nor contrbution. On the same note, theatre festivals explored did not lead to the development of infrastructure in the destinations. This revelation is an indicator the theatre festivals are not given a lot of emphasis to act as veritable for product spurring development like roads, water, and electricity among others.


5.3 Conclusion

5.3.1 Conclusion for objective one
  1. There is a rich culture among the communities in Lagos State demonstrated by wide range of theatre festivals identified.
  2. The lack of strategies of linking theatre festivals to event tourism have led to majority of attendees of theatre festivals being local people from the same community and invited guests like government officials or traditional rulers. This does not augur well with the quest of using cultural tourism products to develop event tourism.
  3. The federal and local governments in consonance with the host community are the main stakeholders involved in theatre festival development. However, their involvements have not to a large extent helped to exploit theatre festivals to develop event tourism.
  4. It can be concluded that theatre festivals in Lagos State have been seen as local events and hencelack international exposure, which is, also importance in developing event tourism.
  5. Overall the study concludes that various theatre festivals in Lagos State, Nigeria have low contribution to the development of event tourism.
5.3.2 Conclusion for objective two
  1. The stakeholders identifies played several roles in creating awareness on theatre festivals in developing event tourism.
  2. The marketing strategies used to create awareness on theatre festivals were, predominantly, local based
  3. Overall, the study concludes that various strategies adopted to create awareness on theatre festivals in Lagos State, Nigeria have low contribution to the development of event tourism.
5.3.3 Conclusion for objective three
  1. Theatre festivals indirectly created employment opportunities in the host communities
  2. Theatre festivals have created harmony among the communities since they are used to solve inter-tribal conflicts
  3. Theatre festivals, to a low extent, did not spur infrastructure development that could support event tourism in the destination.
  4. Theatre festivals had negative anti-social impacts which give the events a bad picture
  5. Overall, the study concluded that the contribution of theatre festivals have not helped to develop event tourism in Lagos State in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings, the study made the following recommendations:

  1. The study revealed that there was wide variety of theatre festivals but these are not contributing to event tourism. The study, therefore, recommends the formulation of policies by the Federal and State government for guiding, and identification of three major ones and develops them as the main tourism product instead of concentrating to them.
  2. The study found that marketing of theatre festivals were predominantly done locally as a strategy of creating awareness. The study, therefore, recommends that the Nigerian Tourism Corporation and Lagos State Tourism Board market these rich theatre festivals internationally to reach the global customers.
  3. It emerged from the study that promotion of emerging tourism like conferences, meetings and exhibition as a strategy of creating awareness of theatre festivals as a tourism product was not adequate. The study therefore recommends the Nigerian Tourism Corporation and Lagos State Tourism Board and stakeholders to partner with countries in Africa like Kenya and South Africa to learn and benchmark on the use of these strategies.
  4. It came out of the study that there is no great emphasis of linking theatre festivals with event tourism since the events are held to satisfy community beliefs. This study therefore recommends a policy to be formulated by Nigerian Tourism Corporation, Lagos State Tourism Board to guide on the strategies of linking cultural events with event tourism
  5. The study established that there were no major direct monetary benefits of theatre festivals to the community since there is no mechanism of collecting revenue. The study recommends construction of arenas and other facilities by the Lagos State Government, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders that will ensure gate collection from attendees and promoters.
  6. The study found out that the theatre festivals have low contribution to the development of event tourism. The study therefore recommends that the Lagos State Government and stakeholders should partner to promote theatre festivals in Lagos State as event tourism products by branding them to attract domestic and international tourists.

5.5 Recommendation for Further Research

The study recommends the following for further studies

  1. Investigate the capacity of the stakeholders to develop theatre festivals as tourism product
  2. Investigate the factors that led to low contribution of adopted strategies to create awareness on theatre festivals to spur development of event tourism
  3. Carry out a study to determine the attitudes of the host community on the monetary benefits of individual member of the theatre association.
  4. Explore the factors that hinder the use of theatre festivals to develop infrastructure in the destination.

The Prospects Of Theatre Festivals In Nigeria As Tourist Attraction


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • The Prospects Of Theatre Festivals In Nigeria As Tourist Attraction

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


The Prospects Of Theatre Festivals In Nigeria As Tourist Attraction


Disclaimer

This research material “The Prospects Of Theatre Festivals In Nigeria As Tourist Attraction” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “The Prospects Of Theatre Festivals In Nigeria As Tourist Attraction” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


How to defend your research work


This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “The Prospects Of Theatre Festivals In Nigeria As Tourist Attraction“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “The Prospects Of Theatre Festivals In Nigeria As Tourist Attraction” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.