Promoting Hospitality Industry Through Fostering Knowledge, Education And Capacity Building

Project and Seminar Material for Tourism and Hospitality

Promoting Hospitality Industry Through Fostering Knowledge, Education And Capacity Building


Abstract


The Hospitality and Tourism industry is a large and complex industry and one that is of significant economic importance to Nigeria. Manpower Training and Education, enabled the hospitality and tourism industry to have the right sets of workers with the required skills, knowledge and attitude to manage the industry in the present while plan adequately and wisely to meet the challenges of manpower needs the industry might face in the future. In this study, our focus was on promoting hospitality industry through fostering knowledge, education and capacity building, Enugu State as case study.. The study is was specifically focused on determining if education can foster the growth of the hospitality industry; examining the extent to which human capital building can promote the hospitality industry and investigating if proper knowledge of available human resources can foster the growth and development of the hospitality industry.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of 5-star hotels in Enugu State.

The study concludes that the Government of Nigeria as a matter of urgency should formulate policies that will enshrine the training of manpower in the tourism and hospitality industry, in order to check the present ugly situation.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is considered as the most veritable tool for nation building. It helps the citizen in the development of individual with some skills and attitudes necessary for national building. That many graduates of Nigeria Universities and other higher institutions of learning fall short of employer’s or industry standard is no longer news (Idehan 2007). Hospitality education and training system in Nigeria as a source of supply of skill labour to Hospitality and Tourism industry over the years invoke concern. This study evaluates problems of Hospitality education in Nigeria. The study identified and examined the major issues facing Hospitality training and education in Nigeria.

Roundel et al (2007) define Hospitality as friendly and generous behavior towards visitors and guests, intended to make them feel welcome: food, drink, room and entertainment given to customers by a company or organization. Another scholar Copper.et al(ed) (1996) in educating the educators in tourism, gave the definition of hospitality by Nailon (1981) which stated that hospitality is the combination of physiological and psychological elements with security and level of service. Hospitality is concerned with the provision of physiological and psychological comfort within define levels of service. Burgess (1982) emphasizes the important of developing social relationships and the role of this in promoting guest perception of comfort and security.

The primary interesting elements is that of the social relationship fostered by the warm, friendly, welcoming, courteous, open, generous behavior, of host creating the security and comfort created by physical structure, design, décor and location of facility. Finally the provisions of accommodation facilities to sleep, eat, relax and wash, together with the supply of beverage, service and entertainment. Rounded et al (2007) define Hotel as a building where you have to stay in a room and have meals’ similarly the world Tourism organization defined Hotel as ‘enterprise which provides accommodation with or without ancillary services’ (Ibru 2004). This may include food and entertainment in exchange for payment by client.

Accommodation which is an essential facility in the hospitality industry can be classified into various categories, illustrating the diversity of the industry. The availability of different room types and amenities is a reflection of an industry that must respond to various consumer needs, including the social and business needs of travelers. The customer or guest served by the accommodation sector may or are divided into two, those people traveling on business or recreation and those people not engaged in travel but who are staying away from home on a temporary basis, such as students in hostel and patients in hospital. Accommodation services in the hospitality industry are classified as stated by Chuck.

From the foregoing, it is important that, organization through the human resource manager or department should train and retrain their workers as they are image makers between the management and the customers (Al-hrout and Mohamed, 2014). In an organization, regular training and assessment of staff, that is, human resources are essential. Not only need that, for effective result, employees in an organization must be motivated as they also have their needs to satisfy. The more the organization develops many motivational strategies to meet the needs of their staff, the more the employees will be ready to put in their best in achieving the organization goals.

In a hotel business where much of customers patronage is been experienced, it is the responsibility of the management to ensure that, right people are selected for the job. Not only that, the workers must be trained and well remunerated in order to get their best. It is a fact that the nature of employees in the hotel business is very complex as majority are not permanent and some are seasonal workers, while some are on contact. Therefore, managing them for the development of an organization may be a complex one but all of them need to do their jobs in a highly professional manner in order to avoid the divergence of standards and quality level, and thus have to be included in the training system. Precisely, the readiness of hotel chains to educate and train entire staff presents the evidence of human resource management effectiveness which could lead to the quality service being rendered and development of the hotel in terms of productivity.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In an industry in Africa where there seems to have been a continued growth over the years, expertise is therefore expected to be limited and this constitutes a problem. There and other problems are what the study wishes to consider and make recommendation where necessary. The problem reduction in experienced hands in this industry in the third world, seem to be the case due to managers reluctance to train its workers and employ able hands.
Another problem lies in the fact that most workers in the industry have no clear cut channels to register their protests and grievances since management usually stifles unionization agitation.

The third problem concerns the issue of how the basic payment and benefits of workers is commensurate with their dedication to work and efforts. As employers are less responsive to changes in the economy with respect to adjustments of pay and benefit packages in line with economic growth as being experienced in most developing countries today, including Nigeria, they are left with employees whose dedication to work decreases; with huge reduction in their morals and motivation to work.

We are also confronted with an environment where employees are usually kept in the dark without being enlightened on things they have the right to know. Example, payment determination method, criteria for promotion (etc), but rather such issues are based on the whims of management. This constitutes a problem. The last problem is the general belief by most people that jobs in the industry is one of last resort which they can take up when they do not find a “better” job to do. This thus discourages young people who may wish to have a career in the hotel and catering industry. Having identified some of the problems, this study intends to find possible solutions to some of them.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the process of Promoting Hospitality Industry Through Fostering Knowledge, Education And Capacity Building.

Specifically, the study aims

  1. To determine if education can foster the growth of the hospitality industry
  2. To examine the extent to which human capital building can promote the hospitality industry
  3. To investigate if proper knowledge of available human resources can foster the growth and development of the hospitality industry

1.4 Research Question

The following research question will be answered in order to achieve the research objectives

  1. Does education foster the growth of the hospitality industry ?
  2. To what extent does human capital building can promote the hospitality industry ?
  3. Does proper knowledge of available human resources can foster the growth and development of the hospitality industry?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is significant for the following reasons:

  1. To change the belief by some hotel management in the country that the formation of unions by employees may mean more trouble for them.
  2. To bring to the fore, the importance of having pay being commensurate with efforts and productivity since the bulk of workers in this industry are after psychological needs but work in environments supposedly the exclusive reserve of self actualized members of the society.
  3. Ability to help reinstate the industry belle to its supposed place as a major part of the economy and as a potential growth sector.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focused on the process of promoting hospitality industry through fostering knowledge, education and capacity building. It will examine how education, human capital building and proper knowledge of the hospitality industry can promote the growth and development of the industry. It will be carried out in 5-star hotels in Enugu area.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

This research work is specifically on promoting hospitality industry through fostering knowledge, education and capacity building. In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation. Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.

Cost:

The cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.

Time:

The time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.

Scarcity of Literature:

The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank History and operations. This are hindered the smooth running of this work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Motivation:

It a social process in which some members try to influence others, to work harder, and work more efficiency. It is a person’s state of mind which energizes channels and sustains behavior to achieve the person’s needs. Motivation is also the willingness to do something and its conditioned actions and ability to satisfy some needs for the individual. It is also a driving force by which human’s achieve their goals.

Hospitality:

Friendly welcome and entertainment of guests or strangers, which usually includes offering them food and drink. (chambers 21st century dictionary )

Hotel:

An establishment held out by the proprietor to offer food and drinks, and if so required sleeping accommodation to anybody who is in a fit state to receive the services.


1.9 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on promoting hospitality industry through fostering knowledge, education and capacity building, Enugu State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on promoting hospitality industry through fostering knowledge, education and capacity building, Enugu State as case study.. The study is was specifically focused on determining if education can foster the growth of the hospitality industry; examining the extent to which human capital building can promote the hospitality industry and investigating if proper knowledge of available human resources can foster the growth and development of the hospitality industry.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of 5-star hotels in Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

From the research, it was discovered that institution offering hospitality training and education encounter problems in the process of discharging training and education to student and the method or manner the training and education is been received by student of hospitality. Some factors were found to be responsible for these problems, which have been discussed extensively. The Government of Nigeria as a matter of urgency should formulate policies that will enshrine the training of hospitality manpower in the tourism and hospitality industry, in order to check the present ugly situation.


5.4 Recommendations

From the results of the findings the researcher thereby making the following recommendations:

  1. There is need for more research on this topic, mostly in the areas of seeking effective methods, to improve hospitality education in Nigeria in general and NIHOTOUR in particular.
  2. Government should as a matter of urgency recruit more human resources or lecturers with hospitality qualifications and industrial experiences in the field to strengthen the present lecture and trainer in NIHOTOUR.
  3. There should be a forum where lecturer and student can meet to discussed on the challenges facing hospitality education and how best to tackle it. This will enable the lecturer to be acquainted with the problems of student. This will no doubt, improve the situation.
  4. The attitude of the society to continue to perceive the hospitality industry as not require professionalism, strategic planning and specific training / education even in the face of global competition and her contribution to the economy should be redress.
  5. A policy thrust should be established for both public and private sectors of hospitality industry to be actively involved in manpower training and development to enable the industry operate with adequate supply of skilled and knowledgeable personnel to meet the present and future challenges of hospitality sector in Nigeria.
  6. Government through National University commission should mandate Nigeria University to run courses on hospitality and tourism management so as to provide sound and competent senior manpower that can move the industry forward in Nigeria instead of relying on foreign expatriate.

Promoting Hospitality Industry Through Fostering Knowledge, Education And Capacity Building


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Frequently Asked Questions


How do we develop and promote hospitality?

As can be seen and felt through the previous illustrations, a first requirement in developing and promoting hospitality is to approach the setting from a peaceful center of prepared and expectant thought. But, how do we get there from here?

What are the different research areas in hospitality industry?

In research studies, we can identified several main research areas in hospitality industry such as Hospitality and Hotel Management, Tourism Management, Tourism Economics and Financial Management, Convention and Events Management and Hotel and Tourism Technology Management.

What is the role of hospitality in the tourism industry?

Hospitality involves friendly treatment of guests or tourists and is a very important sector in the tourism industry. Hospitality industry covers travel, accommodation, foodservice, conferences, and leisure and recreation. 

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