Impact Of Beach Tourism To Tourism Development In Nigeria

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Impact Of Beach Tourism To Tourism Development In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of beach tourism to tourism development in Nigeria using Elegushi Beach in Ikate land, Lagos State. The study was carried out to find out the extent of beach tourism in Nigeria, ascertain whether beach tourism has contributed to the level of tourism activities in Nigeria, find out whether beach tourism has improved the accommodation of more and adequate tourism facilities in Nigeria, and determine whether beach tourism has improved the level of revenue and expansion of the tourism sector. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of beach tourist in Elegushi Beach in Ikate land, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that beach tourism has contributed to the level of tourism activities in Nigeria. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that beach tourism has improved the level of revenue and expansion of the tourism sector. Therefore, it is recommended that there is the need to embark on aggressive manpower development required in the tourism industry, such as in hotels and catering, training schools and institutions should be established. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Tourism is an indispensable tool for development in the country if not the whole world. Despite some of its negative effects on the environment, it is still the devil people cannot do without. A man should ever be ready booted to take his journey whenever tourism is mentioned. Tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industry employing hundreds of millions of people worldwide which explains the reasons why study of tourism and tourism research have become so important in not only the academic field but also for the economy on the whole.

Beach tourism also known as coastal tourism and recreation are important parts of the largest and most rapidly growing activity in the world (Houston, 1995). This topic embraces the full range of tourism, leisure and recreational oriented activities that take place in the coastal zone and the off shore coastal waters across the world/globe. They include coastal tourism development, for instance, the hotels, resorts, restaurants, food industry, vacation homes, second homes and so on, the infrastructural facilities supporting coastal development like retail businesses, marinas, dive shops, fishing tackle stores, recreational boating harbors, beaches, fishing facilities, boating, cruises, swimming, snorkeling and diving as well as public and private programmes affecting the aforementioned activities (Houston, 1995).

However, the relationship between coastal areas and tourism is as old as tourism itself. Early tourists favoured seaside locations and made journeys to fashionable resorts to bathe in sea water to take advantage of its alleged curative powers. This was a major departure in the eighteenth century from a time when the sea and coast were revered as places and even feared (Lenček and Bosker, 1999). For them, “the beach historically speaking is a recent phenomenon. In fact, it took hundreds of years for the seashore to be colonized as the preeminent site for human recreation and the coast continues to be one of the most important environments for tourism in contemporary times building on its established heritage”. Hall and Page, (2005) observed that;

“The coastal environment is a magnet for tourist although its role in leisure activities has changed in time and space,as coastal destinations have developed, waned, been reimagedand redeveloped in the twentieth century. The coastal environment is a complex system which is utilized by the recreationist for day trips, while juxtaposed to these visits are those made by the domestic and international tourists”.

Beach tourism is becoming a highly competitive business as nations actively seek to draw increased numbers of visitors and increased foreign earnings to the shores. However, given today’s rapid pace of communication, the existence of poor water quality or degraded or eroding beaches is quickly communicated among networks of travel agents and others in the tourism marketing business. Despite increased awareness of the economic and environmental significance, it is only in recent years that a substantial body of research has emerged. Furthermore, beach tourism is considered to be one of the fastest growing areas of present day tourism which is epitomized by the ‘3Ss’-sun, sand and sea. In order to create safe, stable and attractive coastal environment with clean waters and healthy coastal habitats, it is necessary to develop well managed and sustainable beach tourism.

Wong (1993), argued that “it has been established that tourism is environmentally dependent and the unique character of coastal environment gives to various types of tourism development. While there is increasing recognition of the coastal environment as a tourism resource, there is also the need to consider the sustainability of the environment as it continues to open up to the full gamut of tourism activities”. He pointed out that although there are many studies on coastal tourism, they tend to emphasize the tourism system rather than the interaction of tourism and environmental systems.

Tourism and recreation-related development is one of the major factors shaping development patterns in coastal zones of the nation and the world. Indeed, virtually all coastal and ocean issue areas affect coastal tourism and recreation directly or indirectly. Clean water, healthy coastal habitats, and a safe, secure and enjoyable environment are clearly fundamental to successful coastal tourism. Similarly, bountiful living marine resources (fish, shellfish, wetlands, coral reefs and so on) are of critical importance to most recreational experiences. Security from risks associated with natural coastal hazards such as storms surge, hurricanes, tsunamis and the like is a requisite for coastal tourism to be sustainable over the long term.

Nigeria is a country situated in the western coastal region of the African continent. The country is rich in natural beauty like long blue beaches, rivers and lakes, forest, breathtaking views of the waterfalls and soothing environments. She also offers a wide variety of tourist attractions such as extended and roomy river and ocean beaches ideal for swimming, water sports activities as well as other cultural and man-made attractions particularly conducive for holidaying. Unfortunately, these natural resources have hardly been developed for tourism. Because it is a coastal country, the main attractions for the tourists are the long beaches and marine activities but the direct contribution to coastal economies made by cleaning up coastal water is often not fully recognized. But it is hardly surprising that sustainable development remains such a challenge to beach tourism destination in Nigeria. Of all the activities that take place in coastal zones, none is increasing in both volume and diversity more than beach tourism. Both the dynamic nature of this sector and its magnitude demand that it be actively taken into account in government plans, polices and programs related to the coasts and ocean. Beach tourism constitutes a strong force (both positive and negative) in shaping coastal areas and national economies, yet it is not seen as a reputable sector requiring policy, planning and management attention and resources because of lack of data collected and aggregated under this heading. Beach tourism in Nigeria is still growing because most of these beaches, sea, lakes, rivers, streams and so on have turned to be hideouts for kidnappers, militants, terrorists and criminals. Additionally, in these riverine areas, the beaches, lakes, ocean and creeks are used as places for refuse dumps, defecation, and centres to commit all sorts of crimes. Also, spoilt ships and boats are usually abandoned in the ocean thus causing problems in the ocean and health hazards for the nation. Nigeria is considered to be abundantly blessed with water resources. Human welfare and economic development generally depend on the use of water. Millions of Nigerians rely on surface water sources to meet their domestic needs. Yet, pollution discharge into the surface water by individuals and industries go on unmitigated, unregulated, and unpunished due to weakness in the existing laws. The three levels of government, the Federal, State and Local Government should share responsibilities for water resources management. Also, the importance of leisure and recreationally motivated development in the coastal zones in Nigeria tend to be neglected, under managed, underrated and understudied.

In Lagos State for example, the people of Ikeja are yet to know the importance of the natural and cultural attractions that they are blessed with. They do not really know much about beach tourism and values of the attractions there such as the Elegushi Beach and efforts are hardly made to maintain it. So, this research is simply pointing out how efforts should be made towards promoting beach tourism in Nigeria. This research work provides a review of some of the coastal and marine tourism literature emphasizing on the impacts. It notes the manner within which tourism is a component of integrated approaches towards coastal management and some of the strategies that are utilized to manage tourism in a sustainable fashion. These and more will be discussed about beach tourism in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Beach tourism is very important in Nigeria and the whole world because of its rapid growth in economy. Despite that, there is lack of attention by public agencies to tourism and this is usually problematic in the case of coastal tourism. In Nigeria, there is usually no coordination between programmes that promote and market tourism and those that manage coastal and marine areas. Integrated coastal management often tends to be done only among environmental planning agencies. On the other hand, agencies dealing with the promotion of tourism are not involved with evaluation of its effects or with advance planning and management of the adverse impacts of tourism through avoidance, mitigation and compensation strategies (Cicin-Sain, 1993). One of the greatest challenges facing coastal managers in the developing countries is how to integrate tourism development within the ambit of integrated coastal management and increase the likelihood of long term sustainability (Cicin-Sain and Knetch, 1998). This situation is observable in Nigeria too. Because of negligence, most of the rivers, lakes, ocean and beaches and other water resources have turned out to be hideouts for kidnappers, terrorists and most times serve as refuge or escape route for unscrupulous characters while some people use the waters and places as their public toilets, places for sewage disposal and abandonment of rickety ships and boats. All these scare people away from visiting all these attractions like beaches, lakes and rivers.

Other challenges facing beaches in Nigeria include the dirty and unhygienic environments as lots of them lack adequate toilets and refuse disposal facilities, lack of adequate safety and security measures. The lack of required modern infrastructural facilities in some parts of the country, acute conditions of underdevelopment and poverty can be seen which many potential tourists may not like to be confronted with. Although coastal tourism constitutes a strong force in shaping coastal communities and local, regional and national economies, it is generally not seen as a reputable sector requiring policy, planning and management attention and resources in Nigeria. This is due to the fact that information and data tend not to be gathered and aggregated under this heading. Hence, the magnitude and importance of leisure and recreationally motivated development in the coastal zones of Nigeria tend to be underrated, understudied and under managed.

This has led to its underdevelopment as a tourist attraction and most of its tourism resources are still in their natural state. These and other related issues constitute what this research work sets out to address. It is hoped that at the end of the research exercise, the misconceptions about beaches and other water resources being used as hideouts for terrorists and kidnappers and water pollution and so on would have been erased and people will not be scared of these places. . Having mentioned all these problems, the following question readily comes to mind. Of what importance are the beaches and other attractions to people of Ikate town and other Nigerians?
It is pertinent to note that tourism industry cannot grow in a particular area if all the mentioned problems and others are not tackled since, there will be no development.


1.3 Objectives of Study

The objective of this study is focused on the impact of beach tourism to tourism development in Nigeria. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. Find out the extent of beach tourism in Nigeria.
  2. Ascertain whether beach tourism has contributed to the level of tourism activities in Nigeria.
  3. Find out whether beach tourism has improved the accommodation of more and adequate tourism facilities in Nigeria.
  4. Determine whether beach tourism has improved the level of revenue and expansion of the tourism sector.

1.4 Research Questions

The research is guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the extent of beach tourism in Nigeria?
  2. Has beach tourism contributed to the level of tourism activities in Nigeria?
  3. Has beach tourism improved the accommodation of more and adequate tourism facilities in Nigeria?
  4. Has beach tourism improved the level of revenue and expansion of the tourism sector?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: Beach tourism has no positive impact on tourism development in Nigeria
  • Ha: Beach tourism has a positive impact on tourism development in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance Of Study

It is said that all progress is born of inquiry for it leads to invention. The tourism attractions play a decisive role in tourism development. The research will draw the attention of all the stakeholders to the need to develop this resource as a beach tourism attraction.

The research will attempt to draw the attention of the community to the need to develop the beaches and make them the stewards of their heritage. Moreover, the study will explore and bring to light the benefits of beach tourism and its role in tourism development so as to attract tourists and investors to Lagos State . This will help project the national image of the country internationally there by promoting beach tourism in Nigeria.

The study will help to stimulate tourism development in Nigeria and provide the basis for government policies in tourism sector.

It will serve as a teaching aid and data storage for all lovers of tourism and beaches.

Lastly, the research study will be of great help to scholars, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Nigeria as they will get to know the factors that promote beach tourism in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on impact of beach tourism to tourism development in Nigeria, geographically the study will be delimited to Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Beach:

Beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles!The particles composing a beach are typically made from rock, such as sand, gravel, pebbles or cobblestones.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of beach tourism to tourism development in Nigeria using Elegushi Beach in Ikate land, Lagos State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of beach tourism to tourism development in Nigeria using Elegushi Beach in Ikate land, Lagos State. The study is was specifically carried out to find out the extent of beach tourism in Nigeria, ascertain whether beach tourism has contributed to the level of tourism activities in Nigeria, find out whether beach tourism has improved the accommodation of more and adequate tourism facilities in Nigeria, and determine whether beach tourism has improved the level of revenue and expansion of the tourism sector.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were beach tourist in Elegushi Beach in Ikate land, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent of beach tourism in Nigeria is high.
  2. Beach tourism has contributed to the level of tourism activities in Nigeria.
  3. Beach tourism has improved the accommodation of more and adequate tourism facilities in Nigeria.
  4. Beach tourism has improved the level of revenue and expansion of the tourism sector.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is the need to develop an encompassing tourism policy if it has to be sustainable, equitable and responsive so as to contribute to Nigeria’s economic development and in effect raise the quantity of life of all her people.
  2. Government should intensify vigorously the marketing and promotion of Nigeria cultural, historical and archaeological treasures.
  3. Funding of tourism should be tackled. To this end, government should provide all the enabling environment to support private sectors in tourism development. Much attention should be given to environmental aspects of tourism i.e. Ecotourism which consists of wildlife tourism and natural parks. Thus, the federal Ministry of commerce and Tourism as well as Tourism Corporation be strengthened.
  4. The collection and collation of tourism statistics and the establishment of tourism satellite accounts as is done across the world be vigorously pursued. Tourism information should as a matter of significance be available on Internet for users and investors.
  5. There is the need to embark on aggressive manpower development required in the tourism industry, such as in hotels and catering, training schools and institutions should be established.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the role of the Nigerian tourism development corporation?

The Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation established in 1962 with the responsibility of planning, supervising, developing and marketing tourism in Nigeria has had its shortcomings. In 2005, President Obasanjo led administration saw the need to set up a committee responsible for tourism policy for Nigeria.

How can we attract more tourists to Nigeria?

Improve the air transport system by building more airports within the country and encouraging more airlines to fly in Nigeria. Implement policies that are in favour of development of the country and tourism particularly. Develop a more tourism friendly visa acquisition system. Collaboration between the major stakeholders.

What are the challenges of tourism in Nigeria?

Issues such as poverty, illiteracy, food crises and hunger, epidemics (e.g. Ebola, Lassa fever, AIDS) and crimes such as kidnapping, robbery, killings etc. has given a lot of foreigners a negative view of the country. 4. Lack of proper management Most of our tourist destinations are poorly managed.

Why is tourism important to a nation’s economy?

It is important because it has capacity to boost a nation’s GDP. There are a lot of tourist centres in Nigeria and they possess immense potential for the economy if their resources are harnessed well. 

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