An Assessment Of The Factors Contributing To The Ineffective Implementation Of Curriculum In Nigerian Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Curriculum Studies

An Assessment Of The Factors Contributing To The Ineffective Implementation Of Curriculum In Nigerian Secondary Schools


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Since the advent of western education in Nigeria, several efforts have been made to develop policies aimed at improving educational practice. The problems confronting educational institutions at all levels are not those of policy formulation, but of policy implementation. Despite the substantial curriculum invested in developing new curricula, some of these endeavors have failed. According to Alade (2011), the primary cause of failure is a lack of knowledge of the school culture by both outside specialists and educators inside the school system. Effective curriculum implementation needs an awareness of power dynamics, traditions, and the roles and responsibilities of people within the school system. The term “implementation” refers to the process of operationalizing a well-articulated and well-intentioned theory. Thus, to implement is to bring actionable ideas or hypotheses to fruition. Mezieobi (1993) defined “implementation” as the process of carrying out an agreed-upon plan, decision, proposal, idea, or policy. It is the foundation for the success or failure of any strategy. It is the driving force behind every strategy; without it, a plan is nothing more than a well-intentioned desire or purpose. On the other hand, in a formal context, the school “curriculum” refers to the scheduled learning experiences delivered to students. Esu, Enukoha, and Umoren (2004) defined “curriculum” as “all of a child’s learning experiences under the supervision of a teacher.” Garba (2004) defined curriculum implementation as the process of putting the curriculum to work in order to accomplish the objectives for which it was created. Similarly, Okebukola (2004) defined curriculum implementation as the process through which the curriculum’s goals are transferred from paper to practice. In a nutshell, Ivowi (2004) views curricular implementation as the process by which “theory” or “proposal” is transformed into “practice.” In a similar line, Afangideh (2009) defines curricular implementation as learners’ active participation in scheduled learning opportunities. The curriculum outlines the actual implementation of social norms and/or government policy.

Additionally, curriculum experts have stated that developing, designing, implementing, or reforming a curriculum requires the participation of essential stakeholders if it is to be relevant, meaningful, and appropriate to satisfy the requirements of the people for whom it was created (Charlice, 2012). That is, a curriculum is defined as the learning activities that comprise a certain educational system. Ackerman (2008), in his assessment of cognitive development theory, details how the curriculum is sequenced in schools. In Nigeria, for example, the secondary school curriculum is meant to help all students develop their spiritual, intellectual, and social potential, as well as an appreciation for the value of education in their everyday lives (Charles, 2009). It is critical to remember that developing or designing a curriculum is one thing; properly implementing it is another. The objectives of any level of education cannot be met if the program for that level of education is not executed effectively. According to Onyeachu (2008), implementation is critical regardless of how effectively a program is developed, created, and recorded. In light of the above, this study aims to examine the factors limiting the successful implementation of the curriculum in secondary schools in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Due to obstacles encountered by educators such as limited resources, budgetary restrictions, and inadequate training, curriculum implementation has been challenging for the culture of teaching and learning in many Nigerian schools (Ikejari, 2013). As a result, if left unaddressed, these shortcomings will have far-reaching repercussions not just for the education sector, but also for the sort of competent learners generated and the country’s economic development (Dayor, 2011). Currently, some of the teachers in our schools are expatriates who were neither taught or orientated in terms of the NCS. In addition, several of the local educators who are now hired as temporary instructors were not orientated on the execution of the NCS (Tunde, 2015). Any curriculum, however wonderfully crafted it may be, will be of no importance if it is not executed. It is consequently crucial that the curriculum be adequately executed. An implementation process will begin with a careful assessment of all ways of making it function. Mkpa (2005) shows that the applied curriculum influences the amount to which educational goals are attained. Curriculum implementation is thus a serious undertaking whose success depends entirely on the shoulders of the classroom teacher (Afangideh, 2009). Therefore, the secondary school education curriculum in Nigeria has remained far from reality because of some of the implementation issues it is dealing with. However, it is in the researcher’s best interest to look at the variables that make it challenging for secondary schools in Nigeria to implement the curriculum properly.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this study is to critically examine the factors affecting effective implementation of curriculum in Nigeria secondary schools. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain whether lack of teachers’ involvement in curriculum development affects effective implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools.
  2. Determine whether inadequate resources contribute to the ineffective implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools.
  3. Ascertain whether mismanagement of allocated funds contributes to the implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools.
  4. Ascertain whether lack of proper training of teachers contributes to the implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

This study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Does lack of teachers’ involvement in curriculum development affect effective implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools?
  2. Does inadequate resources contribute to the ineffective implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools?
  3. Does mismanagement of allocated funds contribute to the ineffective implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools?
  4. Does lack of proper training of teachers contribute to the ineffective implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will expose the teachers, school managements, the government and all stakeholders involve in policy making in Nigeria to the challenges that hinder the proper implementation of curriculum in Nigeria, also this research will enlighten both the stakeholders and non-stakeholders in the economy on what curriculum implantation is and what can be done for an effective curriculum implementation I Nigeria. Finally this study will serve as a reference to other researcher who will embark on the same research in the nearest future.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally assess the factors affecting effective implementation of curriculum in Nigeria secondary schools. However, the study will further ascertain whether lack of teachers’ involvement in curriculum development affects effective implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools, determine whether inadequate resources contribute to the ineffective implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools, ascertain whether mismanagement of allocated funds contributes to the implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools, and ascertain whether lack of proper training of teachers contributes to the implementation of curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools.

This study will however be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Bassa, local government of Kogi State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Assessment:

The act of investigating something or someone; formal or systematic examination or research

Challenges:

Difficulty in a job or undertaking that is stimulating to one engaged in it.

Curriculum:

The subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college.

Implementation:

The process of putti


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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the main factors affecting curriculum implementation in Nigeria?

What are the main factors affecting curriculum implementation in Nigeria? Students are the central figure of any curriculum development. Full implementation takes place when learners acquire the planned skills, attitudes and ideas which are aimed to enable them effectively and optimally in the society. What is curriculum implementation?

What are the problems of Education in Nigeria?

One of the problems of education however, could be traceable to who controls what. In view of the different system in Nigeria, there is need to put things straight. The problem of effective apportioning of responsibility has posed a serious challenge to the implementation of school curriculum.

Can school curriculum be successful in Nigeria without Teachers Education?

It success cannot be achieved without teachers education. It is their education and professional delivery can guarantee successful implementation of curriculum in Nigeria. The issue of school curriculum in Nigeria over years has become a national discourse.

What is the role of the curriculum in educational failure?

The teacher designs, enriches and modifies the curriculum to suit the learner’s characteristics. unsuccessful implementation of the curriculum becomes the root of educational failure. In a school organization, there is always a curriculum manager or school administrator. The role of the administrators can never be ignored. 

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