Influence Of Economic Retrogression On Curriculum Implementation In Secondary Schools In Takum, Taraba State
This study was carried out to examine the influence of economic retrogression on curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Takum, Taraba State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of secondary school teachers in the four(4) selected secondary schools in Takum, Taraba State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 50 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that the extent to which secondary school curriculum is effectively implemented in Takum, Taraba State is low. The study also revealed that economic retrogression has a negative effect on curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Takum, Taraba State. It was further discovered that economic retrogression affects the provision of adequate teaching materials required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools. To mention but a few. Therefore, it is recommended that there is need for concerted efforts by key stakeholders in secondary schools in providing instructional facilities, since it is evident that government alone cannot saddle responsibilities of the educational sector, due the state of the national economy. And though it is the government responsibility to provide both visual and audio-visual materials in all secondary schools, teachers are advised to make use of improvisation where there are no instructional materials.
1.1 Background of the Study
It is appropriate to say curriculum is all about experience required of a child for all round development since the organization of schooling and further education had long been associated with the idea of curriculum. Curriculum is a particular form of specification about the practice of teaching. It is not a package of materials or syllabus of ground to be covered rather it is a way of translating any educational idea into a hypothesis testable in practice. It invites critical testing rather than acceptance (Stenhouse, 2005).
Furthermore, curriculum is said to be a specification about the practice of teaching which involves pragmatic efficacy of the learners’ experiences. Experience as a general concept comprises knowledge of or skill of something or some events gained through involvement in or exposure to that thing or event. In this wise, curriculum is an important element of education in which overall objectives of education depend largely on the nature of the curriculum (NERDC, 2004).
Curriculum experts have argued that curriculum making either at the level of development, design, implementation or reformation needs the inputs of critical stakeholders if it is to be relevant, meaningful and adequate to meet the needs of the people for whom it has been put together. In his opinion, Dewey (1897) contends that education is a social construct which is a part of society and should reflect the community. In this sense, curriculum is the thrust of education vested with force thereby integrating societal trends, traditional values and individual expression.
In his conception of curriculum Bobbitt (2008) affirmed that curriculum is the course of deeds and experiences through which learners become the adults they should be for success in adult society. In other words, curriculum encourages the entire scope of formative deed and experience occurring both within and outside school for the purposeful formation of adult members of society.
However, curriculum may refer to a well-defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfil in order to pass a certain level of education. That is, curriculum is being construed as learning activities that make up a particular system of education. Ackerman (2008) in his examination of cognitive development theory explained in details how the curriculum is sequenced in schools.
In Nigeria for instance, secondary school curriculum is designed to encourage all students to achieve their spiritual, intellectual and social potential as well as to understand the relevance of learning in their daily lives. It is important to note that, it is one thing to develop/design curriculum, it is another thing to implement it effectively. Objectives of any level of education cannot be achieved if the planned programme for such level of education is not well implemented. Onyeachu (2008) observed that no matter how well a curriculum of any subject is planned, designed and documented, implementation is important.
It could be true that the establishment of educational institutions was in pursuit of meeting the global requirements of producing manpower that will serve in different capacities and contribute positively to the nation’s socio-economic and political development in Nigeria (Abdulkareem, Fasasi & Akinubi, 2011). But, how far has Nigerian education delivered on this mandate? Put differently, does the curriculum of Nigerian education reflect the objectives of her national policy on education?
The strength of a nation is defined by the economy of the nation, while the economy of a nation is determined by the productivity of the nation, induced by the creativity of the citizens and inhabitants of the nation, because the people make up the nation. Without the people there is no nation
The economy of a nation is the sum total of the proceeds of all productive activities of the nation to generate revenue to further utilize efficiently and effectively for the growth and gross development of the nation.
In view of these, the economy of a nation emanates from the productivity of the citizens and inhabitants of the nation out streaming from their creativity which is a function of idea generation and strategic implementation to produce tangible and intangible valuables for the exchange of other valuables from other sources which includes internal exchange of value for value and external exchange of value for value involving nations in the process of International Trade.
The history of Nigeria’s economic growth runs parallel to the history of Nigerian education, because of the realization by the early nationalists that the country could not develop without a proper grounding in a national education system that can guarantee the production of the desired high quality workforce without which national development and economic growth is impossible.
In line with government’s declaration for the 9 year Basic Education programme, the NERDC with mandate by the National Council on Education, reviewed the existing Senior Secondary education programme for this level of education, that is SSEC, so as to meet the targets of the education programme in the context of NEEDS, MDGs and EFA, all of them programmes of government. However, the implementation of the curriculum has been greatly hampered by the economic retrogression affecting Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Effective curriculum implementation at all levels of our educational system has been a significant problem. The implementation of the curriculum, particularly at the senior school level, has encountered several roadblocks. There are issues with a very high disparity in student-teacher ratios, a lack of instructional materials and learning facilities such as the mathematics laboratory, a lack of positive student-teacher relationships, and poor instructional quality as a result of the use of ineffective instructional approaches (Tyler, 2012) and of course, economic retrogression. As a result, students’ performance in the subject is almost definitely poor. Regrettably, despite seccondary school education’s inherent importance in human everyday activities, empirical data indicates that pupils do poorly in the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) and the National Examination Council (NECO) (Ajimobi, 2018).
As a result, an evaluation of the execution of the senior secondary curriculum is necessary to establish what went wrong. The research will address the extent to which economic retrogression affects the implementation of the curriculum in senior secondary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of economic retrogression on curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Takum, Taraba state. Specifically, this study seeks:
- Ascertain the extent to which secondary school curriculum is effectively implemented in Takum, Taraba State.
- Determine whether economic retrogression has a negative effect on curriculum implementation in secondary schools.
- Determine whether economic retrogression affects the provision of adequate teaching materials required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.
- Determine whether economic retrogression affects the employment and retention of qualified teachers needed for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
- What is the extent to which secondary school curriculum is effectively implemented in Takum, Taraba State?
- Does economic retrogression have a negative effect on curriculum implementation in secondary schools?
- Does economic retrogression affect the provision of adequate teaching materials required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools?
- Does economic retrogression affect the employment and retention of qualified teachers needed for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is noteworthy because of the theoretical additions it will make to the current literature on the evaluation of secondary school curricula in Nigeria. The findings presented will serve as additional literature on how to improve teaching and learning in the senior secondary school curriculum. The significance of curriculum evaluation is critical in determining the effectiveness of a course of education. The literature generated by these evaluation studies contributes to the existing body of knowledge about procedures for improving the quality of teaching and learning in schools. Every educational program should be monitored on a regular basis to determine whether the program’s objectives have been met. When published, the findings of this study will be critical to the Ministry of Education, the Post Primary Schools Management Board, mathematics instructors, students, and parents, as well as future scholars in the field of mathematics teaching and education.
Education Ministry: The data may assist the State Ministry of Education (Quality assurance unit) to implement the Federal Ministry of Education’s laws governing the teaching and learning in all public and private secondary schools in Nigeria.
Additionally, the Ministry of Education may utilize the data to arrange seminars. Workshops and conferences for principals and instructors to educate and train them on how to properly apply the national curriculum, which covers all elements of child development, and to ensure that it is adhered to at all times.
The findings of this study will also be beneficial to the Post Primary Schools Management Board because they may help them recognize the importance of taking serious measures to ensure that facilities/instructional materials are available and adequate for children attending secondary schools in both urban and rural areas. PPSMB may also find the knowledge gleaned from this study’s conclusions beneficial in ensuring the continued professional development of biology instructors. This may also benefit instructors by exposing them to current developments in mathematics education and child development.
Parents may also benefit from this study’s findings. This is because the high-quality education and care provided to their wards and children through teaching programs may also provide the family joy and happiness. Their children’s education and performance may also serve as a guarantee of a brighter tomorrow.
Finally, the findings may be beneficial to future researchers, particularly those interested in teaching and learning. The information might offer them with empirical data on the extent to which specified minimum criteria for education are being implemented in Nigeria, which could be beneficial for future study in related fields.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will be focused on examining the influence of economic retrogression on curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Takum, Taraba state. Specifically, this study will be focused on ascertaining the extent to which secondary school curriculum is effectively implemented in Takum, Taraba State, determining whether economic retrogression has a negative effect on curriculum implementation in secondary schools, determining whether economic retrogression affects the provision of adequate teaching materials required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools and determining whether economic retrogression affects the employment and retention of qualified teachers needed for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.
Teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Takum, Taraba state will serve as respondents for this study.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.
The act of returning to an older and worse state.
In education, a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student’s experiences in terms of the educator’s or school’s instructional goals.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of economic retrogression on curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Takum, Taraba State.The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain the extent to which secondary school curriculum is effectively implemented in Takum, Taraba State, determine whether economic retrogression has a negative effect on curriculum implementation in secondary schools, determine whether economic retrogression affects the provision of adequate teaching materials required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools, and determine whether economic retrogression affects the employment and retention of qualified teachers needed for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were secondary school teachers in the four(4) selected secondary schools in Takum, Taraba State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The extent to which secondary school curriculum is effectively implemented in Takum, Taraba State is low.
- Economic retrogression has a negative effect on curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Takum, Taraba State.
- Economic retrogression affects the provision of adequate teaching materials required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.
- Economic retrogression affects the employment and retention of qualified teachers needed for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- There is need for concerted efforts by key stakeholders in secondary schools in providing instructional facilities, since it is evident that government alone cannot saddle responsibilities of the educational sector, due the state of the national economy.
- Though it is the government responsibility to provide both visual and audio-visual materials in all secondary schools, teachers are advised to make use of improvisation where there are no instructional materials.
- The importance of teacher involvement in decision-making and curriculum planning cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, government should involve teachers curriculum planning and development to give them sense of recognition.
- Governments should employ adequate number of qualified subject teachers in order to teach all the subjects meant for secondary education.
- Teachers’ salaries allowances, entitlements and other remunerations should be made one of the top priorities in the educational sector.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How does lack of teacher training affect curriculum implementation?
The findings of the study revealed that lack of teacher training on curriculum, in adequate time allocation, and insufficient teaching and learning materials on the subject impacted negatively on the implementation of curriculum. This study recommends that parents, schools and the government should address the issue of curriculum implementation.
What are the barriers to the implementation of a curriculum?
Also, a study conducted by Samia (2013) found out that inadequate allocation of time for conducting the class was found to be barriers to education. The adequate time allocation for curriculum and teachers unwillingness to create additional time for the subject impacts negatively on its implementation.
Can descriptive survey research design influence implementation of curriculum?
Descriptive survey research design was adopted to study the factors Influencing implementation of curriculum in public primary school in Ukwala Division, Siaya County, as it is deemed appropriate for this study (Pearson,2010).
How can we improve primary school syllabus implementation?
57 subjects of primary school syllabus though examined to a lesser magnitude. To address these issues, the study recommends the following: One, in-service refresher courses for serving teachers. This would improve on curriculum implementation.
What is the impact of lack of training in inclusive education?
However, Respondent H (female, 31 years old) submitted that lack of training in inclusive education makes it hard for a teacher to be in a position to support a learner with learning challenges even if the teacher can identify a learner’s problem area.
What is curriculum implementation in teaching?
CURRICULAR IMPLEMENTATION Curriculum implementation refers to how teachers deliver instruction and assessment through the use of specified resources provided in a curriculum. Curriculum designs generally provide instructional suggestions, scripts, lesson plans, and assessment options related to a set of
What are the factors that hinder teacher’s implementation of educational reforms?
Various factors are discussed thus: poor economic growth, politics, lack of facilities, school leadership, ability and inability to evaluate, lack of proper social amenities and infrastructure, ignorance and illiteracy.
Does teacher motivation matter in curriculum implementation?
This chapter concludes that although not clearly stated, teacher motivation remains a major component in curriculum implementation. Learning Motivation: Driving influences from internal (intrinsic) or external (extrinsic) forces that give students power to learn effectively.
What are the implications of curriculum implementation for social change?
Implications for social change include change at a systematic level by providing administrators with data to support teachers during curriculum changes and substantiation for the benefits of understanding concerns prior to a change for improving curriculum fidelity. Barriers to Effective Curriculum Implementation
What are some techniques developed to overcome barriers to integration?
Some techniques developed to overcome barriers to the integration of new material into an existing curriculum include faculty development, faculty rewards, development of competencies and assessment tools, interdisciplinary team teaching, standardized patients, and reference resources.
Is the integration of new knowledge into the medical school curriculum difficult?
The integration of new knowledge into the medical school curriculum is a difficult process. This article proposes effective strategies for overcoming obstacles to curricular integration of women’s health and sex and gender topics.
What is a descriptive survey research design?
What is a descriptive survey research design? Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. The three main ways to collect this information are: Observational, defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants.
What are descriptive methods in qualitative descriptive research?
Methods in qualitative descriptive research As with any research study, the application of descriptive methods will emerge in response to the aims and objectives, which will influence the sampling, data collection and analysis phases of the study.
What factors determine the validity of a qualitative descriptive study?
The extent of description and/or interpretation in a qualitative descriptive study is ultimately determined by the focus of the study (Neergard et al.,2009). Rigor As with any research design, ensuring the rigor or trustworthiness of findings from a qualitative descriptive study is crucial.
What are the challenges of using a qualitative descriptive design?
One of the challenges of utilising a qualitative descriptive design is responding to the charge that many qualitative designs have historically encountered, which is that qualitative designs lack the scientific rigor associated with quantitative approaches (Vaismoradi et al., 2013).
How can the implementation of curriculum be effective?
For the implementation of curriculum to be effectively done, the learner should be physically, mentally and emotionally available to the teacher for instruction so that the planned program in implemented.
What is the purpose of preparing a syllabus?
To bring meaning to the contents of the syllabus because the concepts are broadly presented therefore there is need to unpack them. To prepare in advance what pupils will learn. To give the teacher opportunity to familiarize with the concepts s/he is going to teach.
Why do primary schools fail to implement curriculum?
The inability of government to effectively run primary schools has made teachers to completely fail to implement the curriculum. In line with the above, (Nwaogu, 1990) teaching and learning go on smoothly, factors other than teachers and pupil play a very important role. The ecology of the classroom cannot therefore be overemphasized.
What is the role of learners in curriculum implementation?
The learners are critical element in the entire process of curriculum implementation since learners hold the key to what is actually translated and adopted from the official designed curriculum that is meant for them.