Evaluation On The Implementation Of The Marketing Trade Subject Curriculum
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation status of innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level in Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. The primary source of data collected was mainly the use of a structured questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on an evaluation on the implementation of the marketing trade subject curriculum. The data collected will be analyzed using frequency table, percentage and mean score analysis while the nonparametric statistical test (Chi-square) was used to test the formulated hypothesis using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences). The findings of the study have actually brought to the fore the strength and the challenges affecting effective implementation of innovation in secondary education in Nigeria.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education world over remains a strong tool for human sustainable development in both developed and developing countries. It requires that people be given the opportunities necessary for the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values which will enable them live happy and productive lives as individuals and discharge their social duties for the betterment of life in the society. Thus, all avenues of educating the citizenry at all levels often respond to the needs of the dynamic society for individual, national and global development. Curriculum therefore is the medium or avenue through which educational priorities are identified and implemented. It is a planned learning experiences offered to a learner in the school (Offorma, 2005). Curriculum in fact, is an organized plan of course outlined with the objectives, content and learning experiences to be used for achieving a set of pre-determined educational objectives. Any education system and its emerging reforms rely on the planned curriculum to put the policy plan into actions. As a result, issues on curriculum, either in an explicit or an implicit manner are inextricably linked to current thinking and action on educational system around the world (Ajibola, 2008). Earlier in 1982, Nigeria adjusted her secondary educational system to encompass diversified curriculum that integrates academic with technical and vocational subjects intended to empower the individual for self-employment (Igwe, 2000). This target reflects the two broad aims of secondary education stated by the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) in its National Policy on Education as: (i) Preparation for useful living within the society and (ii) Preparation for higher education. However, for over three decades after the implementation of the senior secondary education curricula, majority of Nigerian youths who have passed through secondary education are obviously lacking adequate pre-vocational orientations towards trade options available in some higher institutions of learning in Nigeria and in the wider society. They do not have the required skills to either fit them into many types of jobs that are available or create jobs (Igwe, 2007). It is no longer news that the nation’s youth unemployment rate has been on the increase in recent times. Even the federal government in Nigeria sometimes acknowledged that about 80 percent of Nigerian youths are unemployed and some of the reasons are inadequate pre-vocational orientation and lack of proper career guidance in secondary schools. Likewise, up till the tertiary institutions level, the poor quality of graduates is obviously worrisome. These altogether become a critical issue in the curricula of secondary education in Nigeria and the approaches to implementation. In response to the ongoing national and global reforms in the social, physical, economical and education sectors vis-à-vis the urgent demand of the Nigerian society for a more pragmatic curriculum, and as a way to improve the secondary school education in Nigeria, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), with curriculum development as one of its core mandates, developed the 9-year Basic Education Curriculum, and the Senior Secondary Education Curriculum having 34 Trade/Entrepreneurship Curricula for learners at both the basic and senior secondary education levels in the country. The curriculum is diversified to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles of individuals. It is developed to provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and commercefor industrial and economic development are also greatly considered in the development of the secondary school curricula. The innovative attempt by NERDC to improve secondary school curricula led to the regrouping and introduction of some new subject streams into four distinct cross-cutting areas. This effort is to give secondary education in Nigeria a face-lift. Alade (2014) puts it that when curriculum innovation is done, the conception could be a systematic adjustment or/and introduction of new novels into the content area, learning activities, methodology, evaluation techniques as well as the means of delivering the ever-changing needs of the society. He buttressed that when the curriculum responds to the dictates of the society, the education provided for members of the society would be functional and effective. These features, no doubt, reflect in the innovative subject streams integrated into secondary school curricula in Nigeria by NERDC. Similarly, Maduewesi (2007) reiterated the need for consistent change and review of Nigerian curriculum in order to integrate new areas of concern. Such innovation and integration are the four distinct subject streams which any secondary school student in Nigeria can stream into in terms of subject combination which exist in senior secondary school. The four distinct innovative subject streams otherwise referred to as curriculum offerings in the New Senior Secondary School Education Curriculum in Nigeria are
- Compulsory Cross-Cutting Subjects
- Core Subjects in Specialized Field of Study-Humanities, Science, Social Studies, and TechnologyElectives and Trade/Entrepreneurship Subjects.
With the identified innovative subject streams in secondary school education, appropriate degree of comprehensiveness is brought to bear on the secondary education curriculum structure. This structure is geared towards job creation, poverty alleviation and eradication, and wealth creation by vision. Also, the curriculum is designed to drive the development of appropriate skills for social and economic transformation. It is to provide 228 effective foundation for higher education if well implemented. Apart from the compulsory cross cutting subjects, and core subjects in specialized field of study, it is recommended that respective secondary school should choose between three (3) and five (5) trade/entrepreneurship subjects (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2004) for their students from where they will choose one or two as the case may be. In all, students are to take a minimum of eight (8) subjects or a maximum of nine (9) subjects. As a deliberate policy, the innovative subject streams in senior secondary education curricula is embarked upon to further consolidate the gains of the new basic education programme fostering: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy as well as become better citizens; preparation for higher education for those who desire to proceed further; and provision of entrepreneurship knowledge to drive the development of appropriate skills for social and economic transformation. Despite this ambitious innovation in Nigerian secondary education curricula reforms, there have been outcries from concerned stakeholders of education on the preparedness of the government prior to the implementation of the new innovation in senior secondary school curricula as well as the status of its implementation which has been on for some years now. It is on this thrust that this study was embarked upon by the researchers.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
As part of the efforts of government through the Nigerian Educational Research Development Council (NERDC) to provide education which is more societal needs-driven in content and coverage, secondary school education has been reformed and re-structured in terms of the cross-cutting subjects and the inclusion of new trade course/subject options. This step is with a view to making senior secondary school curricula and their recipients (school-going youths) skill-based, entrepreneurship and practical-oriented in the labour market and Social Sciences Education | Despite the above steps taken in policy terms, criticisms still abound about the cross-cutting compulsory subjects and the new subjects’ curricula introduced vis-à-vis the resources put in place for their effective implementation. Similarly, some schools of thoughts on education and policy matters have been faulting the adequacy of its policy implementation in secondary schools of Nigeria, and if empirical investigation about the critisms levied against senior secondary education in policy and implementation terms was not carried out, the purpose for which the innovative trade subjects are included might be a mirage. As a result, this study examined the implementation status of innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level in Ogun State, Nigeria. This covered the implementation in terms of personnel, instructional resources, structure, workshops, facilities, fund, adequacy of supervision and programme monitoring to justify the viability and stability of the curricula which has been on implementation for quite some years in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main purpose of the study was to examine the implementation status of innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level in Ogun State, Nigeria. The specific purposes of the study were to:
- Find out the availability and adequacy of personnel for the implementation of the innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level.
- Examine whether relevant textual and instructional materials are available for the implementation of the innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level.
- Find out the adequacy of fund for the implementation of the innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level.
- Ascertain the adequacy of supervision and monitoring of the implementation of the innovative subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level.
1.4 Research Question
Research Questions The following research questions guided the conduct of the study:
- Are teaching personnel available and adequate for the implementation of the innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level?
- Are there relevant textual and instructional materials for effective implementation of the innovative subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level?
- Are secondary schools adequately funded for the implementation of the innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level?
- How adequate is supervision and monitoring of the implementation of the innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- 𝐻𝑜1: There is no significant difference in mean responses of principals and teachers on the extent of implementation of trade/entrepreneurship curriculum in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
- 𝐻𝑜2: There is no significant difference in mean responses of male and female teachers on the extentof availability of teachers of trade/entrepreneurship curriculum in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is limited to the implementation status of the innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary school education level. It covers the senior secondary schools and their teachers in Nigeria. The study was limited to the study area because the selected schools prominently have teachers been used to teach at least some of the innovative trade subjects as expected at the senior secondary school level.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The trade subjects that will stimulate students to pursue a career in entrepreneurship were: cosmetology, garment making, catering and practice, fisheries, marketing, data processing, tourism, leather goods manufacturing and repair and animal husbandry. The trade subjects that have centers within the school community were: fisheries, furniture making, garment making, catering and craft practice, textile trade, painting and decoration, animal husbandry, cosmetology, marketing and printing and craft practice. The major trade subjects that should be taught in Ngeria senior secondary schools were: garment making, fisheries, animal husbandry, cosmetology, catering and craft practice, data processing and marketing. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of the opinions of teachers and students on the trade subjects that will stimulate nigeria senior secondary school students to pursue a career in entrepreneurship. There is a significant difference between the mean scores of the opinions of respondents in urban and rural secondary schools on the trade subjects that should be taught in Nigeria.
This paper has delved into the trends of educational reforms which have resulted into the innovative trade subjects’ curricula at senior secondary education level in Nigeria. The rationale behind such reforms in innovative terms has been to make secondary education more relevant to the learners and the nation. Although, it often takes years for any meaningful educational reform to yield fruits, this study has been able to assess the extent to which the intended plan for senior secondary education is being implemented in terms of personnel, textual materials and facilities, funding, supervision and monitoring over the years of its implementation in the study area. The findings of this study have actually brought to the fore the strength and the challenges affecting effective implementation of innovative trade subjects in senior secondary education in Nigeria. Indeed, all hope is not lost, the findings of this study would guide the way forward. We should be revisionist in our practice to secondary education curricula reforms so that the innovations in the end would not be a form of implementation in the wrong direction which is directly opposite the expected end.
On the basis of the results and findings of this study as well as obvious observations in the data collection process, the researchers recommend as follows:
- The citizenry should be sensitized by government agencies concerning the benefits inherent in the innovations installed in senior secondary education curricula in Nigeria.
- Federal, state, local government and private bodies should make adequate provision and contributions towards the inputs which go into the implementation of the innovations in Nigerian secondary education and its trade subjects’ curricula that are vocationally-based.
- There is the need to update secondary school teachers’ knowledge and skills through adequate professional
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