Identification Of Difficult Teaching-Learning Topic In Junior Secondary School Computer Science Curriculum
This study identifies the difficult teaching-learning topic in Junior Secondary School with particular reference to computer science curriculum in Nigeria, in a case study of Enugu Educational Zone, Enugu State.
It aims at identifying the difficult teaching-learning topics in Junior secondary school computer science curriculum and the causes of such problem. The instrument used for this research work include, questionnaire and review of materials already written by other researchers.
Three research questions were proposed and analyzed by using mainly simple percentages before rank ordering. The work was done in chapters and chapter one contained the background of the study, statement of problem, purpose of study, significance of the study, scope of the study, research question and definition of terms. Chapter two discussed the review of literature already written by other authors on the topic or related topics.
In chapter three, the main instrument was questionnaires that were administered to only the Junior Secondary School computer teachers from the data analysis, it was discovered that some concepts are actually perceived as difficult and level of difficulty varied with gender.
Chapter four deals with the analysis of data collected through a questionnaire. Chapter five in comprises the summary, recommendations and conclusion.
1.1 Background to the Study
Educational systems consist of many elements, including students, teachers, curriculum, administrators, specialists, and technology, physical and financial resources. However, learning outcome of students is the essential element, since quality of the education mostly depends on the impact on the students (Orodho, 2003).
Computer studies curriculums have aimed to provide students with the fundamental computer skills needed for further education, including understand computer concepts; developing their own computer usage and problem-solving processes; using these skills both in real life and in the classroom; systematically improving their skills, and behaving responsibly (Scherens, 2007).
Learning outcomes of students in secondary schools is often measured by their Performance in various certificate examinations, of which the apex is in the country is organized by National Examinations Council (NECO). Students’ performance in this examination determines who would transit from secondary school to tertiary institutions in the country. Such assessments are therefore very important; researchers have attempted to identify the factors that affect learning outcomes of students in Nigerian secondary schools. Eshiwani, (2013); Njeru and Orodho (2003), identified adequacy of resources both human and physical to determine learning outcomes. To improve the performance therefore requires improvement in the provision of teaching and learning resources.
In discussing the constituent of teaching process lays the teaching approach used by teachers. Teaching method and approach are associated with student achievements in final examinations (Raju, 2013). A study of high school students’ examinations performance in various academic disciplines in, found that teaching approach of teachers have statistically significant positive impact on students test scores in their respective subject areas, (Green ward, Hedges and Laine, 2016). Studies conducted in United States on examination performance suggest that student achievement is varies dependent on the teaching method employed (Wenglisky, 2000).
Eshiwani, (2017) states that another factor affecting students learning outcome in computer is misconceptions and understanding about topics taught. Misconceptions are misunderstandings and misinterpretations based on incorrect meanings. As indicated by Ojose (2015), misconceptions “exist in part because of students’ overriding need to make sense of the instruction that they receive”. For example, the rules for adding data processing with like and unlike storage process are quite different. Moving from adding fractions with like denominators to adding fractions with unlike denominators requires learners to make sense of the different scenarios and make adjustments. According to Ojose (2015), the transition often creates cognitive conflicts and dissonance for learners because the process requires unlearning what has been previously learned.
Learning Misconceptions and teaching approach largely determines students’ achievements. Mwamwenda and Mwamwenda (2017), on the effects of Learning Misconceptions and teaching strategy had a direct link with performance of pupils. The issue of teaching and student learning process is rapidly becoming an important topic area of education policy analysis in both developing and developed countries such as Nigeria largely because of its impact on the learning outcomes. According to Scott and McCcellan, (2009), of particular importance is the fact that teaching method might on the transition from one level to the other affect good examination performance. Similarly, a study by (Anikeef, 2014; Dalton, Macenaro, and Nivarro, 2003; Lin and Chen, 2006) on determinants of secondary students’ performance in mathematic found out that Learning Misconceptions and understanding yields a significant impact on examination performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Various factors influence the teaching and learning of computer in secondary schools. Over the past six years the performance of students in Enugu has been on a steady growth in performance but still lagging behind as compared to other state as revealed in NECO results posted from 2012 to 2017. This therefore raises queries as to what factors are making the Enugu lag behind in performance of computer in NECO as compared to the other states. Other studies such as Duighan, 2016; Kibui, 2015; Kinad and Reinherz 2016 south to establish factors influencing performance in Computer in NECO in secondary schools in Enugu, Nigeria. However there exist limited literature on the existing relationship between this factors. Filling this gap in literature is the central aim of this study.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The Objectives of the study was to determine relationship between misconception of some topics, teaching apppoach, and the learning outcomes of students in computer in, Enugu. The study was guided by the following specific objectives:-
- To identify the extent to which learning misconceptions contributes to the students’ learning out come in Computer at secondary school level.
- To identify the extent to which teaching approach affects the learning outcome in computer in Enugu.
- To investigate the relationship between learning misconception, teaching approach, and the learning outcomes of students in computer in Enugu.
1.4 Research Questions
The study was sought to answer the following: –
- What is the extent to which learning misconceptions contributes to the students’ learning out come in Computer at secondary school level.?
- What is the extent to which teaching approach affects the learning outcome in computer in Enugu?
- What is the nature of the relationship between learning misconception, teaching approach, and the learning outcomes of students in computer in Enugu?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
HO1: there is no significant difference between learning outcome and contribution of misconceptions at secondary school level.
HO2: teaching approach does not affect the learning outcome in computer in, Enugu
HO3: there is no significant difference between the influence of learning misconception on the learning outcomes and the influence teaching approach on learning outcomes of students in computer in Enugu?
1.6 Significance of Study
The study is worthy of academic research on the following grounds: This study will help in the tackling the problems associated with misconception in Computer and other factors affecting learning outcome of math students. Specifically, the study will reveal the impact of teaching methods and learning misconceptions on students’ performance in computer in secondary schools and contributes to the body of knowledge. Second, the study is expected to provide a foundation for future researchers on body of literature for related topics.
Third, the study findings are expected to be beneficial to policy makers especially the Ministry of education and vocational training to put forward policies that would greatly encourage fair distribution of resources in public institutions if better results are to be obtained. Fourth, the findings are also expected to benefit teachers of Secondary Schools in Enugu since it gave the ideas of most suitable teaching methods for computer.
It is expected that the findings of this study will be useful in understanding how government and regulatory authorities can enforce methods and programmes that will support improvement of teaching approach and students’ learning outcomes, as well as the extent to which these schools improve academic performance. Thus, the findings will provide insights on the learning misconceptions, teaching approaches, learning outcomes and students’ academic performance. The findings will also provide information on the challenges hindering the effectiveness of teaching methods, implementation of policies and regulations guiding the teacher-student relationship and learning outcomes of students as regards computer as well as provide recommendations for improvement. This study in essence, will add to the research work on this subject matter as well as expand the frontier of knowledge made available to the academia and the public for reference and academic use.
1.7 Scope of the Study
Due to time and resource constraints, not all secondary schools in enugu north LGA, Enugu were selected for the study. This reduced the accuracy of the determination of the factors that were considered contributing to the student performance in computer at NECO level in secondary schools in ENUGU NORTH LGA, Enugu. The study was also limited to secondary schools in the performance of computer in ENUGU NORTH LGA, Enugu, only due to scarcity of resources since the respondents will be drawn from the few selected schools in ENUGU NORTH LGA, Enugu, the students’ performance in computer from the state will reflected the same situation from other Counties in the whole state a large number of variables will be required to assess the effects of factors contributing to the performance of computer in ENUGU NORTH LGA, Enugu at NECO level. Ten sampled schools were used in the survey.
Private and Primary schools were left out of the study, as some of the factors that affect the performance of computer from the two levels was not be the same as those of secondary schools level. Several factors affecting NECO performance in Computer in Public Day Secondary Schools in ENUGU NORTH LGA, Enugu. This was limited to only a few factors that affect examination performance, in Computer at NECO level, although many factors could affect examination performance in computer in public day secondary schools’ level, in ENUGU NORTH LGA, Enugu the factors considered for this study is limited to learning misconceptions and teaching approach.
1.9 Definition of Significant Terms
The following are the definitions of significant terms:
Influence is the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself. For this study, influence is referring having an effect on Computer Performance of student.
Teaching approach is the strategy or pattern used in teaching a particular subject for this study teaching approach is pattern in which teachers deal with questions of meaning, sense making, and communication if their students are to be proficient learners and users of computer.
Learning Misconceptions are misunderstandings and misinterpretations based on incorrect meanings. In this study learning misconceptions erroneous ways of thinking, this can limit or weaken comprehension of computer
Requisite resources refer to necessary material needed for effective teaching and learning.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary, conclusions and recommendations of salient points emanating from the study’s findings.
The main purpose of this study was to assess the the relationship between students’ topics misconceptions and teaching approach and learning of some topics in Computer in secondary schools. The study was guided by the following questions; What is the extent to which learning misconceptions contributes to the students’ learning out come in Computer at secondary school level, What is the extent to which teaching approach affects the learning outcome in computer, What is the nature of the relationship between learning misconception, teaching apppoach, and the learning outcomes of students in computer in Enugu north LGA, Enugu..
The study combined both quantitative and qualitative survey design. The sample comprised of 120 students from the sampled Secondary Schools. Stratified random sampling was used to select students, 60 students comprising boys and girls from each school’s Grades 10, 11 and 12 were selected. The students responded to the questionnaires on topics misconceptions and teaching approach. The questionnaires used likerts scale to collect responses.
The results from the study showed that students examined had topics misconceptions though weak, looking at the scores, they obtained and had view teaching approach as important in learning computer. The male students had less topics misconceptionsed in learning computer that is, compared to the female students. The study identified five factors affecting secondary school students learning. The following were identified namely: the Computer Teachers, the parents, lack of text books, poor background from primary school and the environment where a student resides. The study also established that the Computer teachers were contributing to students’ topics misconceptions and development of negative teaching approach’s.
The research findings have established that students have topics misconceptions and teaching approach affect learning outcome as they come to Secondary School. This is noted from their mean scores of topics misconceptions and teaching approach which are close to the learning outcome. The factors which were found from the students’ and teachers’ responses to have changed the nature of students topics misconceptions and teaching approach towards learning Computer were due to Computer teachers’ pedagogical styles and rapport with students; the influence from parents; the lack of Computer textbooks for reference and research; the poor background of some students and the area where a student resides.
The following recommendations were made to the Ministry of Education Science Vocational Training and Early Education:
- The Ministry should encourage the Teacher Education Institutions to encourage student teachers in the use of student centred methodology in most of their teaching time to arouse topics misconceptions and positive teaching approach in the learning of Computer.
- The Ministry through Curriculum Development Centre (C.D.C) should develop Computer textbooks which will incorporate practical application of Computer concepts to reduce students’ topics misconceptions towards learning Computer.
- The Ministry should improve staffing of qualified Computer teachers at Grade 9 level in Computer to curb the students’ poor background in grade 9 at this level and provide an opportunity for in-service activities in school for lower qualified staff teaching Grade 10, 11 and 12.
- The Ministry should change the policy on selection at Grade 10 by making Computer as one of the passing subjects to arouse topics misconceptions an development of positive teaching approach towards the subject.
Identification Of Difficult Teaching-Learning Topic In Junior Secondary School Computer Science Curriculum
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