Teacher’s Evaluation Of Implementation Of Social Studies Curriculum Among Universal Basic Education Schools In Ilorin West Local Government Area Of Ilorin

Social Studies Project Topic

Teacher’s Evaluation Of Implementation Of Social Studies Curriculum Among Universal Basic Education Schools In Ilorin West Local Government Area Of Ilorin (Charles)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine teacher’s evaluation of implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin. The study was specifically set to assess teachers perception on the school based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin, assess teachers perception on the teacher based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin, and assess teachers perception on the students based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected junior secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 59 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals the school based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin includes: poor availability of finance, lack of adequate infrastructures(Classrooms, Study halls, etc), recruitment of qualified teachers, and over population. The study also revealed that the teacher based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin includes: lack of classroom management skill, poor relationship with the students, lack of pedagogical knowledge, and inability to adopt instructional method suitable for learning. Therefore, it is recommended that Social studies teachers should undergo periodic training in other to meet up with the new standard of teaching the subject. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Social Studies as a school subject is unarguably a child of necessity. Social Studies as a discipline originated in America in the 20th century after the Second World War, necessitated by the need to re-establishand promote good human understanding and relationship amongthe peoples of the world. In Nigeria, Social Studies came as an answer to specific problems (Fadeiye,2005). In the late 1960s, most Nigerians agreed that the schools must be Nigerian in outlook rather than emphasizing foreign ideas. According to Fafunwa (1974), the colonial system of education alienated Nigerians from their cultural environment. It was thought by Nigerian educators that through Social Studies ,the love of the country could be kindled in the Nigerian child in such a way that they would develop a strong attachment to their country and to further expose them to the problems in the society and equip them with the necessary skills needed for their survival in their environment (Edinyang, Tandu, & Gimba, 2015).

In agreement with the above assertion Abdu-Raheem (2010), described the subject “Social Studies” as a school discipline for the young generations. Social Studies was introduced basically to enable learners to adapt to their environment and be able to adjust to the stress of rapidly changing society. Dada, Titus and Adu (2016) view Social Studies as an integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. This definition by Dada et el informed that the subject Social Studies is beyond the study of man and his environment. Hence, in this study, it could be simply defined as integrated social science aimed to help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse democratic society in an interdependent world.
As an important school subject, the teaching and learning of Social Studies in the primary schools in Nigeria is still retained in the 21st Century Universal Basic Education (UBE) initiative. The Universal Basic Education (UBE), simply known and called “Basic Education”, is in line with the new system of education (9-3-4) rages from primary one to junior secondary school three (JSS 3). It comprises of two components, lower basic and upper basic education. Lower basic education comprises primary one to six. While upper basic education is made up of JSS1 to JSS3. Nzeribe (2004) advised that teaching for molding of character is better and more effective at this level of education as children develop their conduct based on what they learned at the early stages of their lives. Hence, this informed the reason for the choice of this level of (basic education) education as a fundamental or foundational stage of formal education in Nigeria. It is believed that effective implementation of Social Studies in the school will result in the achievement of the objectives of Social Studies in Nigeria mostly in this 21st century (Nzeribe , 2004).

According to National Policy on Education (2008), the objective of Social Studies curriculum in Nigeria under the Basic Education include to: (1) develop the learners’ capacity to learn and acquire basic skills including those of listening, reading, writing, speaking, calculation and observation, (2) analysis and inference which are essential to the formation of sound interethnic relationship; socializing and humanizing the individual child to enable him interact freely with children from other ethnic groups; (3) create an awareness and understanding of the evolving social and physical environment; (4) ensure the acquisition of that relevant knowledge which is an essential pre-requisite to personal development as well as to a positive personal contribution to the betterment of mankind and the Nigerian society at large; (5) develop a sympathetic appreciation of the diversity and interdependence of all local communities and the wider national and international community; (6) develop in children a positive attitude to citizenship and a desire in them to make a positive personal contribution to the creation of a united Nigeria, through appreciation of values of honesty, hard work, fairness, justice and togetherness; and (7) to encourage learners to appreciate that all the things they have learnt are inter- related.

No matter how beautifully the above objectives are articulated or sound, if they not properly implemented, the purpose of introducing Social Studies in the primary and junior secondary school curriculum in Nigeria will be defeated. Curriculum is the totality of the learning experiences to which learners are exposed (Gbamanja, 2015). Social Studies curriculum is therefore the totality of the learning experiences to which pupils/students are exposed. Implementation of Social Studies curriculum has to do with the act of carrying out or executing the curriculum contents of Social Studies by way of teaching pupils and allowing them learn from its contents. The curriculum contents of Social Studies which were integrated into the national objectives on Social Studies constitute a project which required proper implementation. The implementation process of Social Studies curriculum may be described in two ways namely, proper/good implementation or poor implementation. Social Studies curriculum could be said to be well or properly implemented if the above set of objectives defining the contents of Social Studies curriculum are actualized. Thus, good implementation will indicate that many, if not all, the expected outcomes of teaching and learning of Social Studies have been achieved. That means that pupils/students are now seen developed the capacity which enables them learn and acquire basic skills including those of listening, reading, writing, speaking, calculation and observation, pupils/students are now able to analyze and to infer which now help them to form sound inter-ethnic relationship, they are now able to socialize and humanize which enable them to interact freely with children from other ethnic groups, pupils/students are now creating an awareness and exhibiting understanding of the evolving social and physical environment; they have now acquired relevant knowledge which is an essential pre-requisite to personal development as well as to a positive personal contribution to the betterment of mankind and the Nigerian society at large, among others. When pupils/students manifest the above learning curriculum outcomes, that is when Social Studies could be described as being well or properly implemented. Poor implementation would then mean the opposite, that is to say that the pupils/students have failed to develop the capacity which enables them learn and acquire basic skills including those of listening, reading, writing, speaking, calculation and observation, they are not able to analyze and infer which essentially helps them to form sound inter-ethnic relationship, they are not able to socialize and humanize which enable them interact freely with children from other ethnic groups, and so on.

The individual perceptions or opinions held by teachers as the implementers of the Social Studies curriculum will be given consideration in this study. Teachers’ perceptions are the expressed opinions or views of teachers on a particular subject matter. In relation to this study, it is opinions or views expressed by individual teachers, especially Social Studies teachers, on whether Social Studies curriculum under the Universal Basic Education has been properly implemented or poorly implemented, and the reasons for believing so. In this respect, study by Elochukwu (2019) found that Social Studies teachers hold the general and strong view that the Social Studies curriculum has not been properly implemented. The reason being that the teaching and learning of Social Studies over the years have not led to the realization of the objectives set for the subject and that Social Studies pupils are living in denial of those positive social attitudes and changes expected of them to display having studied Social Studies . Adeyemo and Ogunsola (2020) found that teachers’ perceptions on Social Studies curriculum implementation are in favour of the belief that its implementation could not be described as either a failure or a complete success, but has yielded moderate results in that it could not be said that the teaching and learning over the years have led or not led the pupils/students to have the proper understanding about man and his environment, and to gain those social capacities, capabilites and attitudes required of them to function well as responsible adults in their society and as such prepared them enough to make meaningful contributions in developing the society in which they live. In that study, teachers’ perceptions on the implementation of Social Studies curriculum took a mid-way position. However, study by Ezemora (2019) found that the teachers’ opinions say that the implementation of Social Studies curriculum over the years has yielded a positive results. Effective implementation of Social Studies curriculum will definitely lead to a functional society. Given this background, the study aimed at ascertaining the implementation of 21st -century basic education social studies curriculum in federal capital territory, Abuja, Nigeria, using teachers’ perception.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The 21st century is an era characterized by dynamism, innovations, and new methods of doing things in all facets of endeavors. In line with the above, Iwuagwu, Iwuagwu, and Akuta (2017) reported that the demand for education in the 21st century is complex, some teachers may find it difficult to cope with difficulties occasioned by social change and innovations in teaching and learning associated with this era. This may have an impact on the implementation of the basic education social studies curriculum. Dada, Titus and Adu (2016) observed that the key challenge in the implementation of basic social studies curriculum is that teachers of Social Studies find it extremely difficult to apply specific techniques that could help facilitate the realization of the desired objectives of the subject. Effective imparting of Social Studies knowledge on students requires a teacher who is grounded with a variety of both content knowledge, pedagogical skills and acquainted with contemporary dynamism and trends of event. Hence, teaching of Social Studies in schools has been reportedly difficult because of the inability of some institutions or teachers to conceptualize the nature of the subject itself. Besides, Ajiboye (2010) further explained that Social Studies as a school subject was not clearly understood by countless scholars. He noted that several teachers of the subject are unaware of its contents and methods thereby making them impart the knowledge of the subject inappropriately to the learners. All these seem to point at poor implementation of the 21st Century curriculum of Social Studies under the Universal Basic Education (UBE) scheme in Nigeria in general and Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja in particular. However, the above observation may not be universally applicable, hence the researcher deems it wise to carry out study on teacher’s evaluation of implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine teacher’s evaluation of implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Assess teachers perception on the school based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin
  2. Assess teachers perception on the teacher based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin
  3. Assess teachers perception on the students based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. What are the school based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin?
  2. What are the teacher based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin?
  3. What are the students based factors affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant factors affecting the effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin.
  • Ha: There is significant factors affecting the effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study gives various insights into teacher’s evaluation of implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin. The study also highlighted problems affecting effective implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin. These problems will enable stakeholders in the education sector to take adequate measures in tackling these challenges, and make learning of social studies a lot easier for both teachers and students in junior secondary school levels. Empirically, the study will add to the body of existing literature and serve a s reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies on related topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study focused on teacher’s evaluation of implementation of social studies curriculum among universal basic education schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin. Hence, the study will be delimited to some selected junior secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Ilorin.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Social Studies:

Can be defined as the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on teachers perception on the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government, Enugu State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine teachers perception on the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government, Enugu State as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain the extent history is taught in secondary schools, ascertain teachers perception on whether the teaching of history in secondary schools promotes moral principles values on the students, and find out the the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were History teachers of some selected secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent history is taught in secondary schools is low.
  2. The teaching of history in secondary schools promotes moral principles values on the students.
  3. The the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools includes: lack of qualified teachers, lack of instructional aids, lack of Correlation between History and other subject, Misconceptions about History, and government policy.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends;

  1. Educational policies should be designed to draw more attention to History. The government should initiate 21st century policies at secondary school level and make it one of the core educational subjects.
  2. Principals, teachers and school administrators should give full support to the teaching and learning of History in their schools in order to foster a conducive ambience for effective teaching and learning of the subject.
  3. Teachers should be innovative by improving on teaching aids in order to convey effective content to students. Practical examples from the physical environment should be used during lessons in order to make the subject vivid and less abstract.
  4. Stake holders in education should provide the necessary human and material resources needed for teaching and learning of History in junior secondary school level.
  5. History producing universities and colleges of education should make History education program attractive so that more students can enroll to be trained as History teachers. This will help meet the demand for History teachers. Scholarship scheme for History can be initiated by Enugu state Government in order to attract students to History.

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