Functional Vocational And Technical Education Curriculum For Sustainable Youth Empowerment In Edo State

Project and Seminar Material for Curriculum Studies

Functional Vocational And Technical Education Curriculum For Sustainable Youth Empowerment In Edo State


Abstract


This study examined vocational and technical education curriculum and how it drives sustainable development in Nigeria. Vocational and technical education is a programme designed for sustainable youth empowerment in Nigeria. 200 staff of IMT Enugu were the respondents to a questionnaire prepared by the researcher. To achieve the aim of this study, two hypotheses were posited and tested using the chi-square. Simple frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the data obtained from the survey. The paper was concluded and recommendations were made to further improve on the vocational and technical education programme. Some of the recommendations are: Government should delegate inspectors from ministry of education or set-up an implementation committee that will advise government on better ways of monitoring, controlling and implementing the affairs of vocational and technical education programme.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is a right of every individual. It unlocks the development of personal and national potentials of citizens of a country and the world at large. According to Balogun (2010), education is the light without which the world will be darkness. It is the basis for scientific and technological breakthrough and also the basis for modernity which has made all nations of the world to accord it immense priority, even though the level of priority varies from one country to another. Currently, emphasis is shifting away from the general education that encourages mere acquisition of certificates to skill-based education which centers more on what one can do and the ability to apply requisite skill n real work environment.

Umuru (1999) explained curriculum as all the learning experiences given to the child under the auspices of the teacher. The problem that confronts most developing countries after independence is always identified to be that of inappropriate curricula and education in such states. Vocational and technical curriculum constitutes a broad range of student’s experiences in the technical college setting. Instructions are given by teachers and curricula include these instructions that constitute a broad range of staff’s experiences.

Olaitan (1996) posits that unemployment leads to frustration and disillusionment which may result in crime or drug abuse in a futile attempt to escape from and forget the pains and humiliation associated with poverty and lack. The problem of unemployment, he further stated, has worsened as millions of school leavers and graduates of tertiary institutions are not gainfully employment. The reason is that they lack the necessary occupational skills that would enable them to be self- employed and effectively function in today’s world of work. Occupational skills can be achieved through vocational and technical education. Okorie (2001) asserts that vocational education can be conceived as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of educational process involving the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life. Abdullahi (1994) maintains that vocational and technical education involves the acquisition of techniques and the application of the knowledge of the science for the improvement of man’s surrounding. This includes dealing with manpower training in professional areas as engineering, agriculture, business, home economics, etc.

The skills involve practical works and application that lead to particular occupation. May (2007) says that the neglect of technical education in the area of adequate personnel, financial support and facilities to encourage vocational and technical education is robbing the nation of some contributions their graduates would have made to the economy. Ayoodele (2006) identified the problem of irrelevant education that is bookish, theoretical and ‘white collar job’ oriented. In addition, government programmes are not designed to promote vocational and technical education. The level of infrastructural development and facilities provided by the government are affecting, to a very large extent, the level of skill acquisition in the country. The high rate of insecurity as exemplified in kidnapping, prostitution, arm robbery has relationship with unemployment and poverty. It is against this back drop that this paper is looking at vocational and technical education as an imperative for sustainable national development in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The development of any nation hinges on the social and economic contributions of her citizens. Educational, vocational and technical training plays a major role at promoting community and national development (Oguntuyi, 2013). Vocational and technical education facilitates the acquisition of applied skills and basic scientific knowledge. It is a planned programme of course and learning experiences that begin with the exploration of career options, supports basic, academic and life skills, and enables the achievement of high academic standards, leadership, preparation for industry and continuing education (CTE, 2009). Unfortunately, Nigeria does not seem to give vocational and technical education the attention it deserves. This appears to be one of the reasons for rising rate of unemployment and poverty in the society. The growing problem of unemployment in the country has contributed largely to the worsening problem of poverty among the populace. This is because the youth and graduates from tertiary institutions are not equipped with adequate skills that will enable them exploit the natural resources that abound in Nigeria.it is in view of this that the researcher embarked on this study to find out the influence vocational and technical education has on sustainable youth empowerment.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general aim of this study is to have a deep look at functional vocational and technical education curriculum for sustainable youth empowerment. The specific objectives are

  1. To access the level of involvement of youths in vocational education in Enugu state
  2. To review the curriculum presently been used by technical colleges in Nigeria and its relevance to the latest in the world of technology.
  3. To access the perception of the society on vocational and technical studies.
  4. To access the impact of vocational and technical education on job creation
  5. To find the relationship between vocational education and sustainable youth empowerment.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Hypotheses one
  • Ho: There is no relationship between vocational education and sustainable development in Enugu state.
  • Hi: There is a relationship between vocational education and sustainable development in Enugu state.
Hypotheses two
  • Ho: Vocational and technical education has no impact on job creation
  • Hi: Vocational and technical education has an impact on job creation

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study on functional vocational and technical education curriculum for sustainable youth empowerment will be useful to students who intend to engage in vocational education in making such decisions and.

Most parents and guidance discourage their wards from engaging in the vocational education as most of them derogate the programmes and associate with students been having a low IQ for university education. This study will help change the perspective of the society on the relevance of Vocational and technical education.

This study will also be useful to the government and curriculum organisers to properly organise curriculum that will suit the needs of the students and to encourage proper funding of the technical and vocational education in Nigeria.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is primarily concerned with functional vocational and technical education curriculum for sustainable youth empowerment. This study covers staff of IMT Enugu. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Vocational Educational:

Educational training that provides practical experience in a particular occupational field, as agriculture, home economics, or industry.

Technical Education:

It is a term related to education which covers the technical part of the subject or the course.

It is required to enhance the knowledge of the student where they define the things with usage of various different Technical Educational Instruments.

Curriculum:

Refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student’s experiences in terms of the educator’s or schools’ instructional goals.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to have a critical analysis of functional vocational and technical education curriculum for sustainable youth empowerment.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefit in addressing the challenges of curriculum development in vocational education in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

This study aimed at having a critical analysis of functional vocation and technical education curriculum for sustainable youth empowerment. Five objectives were raised. These objectives include:

  1. To access the level of involvement of youths in vocational education in Enugu state
  2. To review the curriculum presently been used by technical colleges in Nigeria and its relevance to the latest in the world of technology.
  3. To access the perception of the society on vocational and technical studies.
  4. To access the impact of vocational and technical education on job creation
  5. To find the relationship between vocational education and sustainable youth empowerment.

5.3 Conclusion

Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn.
Education is a vital tool through which any nation can experience growth and development. Job creation is only vital if vocational and technical education is carefully conducted in our schools. Occupational skills enable one to overcome the problem of unemployment. Based on the foregoing, it is observed that vocational and technical education occupies an important position in the sustainable development of the nation. It is also found that the major problems militating against effective implementation of vocation training programmes in educational institutions across the country include inadequate provision of necessary facilities and equipment, less emphasis on technical education and negative public attitude to vocational education.


5.4 Recommendation

  1. Government should delegate inspectors from Ministry of education or set up an implementation committee that will advise government on better ways of monitoring, controlling and implementing the affairs of vocational and technical education as it relates to our immediate situation in Nigeria.
  2. The government should train qualified vocational and technical education teachers and experts to operate the complex machines and equipment during the implementation of technical college programme and use such skills acquired by teachers to educate and empower the youths of Nigeria.
  3. The industries, non-governmental agencies and private enterprises should provide laboratories, equipment, workshops, facilities and machines in the existing technical colleges as stated in the curriculum for effective implementation of the technical college programme.
  4. Government should post minimum of five vocational and technical teachers to the technical colleges to handle the different areas, and the principals should be in the field of technical education field
  5. Scholarship and research grants/loans should be given to individuals in the field of vocational and technical education to assist the technical education programme to grow academically and also to meet the target of sustainable youth empowerment and self-reliant individuals.
  6. Government should provide fund to enable the principals and teachers install the machines and equipment not installed in the different technical colleges and also to provide other facilities for effective implementation of the vocational and technical education curriculum.

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