An Assessment Of The Relevance And Problems Of Computer Based Test In Nigerian Universities

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An Assessment Of The Relevance And Problems Of Computer Based Test In Nigerian Universities


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Assessment plays a critical education in the educational process. For students, performance in “high-stakes” assessments enables them to pursue more educational possibilities (Jude, 2011). On the other side, assessments serve as proof of teachers’ and schools’ performance as persons and institutions. According to Melody (2007), assessment systems serve as a means of determining individual and institutional achievement and hence have a significant driving impact on the systems for which they were developed. Currently, the conventional form of student assessment is the most prevalent in Nigeria. Students’ cognitive abilities are examined using paper and pen. This assessment approach imposes significant constraints on the efficacy of the assessments (Edmund, 2010). The traditional method is characterized by a variety of examination malpractices, including the introduction of unauthorized materials, writing on currency notes and identification cards, spying on other candidates in the examination hall, substitution of answer sheets, and alteration of examination scores or grades. Others include impersonation, exam questions leakage to students prior to examinations, collusion with supervisors and school officials to cheat, and body writing or tattoos in which students, often females, write on concealed areas of their bodies. These issues support the necessity for academic assessment automation.

In line with the preceding, automation of educational assessments, whether school-based or other public exams, may be defined as the use of technology to measure learning outcomes via the use of computers (Obioma, 2013).

Technology has substantially altered the assessment process during the last several years. Educational measurement has shifted toward computer-based testing (CBT) in a number of academic domains. CBT is defined as tests or assessments administered by computer on a standalone or dedicated network, or by other technology devices connected to the internet or world wide web, with the majority of them utilizing multiple choice questions (MCQs). Since the 1960s, computer-based assessments have been used to assess students’ knowledge and problem-solving abilities. Educators and trainers may use the systems to create, plan, administer, and report on surveys, quizzes, tests, and examinations. Computer-based tests (CBT) are not just another technique of administering exams; they signify a qualitative movement away from more conventional approaches such as paper-based testing. Despite these benefits of computerized test administration, it was shown that the efficient implementation of this method for conducting assessments in Nigerian schools has been hampered by a variety of obstacles. Thus, the purpose of this study is to elucidate the variables that influence the usage of CTB in Nigerian schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

CBT, sometimes referred to as Computer-Based Assessment, e-Examination/Assessment, Computerized Testing, or Computer-Administered Testing, is a way of conducting assessments in which answers are electronically recorded and evaluated (Davey, 2011). Educators may use CBT to create, plan, administer, and report on surveys, quizzes, tests, exams, and other types of testing. There is an abundance of literature describing the several benefits of employing computer-based exams. The primary benefits are cheaper long-term expenses, immediate feedback to students, better productivity and low operational fluctuation, accommodations for applicants with special needs, and enhanced impartiality (computerized marking does not “know” the students, so neither favours nor makes allowances for minor errors). Additionally, CBT eliminates impersonation and cheating. Additionally, this procedure assures that findings are available within a few hours following the examination (Abubakar & Adebayo, 2014). Unfortunately, a number of factors have been identified as impeding the use of CBT, including resistance to change, insufficient power supply, a lack of knowledge, low competency and familiarity with computers, a shortage of qualified personnel, a shortage of facilities such as computers and related devices, and unstable internet networks (Abubakar & Adebayo, 2014; American Psychological Association, 1986; Davey, 2011; JAMB, 2015; Obioma, Junaidu & Ajagun, 2013; Ojerinde, 2015). These obstacles, however, have hampered the implementation of CTB in the majority of Nigerian schools. As a result, this research is primarily concerned with the relevance and challenges associated with computer-based assessments in Nigerian universities.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically assess the relevance and problems of computer based test in Nigerian universities. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Identify the benefits associated with the use of computer based test in Nigerian Universities.
  2. Ascertain the extent to which computer based test is effective in carrying out assessments in Nigerian Universities.
  3. Identify the the problems associated with the use of CBT in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the benefits associated with the use of computer based test in Nigerian Universities?
  2. What is the extent to which computer based test is effective in carrying out assessments in Nigerian Universities?
  3. What are the problems associated with the use of CBT in Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will expose the teachers, school managements, the government and all stakeholders involve in policy making in Nigeria to the challenges that hinder the proper implementation of CBT in Nigeria. Finally this study will serve as a reference to other researcher who will embark on the same research in the nearest future.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally assess the relevance and problems of computer based test in Nigerian universities. However, the study will further identify the benefits associated with the use of computer based test in Nigerian Universities, ascertain the extent to which computer based test is effective in carrying out assessments in Nigerian Universities, and identify the the problems associated with the use of CBT in Nigeria.

Thus, this study will be delimited to university of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Investigation:

The action of investigating something or someone; formal or systematic examination or research

Computer Based Test (CBT):

Computer-based test (CBT) are instructions which is delivered by a computer system. A course (CBT) may also be given through a software/program installed on a computer system either through the internet, intranet or a cooperate digital channel

Academic Performance:

The extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.

Secondary School:

In between basic school and college.


An Assessment Of The Relevance And Problems Of Computer Based Test In Nigerian Universities


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An Assessment Of The Relevance And Problems Of Computer Based Test In Nigerian Universities


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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the problems faced by Nigerian universities?

It is one of the results of the poor quality of students coming from secondary schools. Also, the massive influx of unprepared students admitted into tertiary institutions cause them to get involved in very unethical practices such as exchange of money or sex for grades. This is a common problem in Nigeria universities.

What are the problems with tertiary education in Nigeria?

The massive influx of unprepared students admitted into tertiary institutions cause them to get involved in very unethical practices such as exchange of money or sex for grades. This is a common problem in Nigeria universities.

Is the University of Ibadan among the first 1000 universities in Nigeria?

Unfortunately, the most recent world ranking of universities does not see Nigeria amongst the first 1000. The University of Ibadan , however, is ranked at the 1099 th position and no other university in Nigeria follows before the 2000 mark.

Why is the education system still used in Nigeria?

Nigeria universities still use the system established in the 1960s when the University of Ibadan was converted from college to university. It was the first university established in Nigeria and until now, the same 19th century academic traditions are still applied. There is a serious lack of innovation to meet up to new world standards. 

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