An Assessment Of The Relevance And Problems Of Computer Based Test In Nigerian Universities

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

An Assessment Of The Relevance And Problems Of Computer Based Test In Nigerian Universities


Abstract


This study was carried out on the perception of students and teachers towards the relevance and problems of computer based test in nigerian universities in selected higher institutions in Nigeria using two institutions in Ekiti state as a case study. To achieve this, thee significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprises of students and teachers in Ekiti State University and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Ekiti State.In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 300 respondents while 267 were received and 259 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the benefits associated with the use of CBT in carrying out examination include; lower administrative cost, time saving, less demand upon teachers, improves measurements precision and efficiency, and immediate scoring. The findings also revealed that the use of CBT for examinations ignites examination anxiety among examination candidates, and the extent to which students’ and teachers’ are ready to adopt the use of CBT is low. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that Government should provide institutions at all levels in country with adequate information technology tools, and Government should ensure adequate electricity supply in all tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: Testing, computer based test, Perception.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

During the past few years, technology has significantly reshaped themethod of assessment. In many academic domains, educational measurement has been moving towards the use of Computer-Based Testing (CBT), defined as tests or assessments that are administered by computer in either stand-alone or dedicated network or by other technology devices linked to the internet or worldwide web most of them using multiple choice questions (MCQs). Computer based tests have been used 1960s to test knowledge and problems solving skills. Computer based assessment systems have enabled educator and trainees to author, schedule, deliver and report on surveys, quizzes, tests and exams. There are two main types of computer based testing; the most familiar type is where candidates fill in their responses on a paper form, which is fed into a computer optical mark reader. This reads form, scores, the paper, and may even report on the tests reliability, the second type of computer based testing is where computers provide an assessment interface for students; they input their answers and receive feedbacks via a computer. An effective method of students’ assessments is necessary at all areas and levels of education. Due to increase in student numbers, ever-escalating work commitments for academic staff and the advancement of internet technology, the use of computer assisted assessment has been an attractive proposition for many higher education institutions. Since their first use, computer assisted test construction system have made a major impact on the design and generation of examinations at many universities and college (Ekiti State University and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education).

Currently in Ekiti State University and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, the traditional method (a combination of essay examination and practical examination) is most used as evaluation of students knowledge. In the past few years, the number of students increased drastically and the conventional examination method became time consuming in term of the examination time for evaluation and assessment. A solution of examination in large classes of students is an automated testing system and this has been introduced by Ekiti State University and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education primarily to address the concerns and others.

Generally, the advantages of computer based test systems over traditional paper and pencil testing (PPT) have been demonstrated in several comparative works. Computer based test is just an alternative method for delivering examinations; it represents an important qualitative shift away from traditional methods such as paper based test. Despite these advantages available in computerized test administration, it does not mean that computer based tests are intrinsically better than paper and pencil tests. Previous study (Fyfe,G., Meyer,J., Fyfe, S., Ziman,M., Sanders, K., and Hill,J.(n.d)] have even found that testing format does not affect test scores and as such computer based test(CBT) can be considered a valid and acceptable testing mode. As computer based test began to be used for summative assessment, establishing whether computer based testing performance was comparable to that of paper based testing became important. Researchers have performed large scale reviews of studies examining differences in performances of CBT and paper based version of tests and have generally found that when computer based test is similar in format to pencil and paper tests, it has little if any effects to pencil and paper tests, it has little if any effect on test performance (Erle, L., Benjamin, Q., Einar, W.S., and Raymond, S. (2006).

Moreso, from students’ perspective and teachers’ perspective of the CBT, there have been a number of mixed reactions. Previous research showed that more people anticipated problems with the computer assisted assessment than actually had them. This research also showed that despite fewer students being confident about CBT afterwards. Some studies reported the main disadvantages as being increased anxiety amongst their unfamiliar with use of computer and as such students agreed they are “technophobic”. The challenges of examinees by means of microcomputers demands appropriate software design. To comply with this demand, students and teachers belief and perception on the advantages and disadvantages of a computerized test are important since user perceptions and criticism are crucial in the acceptance, implementation and improvement of computerized tests, whilst recognizing the system level advantages associated with computer based test, it is important to explore the relationship between assessment mode and the behaviour of the students being assessed. If the term “Affordance” is used to describe what is made possible and facilitated, and what is made difficult and inhibited by a medium of assessment (Johnson,M. and Green, S. (2004). It is possible that the affordance offered by the computer meditated assessment differently than if they were engaged in paper based assessment.

Conclusively, several areas appear worthy of investigation, including issues related to quality factors that may influence performance and students perceptions regarding computer based test. The fact that students’ perception towards CBT for examination is an under-explored topic which is apparent. Thus, this study describes the findings in this domain with a view of disseminating goods practices, guidelines and models of implementation and evaluation of a particular type of test mode.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

CBT, sometimes referred to as Computer-Based Assessment, e-Examination/Assessment, Computerized Testing, or Computer-Administered Testing, is a way of conducting assessments in which answers are electronically recorded and evaluated (Davey, 2011). Educators may use CBT to create, plan, administer, and report on surveys, quizzes, tests, exams, and other types of testing. There is an abundance of literature describing the several benefits of employing computer-based exams. The primary benefits are cheaper long-term expenses, immediate feedback to students, better productivity and low operational fluctuation, accommodations for applicants with special needs, and enhanced impartiality (computerized marking does not “know” the students, so neither favours nor makes allowances for minor errors). Additionally, CBT eliminates impersonation and cheating. Additionally, this procedure assures that findings are available within a few hours following the examination (Abubakar & Adebayo, 2014). Unfortunately, a number of factors have been identified as impeding the use of CBT, including resistance to change, insufficient power supply, a lack of knowledge, low competency and familiarity with computers, a shortage of qualified personnel, a shortage of facilities such as computers and related devices, and unstable internet networks (Abubakar & Adebayo, 2014; American Psychological Association, 1986; Davey, 2011; JAMB, 2015; Obioma, Junaidu & Ajagun, 2013; Ojerinde, 2015). These obstacles, however, have hampered the implementation of CTB in the majority of Nigerian schools. As a result, this research is primarily concerned with the relevance and challenges associated with computer-based assessments in Nigerian universities.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this study is an assessment of the relevance and problems of computer based test in nigerian universities.

  1. The purpose of this study is to understand how undergraduate students in the selected institution are currently using CBT informally for educational purposes.
  2. It will also investigate the perceptions of teachers and compare the perceptions of teachers and students with regards to the use of CBT.
  3. The study will also explore how the formal use of computer based testing inside and outside campus could impact students learning, engagement and participation.
  4. Finally, the study will examine if students’ and teachers’ are ready to adopt the use of CBT.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the benefits associated with the use of CBT in carrying out examination?
  2. Does the formal use of computer based testing inside and outside campus have a positive impact students’ learning, engagement and participation?
  3. What are the problems associated with the use of CBT in carrying out examination?
  4. Does the use of CBT for examinations ignites examination anxiety among examination candidates?
  5. To what extent are students’ and teachers’ ready to adopt the use of CBT?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between CBT mode and the academic performance of students.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between CBT mode and the academic performance of students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study would be of use to students, university management, College of Education administrators, professional organization and researchers. Exclusively, this study may create awareness to different examination bodies and higher institutions administrations in Nigeria to know students’ and teachers’ perception towards CBT. The study would also help Ekiti State University and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education administrators with useful information on the level of setting questions in CBT. This study would provide useful informations on the level of ICT literacy of students hence, assisting them in training and retraining their staffs to help teach the skill to the teachers.

In addition, if universities and colleges of education are to accept the use of computer based test as a mode of examination both teachers’ and students’ perceptions must be analyzed. This study will also be significant insomuch as it will provide information about how CBT are changing the way students learn and think about learning. The study also aims to understand how the implementation of CBT can influence the PPT.

In conclusion, the study is expected to inform researchers and educators about the current informal use of CBT in schools and help educators and administrators understand if there is a need to explore more formal CBT initiatives at the higher institution level. The result of the study may help teachers and school administrators understand if and how best incorporate CBT strategies into examination mode.


1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The study focuses on teachers and students’ perception towards the implementation of computer based test mode of examination which was delimited to only Ekiti State University and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education. A total of 300 students and teachers shall be selected from the two (2) institutions to form the population for thisstudy. While simple random sampling technique will be used to select the respondents.


1.8 Definition of Terms

The definitions of terms related to the study are as follows;

Computer Based Test (CBT):

This can be defined as tests or assessments that are administered through the use of computer in either stand alone or general.

Paper Based Test (PPT):

This is a mode of assessment using the traditional pen and pencil method. This is the common mode of examination now in Nigeria.

Perceptions:

The degree to which an individual believes about a particular thing.

Implementation:

The process of installing and maintaining a new system.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the perception of students and teachers towards the relevance and problems of computer based test in nigerian universities in selected higher institutions in Nigeria using two institutions in Ekiti state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the perception of students and teachers towards the relevance and problems of computer based test in nigerian universities in selected higher institutions in Nigeria using two institutions in Ekiti state as a case study. The study is was specifically set to; understand how undergraduate students in the selected institution are currently using CBT informally for educational purposes, investigate the perceptions of teachers and compare the perceptions of teachers and students with regards to the use of CBT, explore how the formal use of computer based testing inside and outside campus could impact students learning, engagement and participation, and examine if students’ and teachers’ are ready to adopt the use of CBT.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were students and teachers in Ekiti State University and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Ekiti State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that;

  1. The benefits associated with the use of CBT in carrying out examination include; lower administrative cost, time saving, less demand upon teachers, improves measurements precision and efficiency, and immediate scoring.
  2. The formal use of computer based testing inside and outside campus have a positive impact on students’ learning, engagement and participation.
  3. The problems associated with the use of CBT in conducting examination encompasses; screen clarity, raises anxiety among students, poor computer experience of examinees, inadequate computer infrastructure, software breakdown, and epileptic power supply.
  4. The use of CBT for examinations ignites examination anxiety among examination candidates.
  5. The extent to which students’ and teachers’ are ready to adopt the use of CBT is low.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Government should provide ICT facilities in all tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
  2. Government should provide institutions at all levels in country with adequate information technology tools.
  3. Teacher should be more committed with the use of ICT tools, giving the importance of practical knowledge in it.
  4. Government should ensure adequate electricity supply in all tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
  5. Adequate funds should made available for the provisions of ICT tools in Nigeria tertiary institutions.
  6. Teachers and students should make use of ICT facilities in Nigerian tertiary institutions.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the problems faced by Nigerian universities?

It is one of the results of the poor quality of students coming from secondary schools. Also, the massive influx of unprepared students admitted into tertiary institutions cause them to get involved in very unethical practices such as exchange of money or sex for grades. This is a common problem in Nigeria universities.

What are the problems with tertiary education in Nigeria?

The massive influx of unprepared students admitted into tertiary institutions cause them to get involved in very unethical practices such as exchange of money or sex for grades. This is a common problem in Nigeria universities.

Is the University of Ibadan among the first 1000 universities in Nigeria?

Unfortunately, the most recent world ranking of universities does not see Nigeria amongst the first 1000. The University of Ibadan , however, is ranked at the 1099 th position and no other university in Nigeria follows before the 2000 mark.

Why is the education system still used in Nigeria?

Nigeria universities still use the system established in the 1960s when the University of Ibadan was converted from college to university. It was the first university established in Nigeria and until now, the same 19th century academic traditions are still applied. There is a serious lack of innovation to meet up to new world standards. 

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