A Review On The Perceived Reading Difficulties Among Student And Its Effects On Their Academic Performance

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The Perceived Reading Difficulties Among Student And Its Effects On Their Academic Performance


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Reading and academic accomplishment are critical for researchers and educators to understand that each kid, whether gifted, average, normal, or backward, should be educated in his or her own style, but that if he or she has strong study habits, he or she may succeed academically and in any setting. It is the learner’s reading habits that aid in the acquisition of relevant and desirable knowledge. Students may use good reading habits as a powerful weapon to help them succeed in life (Bashir & Mattoo, 2012).

Conceptually, reading is defined as the process of producing meaning through the dynamic interplay between the reader, the text, and the context of the reading situation, according to Wixon, Peters, Weber, and Roeber (1987). Reading involves the use of visual motor abilities as well as the brain’s comprehension of symbols. It is usually divided into two parts: reading the words (decoding) and comprehending what is read (comprehension). This research aimed to employ Manzo & Manzo’s (1993) definition of reading, which defines it as “the process of concurrently reading the lines, reading between the lines, and reading beyond the lines.” The act of deciphering the words in order to reassemble the author’s primary meaning is known as reading the lines. Making conclusions in order to recreate the author’s implied meanings is known as reading between the lines. This necessitates a grasp of the inherent logic of the facts provided, as well as a command of connotative and metaphorical language. Reading between the lines is the process of evaluating the author’s message and applying it constructively to other areas of knowledge and experience. Vocabulary, word recognition, reading comprehension, and reading pace are all common reading challenges in teenagers with modest impairments. Reading appears to have an influence on academic success in all courses as well as occupational demands and possibilities.

Reading habits, word recognition mistakes, comprehension errors, and various symptoms are some of the common reading challenges that kids face, according to Mercer (1987). Smith et al. (1985) go on to highlight a number of issues that some kids with reading impairments face. During oral reading, they include deleting letters, syllables, or words; introducing additional letters, words, or sounds; replacing words that appear or sound similar; mispronouncing words; repeating words; and employing inappropriate inflection. Many children, adolescents, and adults in North America and across the world suffer from reading disabilities. Educators, parents, clinicians, and the general public are all concerned about those who do not learn to read. Every instructor is responsible for comprehending and assisting their struggling and disgruntled pupils. Teachers in elementary classrooms, reading classrooms, special education classrooms, and secondary school classrooms all require training in the evaluation and treatment of reading challenges (Richet, List & Lerner, 1989).

According to Palani (2012), efficient reading is a crucial avenue for effective learning, and reading is intertwined with the whole educational process, therefore educational achievement necessitates a good reading habit. Reading, he says, is the act of recognizing symbols and associating suitable meaning with them. It necessitates recognition and comprehension. Learners may use comprehension abilities to grasp the meaning of words both in isolation and in context. Both the young and the old found time to read before the invention of television. Other professions, aside from teachers, used to spend their free time reading both English and vernacular literature. Students in English medium schools were nearly always required to do additional reading. All of this, however, is no longer the case. Palani (2012) went on to say that reading has lost its value in today’s world since both the young and the old are attracted to the television. In terms of educational institutions, it appears that preparing students for exams is the be-all and end-all of our educational system. As a result, the researcher set out to determine the impact of students’ reading challenges on their academic achievement.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Many parents, teachers, counselors, and educational officials in Nigeria have expressed worry over secondary school students’ poor academic performance and its detrimental effects. According to Lerner (2006), a proportion of learners from standard 4 upwards are unable to use reading as a method for learning, acquiring new knowledge, ideas, attitudes, and values for unknown reasons. Even after they have been trained, it is regrettable that a considerable proportion (17.5%) of them are unable to read proficiently at higher class levels (Lerner, 2006).

According to Mercer and Mercer (2001), between 10% and 15% of school-age students experience reading challenges. According to Lerner (2006), more than 17.5% of students experience reading challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between low academic performance and reading problems. Reading difficulties were identified as the primary reason of school failure by Carmine, Silber, and Kameenui (1997).

Furthermore, failing to read may result in disobedience, anxiety, and a lack of drive. The researcher wanted to know if reading issues were a big influence in low performance because reading ability is required to understand examination questions and to comprehend what the questions need for an answer. Therefore is upon this premise that this study seeks to present a review on the perceived reading difficulties among student and its effects on their academic performance.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to conduct a review on the perceived reading difficulties among student and its effects on their academic performance.

Other Specified objectives are:

  1. To establish different reading difficulties faced by student in secondary schools
  2. To ascertain the extent at which reading difficulties among student is prevalent in secondary school
  3. To find out areas to which this reading difficulties affect them in their academic performance
  4. To identify way secondary school English language teachers can implore to help student with with reading difficulties in secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the reading difficulties faced by student in secondary schools?
  2. What is the extent at which reading difficulties among student is prevalent in secondary school?
  3. What are the areas reading difficulties affect student in their academic performance
  4. What ways can secondary school English language teachers can implore to help student with with reading difficulties in secondary schools.

1.5 Significance of the Study

Data and information obtained from this study can be used to inform teachers and students about learners with reading difficulties in order to improve their academic performance. The findings provide appropriate information to Ministry of Education as they develop curricula and syllabus for respective academic levels for learners with reading difficulties. The result of the study also enable Policy-makers to be informed about students‟ reading difficulties and the need to train secondary teachers. Teachers are made aware of students in this category and the need to offer them assistance. Empirically, the study will add to the body of existing literature and serve a s reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies on related topic.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on a review on the perceived reading difficulties among student and its effects on their academic performance. The study will further establish different reading difficulties faced by student in secondary schools, ascertain the extent at which reading difficulties among student is prevalent in secondary school, find out areas to which this reading difficulties affect them in their academic performance and identify way secondary school English language teachers can implore to help student with with reading difficulties in secondary schools. The study is however delimited to selected secondary school in Damaturu Local government in Yobe State


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only education selected secondary schools in Damaturu Local government in Yobe State.. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other secondary school in other States within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Difficulties:

The state or condition of being difficult.

Students:

A person who is studying at a university or other place of higher education or a school pupils

Effects:

A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause

Academic Performance:

The extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.


A Review On The Perceived Reading Difficulties Among Student And Its Effects On Their Academic Performance


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A Review On The Perceived Reading Difficulties Among Student And Its Effects On Their Academic Performance


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Frequently Asked Questions


Is there a relationship between reading difficulties and academic performance?

The researcher assumed that there was a relationship between reading difficulties and academic performance – that academic performance is an indication of presence or absence of reading difficulties.

What are the common problem experiences of students with reading difficulties?

The results presented confirms Smith‟s (1988) list of common problem experiences of some students who suffer from reading difficulties as; inserting extra words or sounds; substituting words that look or sound similar, mispronouncing words, repeating words or using improper inflection during oral reading among others.

How does reading habit affect academic performance?

The study confirmed that reading habit has influence on academic performance and there is a relationship between reading habit and academic performance. The study recommended among others that lecturers should be advised to stop providing handouts to students but rather

What factors are militating against students reading performance?

Factors Militating Against Students Reading Ha bit. sex (Mean = 3.200). Table10. Relationship Between Reading and Academic Performance. reading habits on academic performance. 

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