An Appraisal Of Reprographic Services In Academic Libraries (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Library (FPNO))

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

An Appraisal Of Reprographic Services In Academic Libraries (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Library (FPNO))


This research work is on an appraisal of reprographic services in academic libraries a case study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede (FPNO), Owerri. The aim of this research is to determine the adequacy and accessibility of reprographic equipment towards enhancing the need for the users. The researcher distributed 25 questionnaires to staff and students of the institutions which were all completed and returned.

The researcher observed that the Federal Polytechnic, Nekede management does not allocate enough fund for the maintenance of reprographic equipment. At the same hand F.P.N.O respondent’s shows that immediate beneficiaries of reprographic services are the students, researchers, and academic staff.

In research methodology, the target population is the staff, with students drawn from the staff, with students drawn from the institution. The researcher used table frequency and percentages of the responses to each question. The researcher made her recommendation based on the findings of the study.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstracts
  • Content page

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of study
  • 1.4 Significance of study
  • 1.5 Scope of study
  • 1.6 Research question definition of terms
  • 1.7 References

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

Chapter three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Methodology
  • 3.2 Population methodology
  • 3.3 Method of data collection
  • 3.4 Sample size and sampling techniques

Chapter four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Data presentation
  • 4.2 Data analysis

Chapter five

5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

This research is therefore focused geared towards investigating the appraised of reprographic services to academic libraries.

Academic libraries support their parent institutions in teaching, research and community development. Aguolu (1989) maintains that libraries are social agencies designed to conserve knowledge, preserve cultural heritage, provide information, support education and research, and serve as fountains of recreation. Academic libraries are libraries found in institution of high learning life the polytechnic, universities, college of education etc. academic libraries have conventional materials as well as specialized and unconventional materials that have research and educational value.

Reprography is a term that is now used in place of photoduplicating, photocopying, duplicating, printing, document reproduction or documentary reproduction.

Reproduction is the production of exact copy of a document; it is describe as the act of producing single or multiple copies of document whether by photocopying or other means.
Isaac Nnadimele OGB states that the term reprographic processes, documentary reproduction are especially used for:

  1. The production of “head” copies is the transfer of documents on to a similar kind of information carrier, generally paper of the same size.
  2. The production of microforms is the transfer of documents on to an information carrier in a smaller form, readable with the aid of technical devices.
  3. The transfer of documents on to an intermediate carrier leg stencil/ which is used for further duplication.
    In addition OGB states that reprography is one of the most important technical processes which assist documentation and the transfer of information in the library. Also he states that the relevance for reprography is very apparent, considering that the written or printed word is the most usual form of communication within our society, and that collection and distribution of written/printed information which is the main task of library, information and documentation services is only possible when this information appears in a number of copies.
For library functions, reprography serves following purposes.
  1. For making copies for library users.
  2. In making copies for addition to the existing library stock.
  3. Can be used for inter-library lending
  4. For making copies of library guides for users or for instructions to user
  5. Useful for administrative process correspondence, communication.
  6. For preservation purposes; the original copies are preserved while the reproduced copies are made available to users.
  7. For security purpose; the original copy of a document is perfectly secured, the security reasons while the photocopy is only made available. The original copy is never given out. It minimizes theft, mutilation and pilfering of books.
  8. For publication purposes; as in micro-publishing.
  9. For document conservation or restoration purpose
  10. For acquisition purposes; libraries can photocopy or microfilm book they do not have.
Types Of Reprographic Services

Printing is the process of producing identical copies on a press. In most cases the image appears reversed and turns the right reading form when the impression is made on paper.


Microfilm is a “microphograph on cellulose film. It may be negative or positive and may be 16mm or 35mm wide, and of any length, depending on the number of exposures here on (Harrods, 2000). Micro filming of documents may take place on automatic, semi-automatic or manually operated machines and the images of documents are recorded on 16mm or 35mm, film of up to 30 meters in length. About 3000 letter-seized documents can be accommodated on 30m for 16mm microfilm.
The microfilm camera popularly used in libraries is the planetary camera. It is a 35mm or 16mm still camera mounted on a vertical column. It takes 100ft of film at a loading and it can photograph single sheets or books. Flow camera is another microfilm camera but it’s use in libraries is restricted.


This method of document reproduction involves photographic process. Usually similar kind of information carrier, generally paper of the same size, is used to transfer information on one document to one or many copies.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

There are several problems bedeviling reprographic services in academic libraries, the problem have posed serious dangers to the advancement of reprographic services in academic libraries. Chief among the problems are:-


It is always necessary to look at the accommodation available. In a library where there is not enough space for the reprographic equipments, it will affect the library in consideration of acquiring there by affecting the growth and development of the library.

Running Cost:

The running cost involves the cost of power supply, paper, payment made to the machine operator. These can affect the library when the founding is very poor.

Cost Of Equipment:

If the equipment is very costly the library might not be able to acquire such equipment for the library use.

1.3 Objectives Of Study

Considering the nature of reprographic services in academic libraries which is that of reproducing material information one sees the indispensability of reprographic services for academic libraries.
Reprographic services are needed to bridge the gap between holders of information and the large mass of people seeking this information’s.

In the course of our study, we

  1. Examine the relevance of reprographic services in academic libraries
  2. Examine the problems facing reprographic services
  3. Suggest ways of improving on reprographic services in academic libraries.

1.4 Significance Of Study

The justification for this study arises because of the continual loss of vital information which could have been saved for future purpose such as researches but have been lost because of the short comings that have faced reprographic services in academic libraries.

The role reprographic services plays in academic libraries further epitomizes its importance to the growth and development of education. Right from time reprographic services has seen of used for reproduction or replicating of document for wider out reach.

However, with recent development in academic libraries, reprographic services have assumed a more functional role in academic libraries as it is a major source of information storage and dissemination.

1.5 Scope Of The Study / Limitations

This research will only be limited to the study of the reprographic services to academic libraries. The study is based mainly on academic libraries and this academic libraries are located in institutions of higher learning e.g. universities, polytechnics, college of educations, etc. the study will be reviewed in order to find out the nature, standard, problems and prospects of the reprographic services. The study will vigorously attempt to enumerate the reprographic services and its importance in the development of the academic libraries. It will also dead with the activities/roles of such reprographic services in the library ie photocopying, microfilming, duplicating.

Recommendation will be made on how to improve and get more of the reprographic services in the academic libraries ie university libraries.

1.6 Research Question

The basic question this research topic has attempted to answer includes:

  1. Factors limiting the effectiveness of reprography.
  2. What is relevance of reprographic services to academic libraries?
  3. What is the position of reprographic services to academic libraries?
  4. What is the impact of reprographic services to academic libraries?
  5. Factors limiting the effectiveness of funding reprographic equipment in academic libraries.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

The following definitions are given to give data for understanding:

Academic Libraries:

These are libraries attached to institutions of high of learning example universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. Academic libraries are established to support teaching, learning and research, it is built at the centre of the institution and fund by government through the parent institution.

Reprographic Services:

These are services provided by reprography, when we say reprography we simply mean those method for document reproduction. It could be through photocopying, duplication or microfilming. Therefore reprographying services are those services provided by photocopying, duplicating and microfilming; this is mainly found in documentary areas, libraries and information centers.

Reprographic Equipment:

They are photocopying machine example zeros, sharp etc duplicating machines examples are stencil, offset and spirit duplicating.
Inter-library loan: no library is an Iceland unto her seft, so therefore inter-library loan would be defined as a situation where two libraries come together with the aim of exchanging materials example Nekede and Futo in such corporation.

Library Services:

These are services provided to users by libraries. These services include, users orientation, this is mostly in academic library’s current awareness services; this is a tend of services given when new stock is added to the library’s collection.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary Of Finding, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Summary Of Findings

After a thorough analysis of data generated for this study, the researcher discovered that the .libraries of the institution is well equipped with reprographic facilitates and have separate units for these reprographic equipment,.

The working condition of this reprographic equipment is effective. In federal polytechnic Nekede, according to the research carried out, reprographic equipment mostly available is the photocopying machine.

The staff of federal polytechnic Nekede stressed that the institution lacks some reprographic equipment and that the little money realized from the photocopying machine is not used for the maintenance of available ones. The researcher also reveals that the management does not allocate enough funds for the purchase of reprographic equipment.

5.2 Conclusions

In conclusion, reprographic services in the academic library can not be over emphasis. It is indispensable to users in terms of the unique role it is playing in the whole [process of information dissemination.

Thus, if attention is not given to reprographic services of the library, it will hamper the effort put in pave by the librarians, knowing that the success of a library dependent largely on the quality of staffs and efficient of the storage and retrieval; system.

At end, this will enhance research findings and facilitate inter-library co-operation.

5.3 Recommendations

The researcher is recommending that in federal polytechnic Owerri, money realized should be used properly, more especially in the acquisition of reprographic equipment.

Furthermore, management should allocate enough funds for the maintenance of this equipment. Efforts should be made by the management of the institution to enable students to have access to units’ equipment as a teaching aid to those in the field of library and information science. The researcher recommends that academic libraries should acquire reprography not only for formal education and commercial purposes but also for the preservation of stock of the library to avoid mutilation, theft by students.

These facilities should be adequate funded in order to ensure effective utilization.

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