Adaptation Of Woven Fabric, Box Bag And Traveling Bag On Batik For Utility – The Box Bag Or Traveling Bag

Project and Seminar Material for Fine Arts

Adaptation Of Woven Fabric, Box Bag And Traveling Bag On Batik For Utility – The Box Bag Or Traveling Bag


Abstract


The problem of this study is that of the selection, documentation, explanation and preservation of some of the traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Fulani People of Nigeria and adapting them for contemporary use on fabric, box bag and traveling bag using Batik Technique of fabric, box bag and traveling bag embellishment.

The general objective of the study is to select and adapt traditional designs on the artifacts of Fulani People and adapt them for use as motifs on contemporary batik resist fabric, box bag and traveling bag for embellishment, thereby ensuring the sustainability of such motifs. The purposes of the study are: to identify the traditional artifacts of the Fulani people and the design motifs on them and to extract some of these motifs and adapt them onto fabric, box bag and traveling bags using batik technique of textile decoration.

The study adopts survey method for data collection to obtain relevant information from the subjects in the sample area as suggested by Adetoro (1997). Exploratory approach and product development (R&D) was used for sourcing for designs on artifacts as suggested by Itten (1997). Other parameters of investigation used in exploratory methodology include population of the study, sampling, pilot study and experiments for adaptation of designs to textile fabric, box bag and traveling bags using resist techniques.

Three survey instruments were used in the study. The first one which is a questionnaire (Appendix II) was used for pilot study and the second one Appendix III (A) interview was used for collecting data of the fifty traditional motifs. The third one (Appendix III B questionnaire) was used for the assessment of the resist pieces of fabric, box bag and traveling bag produced from the modified traditional design motifs extracted from the artifacts of the Fulani People for comparison with those produced within the recent period.

This was done by presenting the twenty five selected motifs to some randomly selected respondents, comprising of Fulani youths and adults based in Zaria.

The comparative assessment questionnaire is a five Likert scaled instrument. Based on the analysis of the study, the following findings were made:

  1. The production of traditional artifacts of the Fulani people is on the downward trend.
  2. Ten different crafts are still being practiced by the Fulani people (mostly old people and only on request)3.

The traditional artifacts of the Fulani people have symbolic motifs with traditional names and can be adapted on textile fabric, box bag and traveling bags, using the batik technique of fabric, box bag and traveling bag decoration.4. Cultural and environmental factors such as festivals, annual cultural day celebrations, naming ceremonies, marriages, burial, initiation rites and aesthetic values are guiding the use of the traditional Fulani design motifs.5. Vat dyes are quite suitable for the practical adaptation of the Fulani design motifs on fabric, box bag and traveling bags and apparel using the batik technique. The general conclusion is that although the production of artifacts in Fulani land is on the downward trend, it is still being practiced with symbolic motifs that are adaptable on fabric, box bag and traveling bags using resist dying techniques.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • List of Plates
  • List of Appendices

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of Study
  • 1.1.1 Brief Introduction to Kaduna State
  • 1.1.2 Brief Introduction to the Fulani People
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Justification
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope and Delimitation
  • 1.8 Basic Assumptions

Chapter Two

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 History of Textile in Nigeria
  • 2.2 History of Textile in Nigeria
  • 2.3 Concept and History of the Fulani People
  • 2.4 Rituals and Festivals
  • 2.5 Religion
  • 2.6 Historical Background of the Artifacts, Crafts and Traditional Designs of the Fulani People
  • 2.7.1 Fulani and the Nok Terracotta
  • 2.7.2 Design Characteristics of Nok Terracotta
  • 2.7.3 Designs of Fulani Traditional Costumes
  • 2.7.4 The Contemporary Artifacts and Traditional Designs of Fulani
  • 2.8 Basketry (Mat and Basket Weaving)
  • 2.8.1 Carving
  • 2.8.2 Pottery
  • 2.9 Batik as a Concept
  • 2.10 The Influence of Traditional Designs and Artifacts on the Contemporary Traditional Fulani Crafts
  • 2.11 Adaptation of Fulani Artifacts and Traditional Designs on Fabric, box bag and traveling bags
  • 2.12 Summary

Chapter Three

Research Design And Methodology

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Research Methodology and Design
  • 3.2 Pilot Study(Motifs)
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample Size of Design Motifs
  • 3.5 Resist Materials and Methods
  • 3.5.1 Materials
  • 3.6 Studio Practice
  • 3.7 Summary

Chapter Four

Data Presentation And Analysis

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Data from Field Analysis
  • 4.2 Data from Studio Practice
  • 4.2.1 What are the Available Artifacts and Crafts of the Fulani People?
  • 4.2.2 The Questionnaire
  • 4.2.3 Section A: Bio-data of Respondents
  • 4.3 Section B: Determination of Various Unique Features of Fulani Artifacts
  • 4.4 Section C: Determining the Various Unique Features of the Fulani Artifacts and Traditional Designs as Motifs
  • 4.5 Section D: Selection of Artifacts and Traditional Designs for Design Purposes and Finding out the Acceptability among Fulani People
  • 4.6 Section E: Identifying the Meaning and Functions Attached to Various Artifacts and Traditional Designs of the Fulani People
  • 4.7 Section F : Assessing the Relationship of the Newly Modified Motifs and the Traditional ones
  • 4.8 Assessment of the Newly Embellished Fabric, box bag and traveling bags
  • 4.9 Practical Exhibition
  • 4.10 Findings
  • 4.11 Summary

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.0 Summary
  • 5.1 General Objective
  • 5.2 Procedures
  • 5.4 Discussion
  • 5.5 Conclusion
  • 5.6 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices

List Of Tables


Table Page

  • 3.1; Population of the Study
  • 4.1; Survey Result
  • 4.2 a; Gender of Respondent
  • 4.2 b; Age Group of Respondent
  • 4.2 c; Fulani clan of Respondent
  • 4.2 d; Do you Speak Hyam
  • 4.3 a; Do the Fulani People Have Artifacts
  • 4.3 b; Artifacts of the Fulani People have Traditional Designs
  • 4.3 c; The Fulani Traditional Designs have Unique Features
  • 4.3 d; When the Traditional designs are studied, it will promote production
  • 4.3 e; Documentation as a means awareness creation
  • 4.4 a; The Fulani Traditional Designs Can be used as motifs
  • 4.4 b; An Artifact of the Fulani People can Generate so many Motifs
  • 4.4 c; Fulani Motifs Are Beautiful
  • 4.4 d; The Fulani Motifs are Peculiar to Fulani People
  • 4.4 e; Fulani Motifs have Aesthetic Values
  • 4.5 a; The State of Production of Fulani Artifacts is Declining, thereby leading the Artifacts to Total Extinction
  • 4.5 b; Using the Traditional Designs as Motifs will Save the Artifacts
  • 4.5 c; The Embellished Fabric, box bag and traveling bags will be Embraced by the Fulani People
  • 4.5 d; Fulani Artifacts can Automatically be used as Design sources
  • 4.5 e; Fulani Motifs will give an Aesthetic Value in the Art of Textile Design
  • 4.6 a; All Fulani Artifacts and Traditional Designs have Special Symbolic Meaning
  • 4.6 b; Identifying the Meaning Attached To the Artifacts will Educate the Younger Generation
  • 4.6 c; The Fulani motifs will Reveal the Unique Culture of the Fulani People
  • 4.6 d; Colour Representation will Promote Fulani Culture
  • 4.6 e; Identifying the Meaning will Explain What to Wear and When to Wearit
  • 4.7 a; A Single Motif will Produce a Beautiful Embellished Fabric, box bag and traveling bag
  • 4.7 b; Two or More Motifs produce More Interesting Result
  • 4.7 c; Old Traditional Designs are Not to be Distorted
  • 4.8; Assessment of the Resist Fabric, box bag and traveling bags

List Of Figures


Figure Page

  • 2.2: Front and Side view of the Nok Terracotta. Source James 2007

List Of Plates


Plate Page

  • I: A hand woven Fulani winnowing tray, source; Magayaki (2014)
  • II: A carved nyk shi wyong, source: Jaban Kogo (2013)
  • III: Nikk pyiper Source:Kwagiri.(2013)
  • IV: Pretreatment. Source:Researcher, 2016
  • V: Waxing. Source:Researcher, 2016
  • VI: Dyeing. Source: Researcher, 2016
  • VII: De-waxing. Source: Researcher, 2016
  • VIII: Starching. Source: Researcher, 2016
  • IX: Calendaring. Source: Researcher, 2016
  • X: Packaging and Exhibition. Source: Researcher, 2016
  • XI: Eye of the Nokterracotamotif
  • XII: Nok terracota and npkinmotif
  • XIII: Tsohz and tsaingzar motif
  • XIV: Ngban motif
  • XV: Multiplemotifs (jacket)
  • XVI: Multiplemotif (dress)
  • XVII: Nkpinmotif (dress)
  • XVIII:Web motif
  • XIX: Double motif(flowing gown)
  • XX: Eye of the Nokterracottamotif

List Of Appendices


Appendix Page

  • II: Letter of Introduction 96
  • II: Questionnaire on Feasibility Studies on the Design Motifs on the Crafts of Southern Kaduna People 97
  • III: Stages of Production and Resist Samples 103

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Culture is the way of life as well as a heritage that is being passed from one generation to the other. Among the countries of Africa, according to Kashim, (2011), “Nigeria has taken a prominent position when it comes to cultural heritage and creative art which are manifested in her diverse crafts”. The products of these indigenous craft have sufficiently served economic needs of the people in the local communities. Since the pre-colonial era, various members of distinct ethnic groups engage in a lot of traditional craft practices in the agrarian occupational engagement. Nigerian culture is very colourful especially when it comes to the textiles, it’s a thing of pride for Nigerians. This study therefore, was motivated through the observations of the various traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Fulani people of Kaduna state. These designs could be very suitable as motifs in batik method of fabric, box bag and traveling bag embellishment in textile design.


1.1 Background of Study

This study is concerned with artifacts, traditional designs and motifs of the Fulani people of Kaduna State. Ogunduyile, (2011) 0bserved that art has been noted to be the totality of all knowledge and values shared by a society. Creativity has been in existence right from the time of the ancient man; he used what he could find in his surrounding to solve his problems. Marvin and David, L. D wrote that human beings expressed themselves and told their stories in pictures long before they could read and write. They further explained that pictures on the walls of early cave dwellings are evidence of the human compulsion to describe the world in both representational and symbolic images. he Fulani man is, therefore, not exempted in this story of the ancient man; he created and designed things with whatever he could find in his immediate environment. Development and industrialization of a country revolves around the modernization of the artifacts and crafts of the people. “The industrial development in a country involves considerable artifacts and crafts that develops in stages and which leads to a progressive growth” (Ajayi 2007). The use of these traditional designs is going a long way in saving the artifacts and crafts for the younger generation.

1.1.1 Brief Introduction to Kaduna State

Kaduna state is a state in the central Fulani Nigeria, and its capital is Kaduna. Established in 1912 by Lord Frederick Lugard, first as a garrison town and then as the regional capital of the then Fulani protectorate, Kaduna soon attracted people of all races, religion and cultures. Within two decades of its establishment, it grew from almost a virgin territory of small scattered settlement of the indigenous population of mostly the Gbagyi, to a town of over 30,000 people. This population comprise of the British colonies, artisans and clerks from the southern protectorate as well as laborers and traders from the Nupe, Hausa, Kanuris, Fulanis and other tribes in the Fulani protectorate. Kaduna derived its name from the river Kaduna which gave the settlement its name; it was so called because it was crocodile infested, „Kadduna’ being the plural of “crocodile” in Hausa, (Haruna2013).

The state has at the moment 23 local government areas and all these 23 are all blessed with fertile land for farming of both food and cash crops, it’s also for irrigational farming (fadama farming). The state is also blessed with several mineral resources like clay, gold, graphite and many others, which has made the state a center for several small scale businesses like pottery, textiles, poultry and many other petty trading. It is mostly dominated by the Fulani, Gbagyi, Adara, Gong, Atyap, Hausa and some other ethnic communities, according to Dangel (2008). The Fulani people occupy four local Government Areas in Kaduna state and they are Jaba, Jema’a, Kagarko and Kachia Local GovernmentAreas.

1.1.2 Brief Introduction to the Fulani People

According to James (1997) the Fulani people spread over an area of about 307 square miles (sqm) in Kaduna state of Nigeria.Theorigin of Fulani include Nok, Kwoi, Zshiek( Kurmin Musa) Dung( Jaban Kogo) Chori, Fai , Ketere, Sambang Gida, Sambang Daji,Wenyom and other Fulani settlements in the southern part of Kaduna State. Like many peoples of Fulani Nigeria, the Fulani, who are neither Hausa nor Fulani, have also adopted the Hausa language as part of their lingua franca. The Hausa Language is the Language commonly spoken in the Fulani region of Nigeria.

The Hausa Language to a greater extent has diluted and adulterated the native tongue (Hyam) of the Fulani language often mutually in-twined or used interchangeably among younger generation that did not grow up with the native lingua franca hence the fading away of the Fulani Language.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Civilization has affected the production of the Fulani artifacts negatively in the sense that the production of these artifacts that are beautifully decorated with traditional designs has drastically reduced, thereby leading to the loss of some historical information. The problem of the study therefore is the lack of proper preservation and presentation of the Fulani artifacts and traditional designs that could serve as means of saving information for the younger generation

In Nigeria, what is mostly known about traditional designs and artifacts in art revolves around the Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa and little is known about the minority ethnic groups who populate this country in their millions. The presence of historical crafts activities around Fulani people shows that these skills can be utilized to modern day technology for if not adopted now, with time the artifacts and crafts will face extinction. Most of these artifactsandcraftswereusedfordifferentpurposesanditwasobservedthattheseartifacts

and crafts have been replaced with modern facilities which appear to be more durable. Against the background, the researcher is therefore set to investigate the existence of these antiquities and to provide solution on how they can be used on modern fabric, box bag and traveling bag. The problem of the study therefore is the lack of proper documentation and preservation of the Fulani artifacts, craft and traditional designs.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to explore and preserve the Fulani traditional designs and motifs that can be seen on the artifacts as well as adapt them on fabric, box bag and traveling bags. While the objectives of the study are:

  1. Study the Fulani artifacts and the various unique features of the traditional designs found on them.
  2. Determine the various unique features of the Fulani traditional designs as motifs in textile design.
  3. Select some of the artifacts and develop traditional motifs for them as to find out whether they can be used for fabric, box bag and traveling bags and box bag and traveling bag.
  4. To identify the meaning and functions attached to the various artifacts, crafts and traditional designs of the Fulani people.
  5. Assess the relationship of the newly modified motifs and the old traditional ones that have been in existence in order to ascertain their differences

1.4 Research Questions

In this study research questions are opted for because they provide findings and solutions to research problems. Some of the research questions raised for this study are:

  1. What are the unique features of the Fulani traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Fulani people?
  2. What are the various unique features of the Fulani traditional designs that can be used as motifs in textile design?
  3. Can the traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Fulani people be adapted and applied on fabric, box bag and traveling bags and apparels using batik methods?
  4. Are there special meanings and functions attached to these artifacts and traditional designs?
  5. To what extent can the differences between the newly modified motifs and the old traditional ones of the Fulani people be determined?

1.5 Justification

The Fulani people are a people with an interesting culture that can be studied over and over again because of the beautiful way of life of the Fulani man. The researcher had studied most of the batik designed fabric, box bag and traveling bags and apparels in the markets and discovered that they are mostly embellished with the designs and motifs of the Yoruba people of the southern part of Nigeria. The various traditional designs of the Fulani people, when inculcated and adapted on the fabric, box bag and traveling bag, will give batik another look from the ones already in circulation. Ala’u (2006) in his study on the “Adaptation of the Traditional Designs on crafts of Southern Kaduna as motifs for Textiles Resist Technique”, talked on the crafts of some ethnic groups in the southern part of Kaduna state and which Fulani was inclusive. But in his study of the Fulani crafts, he only studied and talked on the Nok terracotta which is one of the major artifacts the Fulani people can be identified with. James (1997), in his book entitled „The Fulani: Its people, their political and cultural History’, concentrated mainly on the cultural history and origin of the Fulani people, no serious attention was given to their artifacts, crafts, designs and motifs. Looking at the study of Ala’u (2006), Fagg (1999), James (1997) and some other paper presentations by Gandu (2013), it is obvious that much attention has not been given to the study of the artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people which, therefore, justifies this study.


1.6 Significance of the Study

Studies carried out shows that scholars like Fagg (1990) have written on Nok culture, which is one major part of the Fulani people, however most of the documentations made by these scholars were on sculptures and none has been made on the textiles of the people. In response to Fagg (1990) and Ala’u (2006), this study will concentrate on digging into the artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people. Most of these artifacts and traditional designs are in the danger of extinction as the younger generation is not keen on taking over from the older generation.
The significance and importance of this study therefore will be talked about in the following sub topics, and aspects of life;Educational, cultural, aesthetic, economical and technological Educationally, the study will provide a good source of information, especially when there is limited number of literature on the comprehensive study of the artifacts, crafts and traditional designs of the Fulani people.

Economically, this study will encourage people to go into private practice of textiles through the use of local resources, skills, artifacts and traditional designs for the economical growth of the Fulani people, Kaduna state and the country as a whole. Industrial development in a country involves considerable artisanal crafts firms in the early stages that grew progressively in number into large scale manufacturers over the years. Ajayi,(2007).

Culturally, this study contributes to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the Fulani people, in the sense that most of the information on cultural artifacts and traditional designs would be documented and motifs adapted on fabric, box bag and traveling bags. It will further develop the awareness and understanding of the cultural activity of the Fulani people.

Aesthetically, this study will provide the Fulani people beautifully designed fabric, box bag and traveling bags and apparels that can be used as the identity of the Fulani people in social gatherings. Textile dyeing with embellishment of colourful pattern sand motifs will satisfy the local clothing needs.

There is the need to identify and preserve these traditional designs, and their adaptation on fabric, box bag and traveling bag is one way of reserving and representing them. The arts councils, museums and departments of culture are all in the business of studying, preserving and promoting culture, and the new policy on education emphatically stresses the significance of integrating our cultural system, (Rhoda 2006). In line with Rhoda (2006) it can be said that the culture can be disseminated to a larger public. This study, therefore, will compliment the efforts of the culture departments and the art councils.

The study will also enlighten the public on the artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people, thereby rekindling the interest in the study of Fulani arts and culture. It is also anticipated that this work will provide fresh resources in motifs with a view to improving or adding to the existing literature on fabric, box bag and traveling bag embellishment in textiles. Similarly, Wangboje (1985), encouraged the conduct of local research into local and traditional materials in order to meet the challenges of the time and to produce products that are relevant to the needs, taste and culture of the society. This study also responds to the call made by Jamkur (1992) and Ala’u (2006) for more research on the Nok culture and the craft of the southern Kaduna people for adaptation to other textile methods of production using pigments and dyes. Furthermore, it responds to Governments’ incessant call for Nigerians to look inwards rather than outwards for their needs.

The fact that Nigerians are living in an era of democracy with some economic hardship that is making the people patronize home made goods makes this study relevant.

The home made goods which Nigerians now rush for include textile products such as adire- eleko, okene, akwete and aso-oke (Alau 2006). This recent development, therefore, makes this study not only justifiable and imperative but also timely. Finally, in the present democratic dispensation and the seemingly rising feelings of nationalism, cultural inclination with the ardent desire for industrialization and economic emancipation, the significance of the study in this direction cannot be underrated.


1.7 Scope and Delimitation

The scope of the study is delimited to two Local Government Areas the Fulani people are predominantly found, namely, Kachia and Jaba Local Government Areas. Kachia Local Government Area has 23 districts and out of which the Fulani people occupy 9. In Jaba Local Government Area there are 16 districts all of which are occupied by the Fulani people. These two Local Government Areas are sample areas because most of the artifacts of the Fulani people are the same.

Furthermore, the study is delimited to the artifacts and traditional designs that are found on household utensils, musical instruments and ritual equipment of the Fulani people. The study was also limited to batik method of fabric, box bag and traveling bag embellishment only. Below are some Fulani cultural artifacts and crafts that were studied.

  • Nik fang (The co-joinedpot)
  • Yok zar (The co-joinedspoon)
  • Hyep shi (Oil jar)
  • Hki Nok (Nokterracotta)
  • Biyes(Tray)
  • Kponkpon(Basket)

1.8 Basic Assumptions

The following assumptions were made for the study:

  1. The Fulani people have an established artifacts and traditional designs that are on the way to total extinction
  2. The Fulani people are a people with an interesting culture that needs to be exploited and critically studied
  3. Representation of other Nigerian cultures should also be reflected in fabric, box bag and traveling bags and apparels embellished with batik method of resist technique instead of focusing on some and ignoring the others.
  4. The researcher will gain access to most of the artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people.
  5. Most of the respondents have adequate knowledge of these artifacts and traditional designs

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.0 Summary

In essence, this chapter summarizes this documentary study, which comprises of the introduction to the study, review of some related literature, main objectives, procedures, methodology and analysis. Furthermore, the study is comprised of observations, conclusion and recommendations based on the findings of the study.

This study report is in five (5) chapters, where chapter one mainly deals with the background of the study. Chapter two (2) deals with the review of some literature, related to the study. Chapter three (3) went further to deal with the research design and methodology. In chapter four (4), presentation, analysis and discussions were dealt with and finally chapter five was confined to summary, discussions, conclusion and recommendations. The history and origin of the Fulani people as well as justification of the study and objectives were also discussed as in the sub topics below:

  • 5.1 General objective
  • 5.2 Procedures
  • 5.3 Discussion
  • 5.4 Conclusion
  • 5.5 Recommendations

5.1 General Objective

The general objective of this study was to select some artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people as design sources and adapt them on fabric, box bag and traveling bag using batik method of fabric, box bag and traveling bag embellishment. The general objectives of the study correlate with the problem of the study,whicharetheselection,exploration,documentationandpreservationoftheFulani

artifacts and traditional designs for the younger generation. In addition, the problem of the study includes adapting the motifs and designs on textile fabric, box bag and traveling bags using batik method of resist technique and was guided by research questions.


5.2 Procedures

The research instruments designed by the researcher for this study were questionnaire (for the assessment of the newly embellished fabric, box bag and traveling bags) and scheduled interviews. This was done following the views unanimously advocated by Miller (1970) and Nwana (1981) as sited by Alau (2006), on the need for multiple instruments along with supervisor’s inputs in research. The research proceeded with the study through production of sketches of the randomly selected artifacts and designs of the Fulani people. The thirty (30) designs and motifs were identified as the population of the study, from which five (5) motifs were randomly selected and adapted on textile fabric, box bag and traveling bag.


5.4 Discussion

The artifacts and designs of the Fulani people from which the symbolic motifs for this research were derived have functional uses. They are commonly used in the homes for household use, carrying and storing of farm produce and also for ritual purposes. Colors add meaning to fabric, box bag and traveling bags thereby making the fabric, box bag and traveling bags more appreciated by the people. Therefore, the economic, cultural, social and political importance of fabric, box bag and traveling bags embellished for apparels and other functional uses and also, the role played by the motifs in designing and giving symbolic meaning cannot be over emphasized. In the world of fashion, resist fabric, box bag and traveling bags been tremendous use in the day to day life of humans. They are used in apparel as dresses, gowns for women, flowing gown for men (agbada), and shirts and in furnishing as curtains, cushion covers, table cloths and throw pillow cases, just for example. Furthermore, resist fabric, box bag and traveling bags are used in decorative arts to produce wall hangings, cultural representation and documentation.

These factors were fundamental in the motivation of this study. Paraffin wax was used astheresist agent as well as vat dyes and their mordant. Paraffin wax was deliberately chosen as the choice of resist agent due to the abundance of studies in the area as well as the beautiful effects of paraffin wax on textile fabric, box bag and traveling bags.
The process of adaptation of these artifacts and traditional designs on fabric, box bag and traveling bags was very tedious and demanding, but the determination to achieve the objectives of the research and answer the research questions of the study was the persevering weapon of the research. The embellished fabric, box bag and traveling bags were achieved through determination, endurance and patience. The only problem and challenge encountered in the cause of production is the accidental dots and areas with over heat of the molten wax, which caused smearing of the wax on fabric, box bag and traveling bag and resulting in absorption of dye.


5.5 Conclusion

Based on the analysis of the study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. In the comparative assessment it was discovered that the newly embellished fabric, box bag and traveling bags were all accepted and appreciated among the Fulani people. The fabric, box bag and traveling bags embellished with the Nok terracotta were adjudged as the one with the most beautiful features that proudly represent the identity of the Fulani people.
  2. All the fabric, box bag and traveling bags embellished with the artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people had a considerable level of acceptance among the Fulani people in one varied degree or the other as none of the fabric, box bag and traveling bags was rejected. Thus, it can be concluded that the extent to which the fabric, box bag and traveling bags are accepted is directly related to its unique features.

Based on the findings above it can therefore be concluded that the study has contributed positively to the Department of Industrial Design through the provision of another source of motifs as well as documentation on the Fulani Traditional designs.


5.6 Recommendations

Based on the analysis, discussions and findings on the adaptation of Fulani artifacts and traditional design as design sources for apparel using batik method of fabric, box bag and traveling bag embellishment, the following are recommended:

  1. There is the need for preservation of artifacts, crafts and traditional designs of various cultures so that the younger generation would understand, appreciate and develop new exquisite skills. Therefore, it is recommended that studies should be made in other Nigerian cultures.
  2. Government agencies should work hand in hand with institutions like Universities and Colleges of education on the preservation of art works and designs in museums and Galleries for the people, both young and old to view and appreciate.
  3. The University should provide the department of Industrial Design with a Gallery where all embellished fabric, box bag and traveling bags and designed produce of the department will be exhibited and sold, which will be source of revenue for students, the department and the university as a whole.
  4. Students of textile design should always concern themselves with traditional textiles so as to bring out their symbolism.
  5. Textile Industries should work with textile researchers, provide and grants them research grants as well as support textile designers who use traditional motifs are design sources in the cause of their design and production.

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