Campaign Against Sexual Immorality In Campus A Visual Representation

Project and Seminar Material for Fine Arts

Campaign Against Sexual Immorality In Campus A Visual Representation


Abstract


This study determined the campaign against immorality campaign among undergrduates, done on television channel which was advertised from June 2020 to March 2021 in reducing sexual immorality in Enugu state. It is acknowledged that student pregnancy continues to plague the country yet very little has been done to address the problem even the use of mass media to campaign against the same has not achieved much. This study therefore assesses the efficacy of that abstinence campaign in reducing sexual immorality.

The objectives of the study wereto investigate the efficacy and potency of television campaigns in reducing sexual immorality, to determine the reach and extent of appeal of the message used in the abstinence campaign, to find out the level of knowledge regarding sexual and reproductive health

The study used Protection Motivation Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to explain the process of behavior change. The study used Descriptive Survey design to gather information as it exist at the time of study and a random sample of 80 school going undergraduates from two primary schools and two Universities aged between 13-17 in Enugu state was drawn through Stratified Sampling. The instrument of data collection that the researcher administered was a questionnaire which contained both structured and unstructured questions.

The study findings shows that television as a medium of mass communication has enormous capacity to create awareness and impart knowledge to the undergraduates though its ability to alter the behavior of the target population can only be achieved for as long as they are repeated and sustained indefinitely for maximum impact.

Indeed, it can be noted that the abstinence campaign, you think that is dump? So is student sex. Be smart Abstain also achieved some degree of success since the recall rates were very high and current abstinence levels also are high. The campaign has therefore helped reduce the levels of student pregnancy but it must be done continuously and other interpersonal channels like peer educators employed to improve on its success.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

For instance, in Enugu State for example which is called the Coal City – State, due to its minerals. The state was created in 1991 after so many efforts. It was formally known Anambra. State.

Enugu State has many universities polytechnics and also hospitals both federal, state and private the state is a well – developed place.

Basically, in most of our Universities today, the youth were indecent dresses that can lead to premarital sex, child abuse and rape. This lead to the of the researcher’s topic sex is as old as man. It came into being when man came into existence. Premarital sex is almost a from of abuse as the partners are using each other with out making the commitment of life long trust and love. More then millions adolescent and youth indulge in sex. According to Janet smith research about premarital sex, it has been observed that the recent research at Cairo, Beijing Istanbul the United Nation, in the United State, the media and the opinion have finally come to recognize that unwanted pregnancies is a major source of social chaos in our culture.

A study done in 1990 of teen pregnancy in California found that 77% of all birth to high school aged girls (16 –18 years) and 51% of birth to junior high school aged girls (15 and younger,) were fathered by men then high school age.

Premarital sex, as the name implies means having sex before marriage.

In the university, premarital sex has become a tradition to our men and women. It is seen as a normal thing peoples on longer see it as bad but as a culture.

In the early 70’s people didn’t indulge must in premarital sex unlike in mid 90’s which has become the order of the day. Most of our girls today, go about wearing indecent cloth, which expose their body, which easily lure men into their bed.

Premarital sex dangerous in such a way that one can contact sexually transmitted diseases such Syphilis, Gonorrhea, HIV/ AIDs and unwanted pregnancies.

The government of Nigeria in 2003 came up with the Adolescents’ Reproductive Health Development policy to help address the health and development concerns of the young people and it laid its policy target on reducing the proportion of women bellow age 20 with first birth from 45%in 1998 to 22% by 2015 and also to raise the median age at first intercourse from 16.7 for girls and 16.8 for boy to 18 years by 2015. (NCPD).


1.2 Problem Statement

Even though evidence strongly suggests that the use of television media can help reduce student pregnancy by attempting to influence the attitude and belief about early and unprotected sex, very little has been done by the government to fully exploit this avenue. Successful television campaigns should adhere to the key principles of campaign design for them to make any meaningful impact among the target audience (Noar 2006).

The first massive television campaign on abstinence, the Nimechill campaign was rated to be successful and was even acknowledged to merit continuation due to the impact it created on the target audience. However, that has not happened making the student pregnancy prevention strategies very flimsy on the television since they are not sustained and done repeatedly as required for any mass media campaign. Brown (2002) notes that there is need for such campaigns to be sustained and repeated over long term otherwise their impact might be negated by unhealthy sexual behavior rampant on the television.

It is important to note that, the amount of time and attention that young people give to mass media can also be exploited to provide an ideal opportunity for communicating, informing and educating the adolescents about health (Keller 2002) hence those channels widely watched by the undergraduates should be selected to improve on the impact of the campaigns.

The Nigeria National Council for Population and Development in its 2020 policy brief acknowledges that one of the main reasons why student pregnancy persists in the country is due to inadequate access to reproductive health information and services. It therefore means that the much has not been done to prevent student pregnancy through comprehensive strategies that can adequately address the problem.

With the latest Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey report of 2008-9 indicating that the rates of student pregnancy are higher in poorer household than wealthier households, failing to address student pregnancy in Enugu state where most residents live in deplorable situation through effective campaign strategies will be costly to the nation in terms of increased maternal deaths, high rates of school dropouts and increased dependency levels (Dube 2003).


1.3 The Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the media mediated campaigns on abstinence in reducing sexual immorality in Enugu state.


1.4 Main Objective

To explore the capacity of television campaigns in influencing positive behavior change among undergraduates with regard to sexual activity in Enugu state.

Specific Objectives

The following specific objectives guided the study;

  1. To investigate the efficacy and potency of television campaigns in reducing sexual immorality
  2. To determine the reach and extent of appeal of the message used in the abstinence campaign.
  3. To find out the level of knowledge regarding sexual and reproductive health and attitudes held by the undergraduates towards abstinence and pregnancy.

1.5 Research Questions

The study used the following research questions to seek for answers.

  1. To what extent can mass media campaigns done on television reduce incidences of student pregnancy in Enugu state?
  2. What is the level of penetration and appeal of the abstinence campaign – you think that’s dump?
  3. What is the state of knowledge regarding sexual and reproductive health among school going undergraduates in Enugu state and what attitudes do they hold towards abstinence and pregnancy?

1.6 Significance of the Study

Reducing sexual immorality in the country is a key development agenda which can help improve the wellbeing of the undergraduates and also avert the negative consequences that might arise. The government and other stakeholders like the United Nation Population Fund (UNPF), Population Services International (PSI) and APHIA 11 have come up with various interventions that are meant to reduce student pregnancy in the country. The interventions have employed the use of mass media to reach the target audience even though the impact of that strategy still needs to be explored.

This study will contribute to the literature in the field of Adolescents’ Reproductive Health Interventions and further provide recommendations on how to improve mass media campaigns that are meant to reduce student pregnancy.

This study will provide information on the efficacy of abstinence campaign under study by determining its reach, appeal and the potency of television as channel of disseminating information among the target audience of Enugu state where undergraduates are faced with real challenges in terms of actualization of sexual and reproductive rights due to socio-economic problems. Therefore, the findings from the study will provide an understanding on whether there need to adjust certain components of the campaign to suit that group and whether so far it’s yielding any success.


1.7 The Scope of the Study

The study assessed the impact of the abstinence campaign in reducing sexual immorality among school going undergraduates in Enugu state with the targeted population being upper primary, forms one and two from selected Universities in the area.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Due to limitation of time and resources, the researcher used a sample size of 80 undergraduates in Enugu state and the results generalized to the entire population to explain the impact of abstinence campaign.

Even though the campaign, You Think that’s dump? So is student sex. Be Smart Abstain was done in other channels like the radio, the study will limit itself to television to assess its potency.


1.9 Definition of Key Terms

Strategy

A comprehensive course of action planned to influence the behavior or attitude of a particular set of people.

Target Audience

Members of a sub-set group to who mass media campaigns are directed.

Abstinence

The ability to desist from sexual activities by the adolescents who are considered young like those in early and middle adolescence.

Abstinence TV Campaigns

Carefully articulated initiatives done on television that are meant to delay sexual indulgence by the adolescents by providing knowledge and skills that are relevant to their needs in order to prevent early pregnancy.

Adolescence / Undergraduates

Usually viewed as the period between childhood and adulthood for instance 10-24 years. For the purpose of this study it would be those aged 13-17 years.

Reproductive Health

Ability of the adolescent to have safe reproductive development free from undesirable consequence like pregnancy since they are well informed and therefore able to make informed decisions with regard to their sexuality.

Effectiveness

Ability of an intervention to achieve its main objective like in this case to reduce student pregnancy.


Chapter Five


Summary of the Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of the Findings

Based on the Objectives of the Study

This study determined the impact of abstinence campaign, you think that is dump so is student sex be smart abstain in reducing sexual immorality among school going undergraduates aged 13-17 in Enugu state and used Descriptive Survey Design to gather information. Four schools were selected using Stratified Random Sampling. From each school a sample size of 20 respondents was randomly selected using the class register making a total of 80 respondents.

The instrument of data collection was questionnaire which had open ended questions and closed ended questions. The questionnaire was personally administered by the research and the data obtained was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Open ended questions were organized into themes based on the research objectives. Quantitative data was sorted, coded and analyzed using statistical packages for social sciences yielding descriptive statistics of percentages and frequency tables

The study findings revealed that television remains the most dominant medium of mass communication among the undergraduates with majority of the undergraduates citing it as their preferred source of information compared to other mass media like the newspapers, radio and posters. When it comes to the preferred television channel in Nigeria, Citizen television was mentioned by more than three quarters of the respondents making it the most powerful among the undergraduates’ with enormous capacity to reach that target group.

On their engagement with the media texts, the study further revealed that most undergraduates were somehow exposed to the television channel on daily basis. Even though majority of them were exposed to the television for less than four hours a day, that exposure was vital since it revealed that they could assess that media with most of them indicating that when they come to that medium they mostly consume content which is entertaining in nature and not hard content like news.

Due to its dynamic nature television therefore proved to be very forceful with enormous capacity to transcend boundaries and capture many undergraduates. The preference attached to that medium was undoubtedly huge compared to other mass media.

Another interesting finding revealed that parents are increasingly becoming important agents of sexual socialization with majority of the respondents indicating that their parents were the main source of information related to their sexuality. This finding gave recognition to the important role that can be played by interpersonal channels of communication. Mass media like television, radio come in closely second as the main source of information related to sexuality. The study also revealed that television was the main source of information on abstinence meaning, television plays a crucial role of creating awareness and informing the undergraduates on abstinence however most undergraduates felt that it was not that effective as compared to peer educators which was rated most effective source of information related to abstinence. Newspapers and posters were rated least effective.

The study also found out that the knowledge level of the undergraduates was very high, with an average score on various issues touching on their sexuality. Majority of the undergraduates indicated that they knew how to avoid getting pregnant, age at which they are susceptible to become pregnant and the consequences of sex. However, worth to mention was the fact that there were a considerable percentage of undergraduates who indicated that they were not informed at all on the consequences of sex.

On the factors that could influence sexual behavior, the study revealed that all factors from environment, social and economic had some degree of influence on the undergraduates’ sexual behavior however majority of the undergraduates felt their environment affected their sexual behavior to a large extent. This could be in terms of coerced sex or rape. Social factors like peer pressure also affected their sexual behavior to a certain extent.

The study discovered that the awareness level of the undergraduates was also very high with nearly all the respondents affirming that at one point or another they have been exposed to various campaigns advocating for abstinence. The abstinence campaign under study also received significant awareness levels with 61% of the respondents indicating that they saw it on television and could even recall the action and slogan- You think that is dump, so is student sex, be smart abstain. This high recall rate means that the advertisement reached most undergraduates.

When constructing campaign messages, it is usually important to understand the target audience so that the message can match their level of knowledge and understanding. This study revealed that the message used in you think that is dump? So is student sex. Be smart, abstain campaign was very well understood by more than half of the respondents, meaning the message was constructed in simple and clear terms. The message also appealed to majority of the undergraduates, where most undergraduates could relate very well with the advertisement. It was revealed further that those who had seen the abstinence advertisement engaged their peers on the message behind the campaign creating a discourse on the social platforms which was very important for further propelling the message.

On the observed behavior after the abstinence campaign, the study found out that most undergraduates refrained from sex by practicing abstinence. However worth to mention was the fact that there was significant proportion of those who did not intend to remain abstinent in future this was noted by comparing the percentage of those who indicated yes 73.5% for current abstinence level and those indicating yes 67.3% for future abstinence levels. This means that there is need for rigorous and continued abstinence campaigns that should avert a possible occurrence where the number of sexually active undergraduates would increase.

Despite the high awareness levels and high knowledge levels among the undergraduates in Enugu state, the study discovered that there were a number of undergraduates who were still sexually active (17.5%) and that pregnancy levels were very high with the number of reported pregnancy ranging mainly from two to uncountable undergraduates getting pregnant in the last one year. Majority of the undergraduates also affirmed that student pregnancy was a major problem in the area.

The study found out that the undergraduates had a negative attitude towards student pregnancy where they felt it was a bad occurrence to people of their age. Student pregnancy was seriously stigmatized making it very shameful.

The study also revealed that the undergraduates’ perception towards abstinence campaigns was favorable since they felt it was effective in advocating for behavior change among the undergraduates by creating awareness and educating them on the consequences of sex.


5.2 Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, it is imperative to note that television campaigns are surely an attractive strategy with enormous capacity to capture the attention of most undergraduates. It is channel with great potential in creating awareness and advocating for positive behavior change among the target audience, however its ability to alter the behavior of the undergraduates towards favorable sexual orientation is still very fragile. Television has the ability to alter behavior for as long as the campaigns are done continuously.

For student pregnancy prevention strategy to achieve some degree of success, then there is need for comprehensive approach where all channels are effectively utilized. The role of interpersonal channels cannot be overemphasized since from the findings it come out clearly that interpersonal channels like the parents and peer educators where taking important place of educating the undergraduates on matters sexuality. Therefore mass media and interpersonal channels can be used to complement each other such that when the former is used to create awareness and pass knowledge, the latter provides one on one relationship with the undergraduates where they can motivate them and counsel them when necessary.

Given the nature of television, the campaigns that are channeled through it should be made more forceful and persuasive enough to counter the negative content produced. There is need for those campaigns to be sustained for long and repeated several times for the undergraduates to internalize the approved behavior of abstinence.

Even though television was cited as the major source of abstinence campaigns with most undergraduates even being aware of the previous and latest abstinence campaigns you think that is dump? So is student sex. Be smart, abstain the study found out that there are undergraduates who are sexually active and the numbers of reported pregnancies were also high. The study can therefore conclude that the use of television to reduce incidences of student pregnancies can only be successful to certain extent of creating awareness, providing knowledge and altering the behavior of the target audience when sustained for longer time.

You think that is dump? So is student sex. Be smart, abstain campaign also achieved some degree of success. The recall rate of that advertisement was above average since most undergraduates could recall the advert and even the message used. The penetration of that campaign was therefore good and it had an impact on the abstinence behavior of the undergraduates since the current abstinence level was high among the undergraduates. This campaign therefore warrants continuation and should exploit all the television channels in Nigeria instead of overlying on one channel (KBC) as was the case in round one.

Even though the knowledge level of the undergraduate was very high and even their attitude towards abstinence campaigns was favorable, this was not translated to actual abstinence behavior for some undergraduates. Therefore, there is need for more rigorous preventive measures that should be undertaken from imparting relevant knowledge through well trained sources to dealing with other pertinent issues like poverty which might influence the uptake of the advocated behavior.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher recommends the following:

  1. The government should take a more robust approach towards student pregnancy by conducting comprehensive education through the mass media; school based programs, peer educators so that the attitude and behavior of the undergraduates are shaped when they are still young towards positive sexual behavior.
  2. The media fraternity also needs to practice social responsibility by producing and airing content that provides knowledge and educate the undergraduates. Given that most undergraduates are fond of the television there need to reduce the potentially harmful content and increase programs that can educate and entertain the undergraduates at the same time on the consequences of sex.
  3. Mass media campaigns need to well-targeted and sustained for a longer time. You think that is dump? So is student sex. Be smart, abstain abstinence campaign should be rolled out again and repeated for maximum impact to be realized. Consequently this research highly recommend that it should be advertised on all television channels to capture all the undergraduates bearing in mind that t the television with capacity to capture most undergraduates was not utilized in round one of the campaign.
  4. There is urgent need to de-stigmatize pregnancy by sensitizing significant others like the parents, teachers and even other undergraduates. Parents need to sober-up when faced with the problem of student pregnancy and avoid treating their girls harshly since this can lead to other pregnancies due early marriage when the affected fail get support from them.
  5. The researcher also recommends that peer educators should be properly trained and provided with relevant knowledge that they should pass on the undergraduates on how act responsibly with regard to sex. In line with this parents should also be encouraged more to take an active role of educating their girls on their reproductive health

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