The Role Of Models In Advertising: An Analysis Of Food And Beverage
The study investigated the role of models in advertising: an analysis of food and beverage and used consumers of Amstel malt in Onitsha, Nigeria as case study. It argues that the use of attractive models in advertising sometimes creates distraction as audience focus their attention on the models rather than the advertised product. Therefore, the study aimed at determining whether models in advertising attract more attention to themselves than the product advertised; finding out what arouses the interest of audience most in advertising; determining what influences action of audience in billboard advertising; and assessing what audience recall most in advertising. The work was anchored on agenda setting theory, the uses and gratifications theory of the media, and the psychodynamic theory. It used 373 sample size drawn purposively from the population of Amstel malt consumers in Onitsha. The work adopted survey research method and used questionnaire as data gathering instrument. Findings showed that models in advertising attract more attention to themselves than to products advertised and that audience recall models in advertising more than the product advertised. It was therefore, concluded that audience attention was more on models used in advertising. Based on this, it was recommended that billboard advertising should use models sparingly and concentrate on making the product or service advertised more conspicuous on billboard to ensure easy recall.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Answering Research Questions
- 4.3 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.4 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Advertising is a paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor with a view to disseminate information concerning an idea, product or service (Puranik, 2011). The message which is presented or disseminated is called advertisement. In the present day marketing activities, hardly is there any business in the modern world which does not advertise (Asemah, Edegoh and Ojih, 2013). However, the form of advertisement differs from business to business.
Advertising is the structured and composed non personal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products, services and ideas, by identified sponsors, through various mass media (Arens 2008, p.7). This definition is closely related to Dominick’s (2007, p.321) definition which asserts that advertising is any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services, usually paid for, by identified sponsor. Asemah, Edegoh and Ojih (2013) state that advertising is a controlled, identifiable and persuasive communication that is presented via the mass media and designed to develop product demand and to create a favourable image for a company. The major purpose of advertisings is to promote the sales of a product or service and also, to inform the masses about the highlights of the product or the service feature. Advertising is an efficient means of communicating to the world, the value of the product or the service.
Advertising is any communication that is paid for, identified by a sponsor, directed at a target audience through the various mass media like radio, television, billboard, newspaper, magazine, with the aim of creating awareness about goods and services. The essence of advertising is to make known in order to sell or buy goods and services. The power of advertising depends on the use of creative and planning skills to achieve its objectives. Advertising is the process of persuading potential customers to buy products or promote its services (Kenechukwu, Asemah and Edegeoh, 2013). It is the branch of marketing that deals with communicating to customers information about products, brands, and services. Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products ideas and services (Asemah and Edegoh, 2012a). Advertising commends ideas, goods and services to potential consumers through various traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, the new media and outdoor media such as billboard.
Outdoor advertising is a medium of advertising which is used to reinforce the recall of brand names and pay offs (Okoro, 1998, p.158). It is one of the channels of mass communication. It is a medium usually used for dissemination of information or advertising message to a mass audience. The outdoor media have been described severally as “out–of-home media” and as the “traffic or position” media since they depend on people and/or vehicular traffic passing by their locations to deliver their advertising message (Amaechi, 1991, p.77). The billboard as a type of outdoor advertising is asserting itself as a powerful medium for the introduction of new products, with its appeal to all classes of consumers and its high visual impact. Billboard advertising generally belongs to point of purchase (POP). It is one of the most effective outdoor advertising techniques that are used in business everyday. This explains why Russell and Lane (1962, p.50) cited in Mbadi (2005, p.65) successfully claim that “billboard survived the decline of the Roman Empire to become the decorative art of Europeans in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries”.
In contemporary Nigerian society, the use of models has been predominant and widespread in billboard advertising which has brought tremendous change especially on sales of products. Belch and Belch (2001) opine that companies spend huge sums of money to have models appear in their advertisement. This is because of the attractive force in drawing attention of people to product, sustaining their interest and giving the product a personality. A model is a person employed to display, advertise and promote commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a subject of works of arts (Wikipedia).
Celebrity branding refers to branding in which a celebrity becomes a brand ambassador and uses his or her status to promote a product, service or charity, and sometimes also appears as promotional model (Wikipedia). The source defines a promotional model as a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand or concept by directly interacting with potential customers. The most important characteristic of the vast majority of promotional models is that typically they tend to be attractive in physical appearance. Their major function is provision of information about the product or service and make it appealing to customers (Wikipedia). This study, therefore is an examination of audience assessment of the use of models in advertising, using Amstel malt consumers in Onitsha the commercial nerve centre of South East Nigeria, as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The most important role of advertising is to sell product, service, idea, etc. This is also the major aim of billboard advertising. Although billboard advertising could appear fascinating, the crux of the matter lies in its effectiveness in capturing and sustaining attention and in making consumers take required action by buying the product, idea, opinion or service. Inspite of the many benefits inherent in the use of attractive models in billboard advertising there is a raging argument regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of these attractive models to pass across the intended message (and nothing more) to the buyers.
The problem associated with the use of attractive models in billboard advertising is many and varied. First, the commuter has very little time to note and appreciate the advertisement before his vehicle speeds past. Second, there exists a problem as to whether the audiences are attracted to the models or to the product they endorse, and whether the audience eventually recall the product advertised or the face of model used. This is a problem because the audience needs to be attracted to and recall the product before he or she can take the desired action. This study therefore attempts to ascertain whether the use of attractive models in billboard advertising is a strength or weakness; whether the models attract attention to themselves or to the product they endorse.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The following objectives are put forward to provide the required direction to the study:
- To find out whether models in advertising attract more attention to themselves than product advertised.
- To determine what arouses the interest of the audience most in billboard advertising.
- To assess what influences action of audience in model advertising
- To ascertain what the audience recall most in model advertising.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are posed in pursuant of the study’s objectives:
- Do models in advertising attract more attention themselves or to the product advertised?
- What arouses the interest of audience most in advertising?
- What influences action of audience most in advertising?
- Does audience recall models in advertising more than product advertised?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The study formulated and tested the following research hypothesis
Ho: there is no significant relationship between model advertising and consumer consumption of beverages
Hi: there is significant relationship between model advertising and consumer consumption of beverages
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of any study is measured by the contribution it makes to past, immediate and present efforts at offering solutions to a problem.
Businessmen and business scholars from developing countries are slowly recognizing that people must buy and consume constantly, increasing quantities of goods if the economy of these countries is to continue to grow.
However, in the push for greater sales, businessmen face increasing competition. Competition should not be tolerated, hence, a competitive market means a competitive advertisement campaign.
The significance of this study is to show how the model advertising can be justifiably applied to achieve a more than usual contribution to business growth of both new and well established organisation.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will analyze the Role Of Models In Advertising: An Analysis Of Food And Beverage. The study is limited to some Amstel malt consumers in Onitsha the commercial nerve centre of South East Nigeria, as a case study.. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among the consumers in the study area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
To make goods and services known to the public through the information media.
The acquisition of goods and services by payment of money or its equivalent consumer goods
This is the habitual purchase by a consumer of a specific product brand.
Those who make use of goods and services
The name used to identify a specific product type e.g. Seven-up bottling company
They are attributes or specific to their advertised product or what advertisement say consumer will benefit from the product.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter summarizes the findings on the role of models in advertising: an analysis of food and beverage, Amstel Malt in Onitsha, Nigeria as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
In this study, our focus was on the role of models in advertising: an analysis of food and beverage, Amstel Malt in Onitsha, Nigeria as case study. The study is was specifically focused on finding out whether models in advertising attract more attention to themselves than product advertised; determining what arouses the interest of the audience most in billboard advertising; assessing what influences action of audience in model advertising and ascertaining what the audience recall most in model advertising.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 363 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are consumers of Amstel Malt in Onitsha, Nigeria.
With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
The main purpose of model advertising is to create awareness of the existence of products, services, etc, particularly newly introduced goods or products, and new brand(s) of existing products. Model influence consumers’ decision and increase sales. When positioned in strategic locations, billboards can command very high vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Billboards, from the findings of this study, create attraction not to the products they advertise but to the models who endorse the products. Audience recalls the models more than the advertised product because the beautiful celebrities who often serve as models are the centre of attraction in billboard advertising. Therefore, the use of beautiful and attractive models in billboard advertising is a distraction to the product advertised. This inevitable conclusion does not rule out completely the use of models in product advertising. Companies and organizations using attractive models in their billboard advertising should think twice.
Based on the findings of the study, we put forward the following recommendations:
- Advertisers should de-emphasize heavy use of attractive models. This is to avoid distracting the attention of prospects from the product. Emphasis should be on moderate and naturally looking models.
- Attractive models should be sparingly used in advertisement that features masculine products. This is to ensure that the attention of the target consumers will be on the product, not on the model.
- There is great need for improvement in quality of advertising copy to change the present trend of making the models much more conspicuous than the product advertised. The copy should be such that the advertised product should be very bold and better imbued graphically than the models.
- The use of other types of endorsement should be explored by advertising agencies and billboard creators rather than constant use of beautiful and attractive models. Animation and similar types could be explored.
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