An Examination Of Traditional Mural Art Of The Obingwa

Project and Seminar Material for Fine Arts

An Examination Of Traditional Mural Art Of The Obingwa


Abstract


Modernization and globalization have caused changes in the mural art tradition of the Obingwa.The presence of modern trends in architecture and wall decoration with the use of industrial materials and contemporary designs have made the people of Obingwa to have contempt on traditional architecture and traditional wall decoration; which had not attracted any scholarly attention. In view of this, the study examined the Traditional Mural Art of the Obingwa.

Chapter one focuses on the introduction, background of the study and statement of research problem. Furthermore, it states the objectives of the study which include: to identify the mural artists, mural art materials and motifs used in the traditional art and to enumerate the functions of the mural art, as well as to examine the present state of the traditional mural art of the Obingwa.

Chapter two is an incorporation of some scholarly views, positions, arguments and analysis regarding the origin and practice of mural art from the Paleolithic through the contemporary traditional periods, where it is argued that the oldest mural ever discovered was on the soil of African continent. The procedure for collecting and analyzing relevant data is outlined in chapter three, with the employment of Ethnographic of qualitative research as design.

Chapter four on the other hand contains the analysis of information obtained from field work and the discussions based on the objectives of the research. In addition chapter four discloses among others, the functions of Obingwa traditional murals which include religious worship, aesthetics, communication, advertisement, ceremonial invitation, historical narration, education and curing of ailments.

Chapter five focuses on the summary, conclusion and recommendation. The researcher recommends among others that the people of Obingwa should collectively pass a resolution on cultural revival and involve the existing Christian missions in the campaign, for the survival of traditional arts. This could allow the mural tradition to function simultaneously with Christian beliefs.


Table of Content


Preliminary Pages

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of content
  • Abstract

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Justification of the Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Origin of Mural Art in Europe
  • 2.3 Cave Art in North America
  • 2.4 Cave Art in South America
  • 2.5 Prehistoric Murals in Australia
  • 2.6 Early Murals in Asia
  • 2.7 Prehistoric Murals in Africa
  • 2.8 Prehistoric Murals in Nigeria
  • 2.9 The Mural Artist
  • 2.10 Mural Art Materials
  • 2.11 Mural Motifs
  • 2.12 Functions of Mural Art
  • 2.13 Conclusion

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Research Population / Sample
  • 3.4 Source of Data Collection
  • 3.5 Pilot Study
  • 3.6 Fieldwork
  • 3.7 Research Instruments
  • 3.8 Oral Interview Schedules
  • 3.9 Participant Observation
  • 3.10 Research Tools
  • 3.11 Procedure for Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Analysis of Obingwa Murals
  • 4.3 The Mural Artist
  • 4.4 Mural Art Materials
  • 4.5 Mural Art Motifs
  • 4.6 Process of Creating Murals
  • 4.7 Functions of Traditional Mural Art of Obingwa
  • 4.8 Present State of Obingwa Murals
  • 4.9 Findings

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


Introduction

Mural art along side body adornment, wood carving and weaving are the age-long traditional arts of Obingwa of Abia State, Nigeria. The mural art called “Agwugwa Ulo” meaning wall inscriptions is practiced by women. The art formed part of the architectural design of the people. They depict geometric and natural motifs, designs, indigenous styles, techniques, modes and functions of the art. The traditional architectural patterns of Obingwa are similar to those of other Southern Igbo communities, which are areas in present Abia and Imo States as delineated by Isichei (1977). This uniformity is due to the climate condition of the area. The design is done on mud walls and incorporate with delta leaves or raffia as roofs.

Mural art which is also seen as wall decoration is a work of art that decorates a wall or ceiling of a building. This could be done in the interior or exterior walls of the building. Irivwieri (2003) states that various motifs that are either geometric, botanical, human, zoomorphic, abstracts and indigenous motifs are employed to create art works and narrate stories on a subject matter, thereby projecting an idea inherent in it. According to Kleiner(2011),“the origin of mural art is traced to prehistoric rock and cave paintings and engravings, some of which dateback to 30,000 years”.The author opines that the early men made use of materials from plants, blood and dung of animals for their paintings on the walls of caves. He further opines that the functions of the rock art include religion and magic. Early humans believed that such works of art would help them overpower the animals during hunting expeditions. Pletcher (2014), adds that “Such prehistoric art is found in Birnin Kudu, Jigawa state Nigeria, discovered in 1954 by a colonial touring group.” Birnin Kudu town is best known as the site of Dutsen Habude, a cave containing Neolithic mural paintings of cattle which bear strong resemblance to some found in Central Sahara.

Apart from Obingwa, mural traditions appear to be common within other southern Igbo communities. In these areas, the art is also preserved for women. In some southern Igbo communities like Owerri area towards Northern Igbo, (Northern Igbo are present Enugu, & Ebonyistates including the Northern part of Anambra State as delineated by Isichei, 1977) there is the ‘Uli’ tradition and the erection of ‘Mbari’ houses.Duniya (2009) notes that “Uli became an art movement „Ulism’ in University of Nigeria Nsukka, in the 20th century, through the „NationalisticSpirit’ of „NaturalSynthesis’ as art concept and style”. Though, mural art traditions within the Igbo nation are mainly religious, cultural, identification, informative and aesthetic purposes; It suffers serious threats from Christianity, modern trends in architecture and globalization.Similarly, the Ebira also have a mural art tradition. The Ebira are specifically found in Nassarawa, Kogi and Edo states, including Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Saliu (2010) affirms that the works are done in the houses of traditional chiefs and wealthy individuals, which indicate social and political functions within the communities.

Among Yoruba of South West Nigeria, traditional murals are executed, mainly for religious worship. The mural art in Yoruba is dominated by women. Most of the paintings are found in the Oba‟s Palace, and influential individuals, as well as the ancestral shrine walls known as“Ojubo”. Within Northern Nigeria,there are outstanding wall decorations in Kano, Katsina, Sokoto, Zaria, Dutse and most towns in Northern Nigeria. Irivwieri (2003), states that such architecture with mural designs are status symbols in the society and in most cases, they belong to the nobles and the ruling class.

Apart from Nigeria, within South Saharan Africa are Ndebele people of Nguni in Zimbabwe, who have an enviable mural art tradition enriched with coloured geometric designs. Ndebele artists use mural art to communicate effectively with much regards to communal identity and aesthetics. Also, within the Southern African region is Pedi, a Bantu speaking North Sotho people, who maintained the mural decoration culture with geometric patterns. Vogel (1986) declares that “Pedi mural is so developed that an iconographic analysis of Pedi mural yields further insights into Pedi culture”. In addition, the Moorish wall reliefs in Southwest Mauritania, the rich decorated walls of Kassena and Tiebele people of Upper Volta, the mural paintings in Sirigu Ghana and most regions of Africa, attest to the diversity of mural art practice alongside their functionalities.

In Obingwa, mural art is found in a few private and public buildings. The designs on private buildings are meant for identification and to express specific messages to passers by. The existing mural art are mostly painted and the practice is strictly reserved for the women, who hand over the art from generations to generations. The materials used for the art are created from natural sources found within the environment. The colours used are usually black, red, brown, yellow, green and White. The Obingwa mural paintings are not restricted to walls alone. The women also paint on trunks of trees in the open, especially at locations where ancestral shrines are designated within the communities. In addition, they decorate bodies with dark dye extracted from a plant called “uri”.


1.1 Background of the Study

Abia State Government Official Website (2014) states that “Obingwais a Local Government Area in Abia state with its headquarters at Mgboko. It was created in October, 1996 out of the former Obioma Ngwa Local Government Area, by the military regime of late General Sani Abacha”. The official website stresses further that “Obingwa is situated in the tropical rainforest of southern Igbo of Southeast Nigeria”. The area has boundaries with Isiala Ngwa

North and Isiala Ngwa South Local Government Areas in the North, Ukwa East Local Government Area in the South, Aba North, Aba South and Ugwunagbo Local Government Areas in the West and Akwa Ibom State in the East. Obingwa is among the 6 local government areas in Abia South Senatorial Zone and one of the 17 Local Government Areas of Abia State. According to United Nations Population Fund (2014),Obingwa occupies an area of 395 square kilometers and has a population of 295, 680 with a literacy rate of 77 percent. Obingwa has 14 electoral wards, 53 autonomous communities, 237 villages and 1,185 kindreds (Obingwa Council Information Unit, 2014). The people live separately on nuclear family basis or extended families in a compound. Each compound has an entrance that is at least 40 meters from the building units to the road, while arable land separates one compound unit and the other.

Historically, origin and waves of migration of Obingwa people were in two folds. Oriji (1991) explains that the Ibeme group migrated from Bonny Island in the present Rivers State and settled in the area about 1,300 years ago while the Ngwa group migrated from Umunoha in present Imo State and also settled in the area about 1,100 years ago. Akwaranwa (1988) notes that in view of the migration order, the Ibeme group occupied the area before the coming and settlement of Ngwa group.

Obingwa is among the 7 Local Government Areas of Ngwa clan in Abia State, namely: Isiala Ngwa North, Isiala Ngwa South, Obingwa, Osisioma Ngwa, Aba North, Aba South and Ugwunagbo N.A. Ogboma (Personal Communication on September 7, 2014) describes;

Obingwa in the following manner:

Amongst the Local Government Areas of Ngwa, Obingwa is different in terms of culture and tradition, because of the dominated influence of Ibeme group who were more in number during the initial migrations and settlements when they occupied most of the areas in Eastern Ngwa which is known today as Obingwa. Due to the difference in culture and tradition of the Ibeme settlers, from the early period of settlement to the present, most communities in Obingwa do not cultivate or eat trifoliate yam (ono). In the same vein, they do not rear bitches (nnenkita), which means that there are no female dogs in these Obingwa communities, but any female dog that erroneously enters the forbidden communities must be killed and allowed to rot away. These traditions are being observed till today, no matter the religious faith of any individual within these communities. On the contrary the people in the remaining 6 Local Government Areas of Ngwa cultivate and eat trifoliate yam and domesticate bitches. The peculiar cultural and traditional beliefs and practices of the Obingwa made them distinct as a people amongst other Ngwa areas. Apart from the aforementioned, other traditional peculiarities include the arts, dance cultural societies and dialect.

Obingwa people speak Igbo language and theyare predominantly Christians, with a handful of adherents of African Traditional Religion and worship “Chineke” as supreme God. The major communities in the area include Ibeme, Ohanze, Ovom, Akpa-mbato, Ntighauzo, Ukpakiri, Ehere, Onicha- Ngwa, Nenu, Itungwa, Umuanunu, Mgboko, Osa Ukwu, Abala and Ndiakata. In order to facilitate economic activities in Obingwa, the people maintain the four traditional Igbo market days of “Nkwo”, “Eke”, “Orie” and “Afor” which also constitute the Igbo calendar. There are major markets which include “Orie- Abala”, Orie-Nenu”, “Nkwo Nwaelechi”, Ehere daily market, “Orie-Ntighauzo,” “Afor- obete Ukwu”, “Eke-Umudu”, “Afor- Itungwa” and “AforAkpa”.

The Economy of the area is majorly based on Agriculture. Staples include cassava, yam, coco-yam, pumpkin, melon, maize, cucumber, plantain, banana and avocado, while cash crops include palm oil, coconut and delta palm wine. They also engage in livestock farming. Other economic activities are trading,brewing of native gin and arts, such as carving of musical instruments, weaving of baskets and mats, mural art, hairdo, hunting, carpentry, metal fabrication and manufacturing of local guns which are used by hunters. Among the arts of the traditional Obingwa society, Mural paintings, weaving of baskets, mats and manufacturing of guns have been very outstanding. J. Ulelu (Personal Communication on

November 15, 2014) describesObingwa mural painting as:

An old architectural tradition of Obingwa, which has existed for centuries before the coming of Europeans. As my grandfather told me, the art tradition started in Obingwa after the “great migrations” when the forebears of the Ngwa left Umunoha inthe present Imo state when crises erupted in the area and crossed the banks of Imo River and settled in the present Ngwa land. The Ngwa inhabited alongside Ibeme group who initially settled in Obingwa before the Ngwa. In order to continue the religious culture as practiced in their former communal traditions and innate urge for aesthetics, mural art became a tradition of the Ibeme and the Ngwa in Obingwa. Though, the already settled Ibeme had their religious art which were majorly carved wooden images. The blending of the two cultures in many spheres of communal life ushered in a unique art tradition. The wall decoration normally called “agwugwa Ulo” serves a number of purposes in Obingwa society which include aesthetics, religious worship and communication.

Within the area, a great farmer who has the title of “Ezeji” could commission the artist to incorporate yam leaf and yam tubers motifs on the walls of his buildings, thereby informing members of the public that a great farmer lives there.On the other hand, the walls of some communal and private architecture and some outdoor designated abodes like ancestral shrines (Ihuala) and village squares (Amaukwu) are also decorated with the art. Such shrines are regarded as abodes of ancestral sprits and deities which are dedicated to the mother earth

“Ala”. As a tradition, the motifs and symbols painted or rendered in relief to beautify the shrines walls are meant to appease the spirits known as“umummuo” who inhabit the shrines. The appeasement is believed to invite and lure the spirits to answer when invocations are made to them. As a rule, the chief priest as the custodian of shrine and spiritual activities, has the responsibility of commissioning the art work, as well as directing the artist about what the mural art would look like in terms of motifs, colours and sizes.

In addition, many cultural and social groups exist in the area. Some of such groups are

„Okonko’, „Ekpe’, Mmanwu, „Ese‟, „Ukom’, „Ekeravu’, „Anyantolukwu’, „Mgbede’,

„Pelenma’, „Ituanya’, and Age Grades. Each of these groups has definite roles and functions ranging from entertainment, spiritual and religious worship, initiation rites, funeral rites, divination, women and marriage rites, rites into manhood, maintenance of law and order to communal infrastructural development. Traditionally, the people of Obingwa believe in the existence of supreme God “Chineke”, the ancestors “Ndiche”, the mother earth “Ala”, god of thunder “Amadioha”, god of fertility and good harvest “Ahianjoku”, and god of righteousness and conscience “Ofo na ogu”. The gods and deities serve as agents, channels and media through which the attention of the supreme God could be attracted depending on the prevailing circumstances. Afigbo (1992) affirms that the deities also contribute immensely to abundant harvest, well being, good health, progress and security of the people.

In decision making and administration, Obingwa people are republican in democratic participation. The eldest man in the kindred is the head and holder of staff of office “ofo”. He is assisted by the kindred assembly known as “Umunna”. Umunna is a group of male adults from different compounds and families within the kindred. In ascending order, the village head administers with able councilors who represent various kindreds within the village.

Major decisions are subject to the approval of village assembly “Amala”. In this structure, women are excempted from the kindred and village decision making process, except in their women association meetings where they make rules for good conduct during communalactivities like sweeping of village paths, village squares and attending of marriage and funeral ceremonies. Furthermore, the affairs of the autonomous community is overseen by a traditional ruler “Eze”, who is the chief custodian of the culture and tradition of the people, which include arts and crafts as well as the chief security officer of his kingdom. He is ably assisted by the Eze-in council “Oso-Eze-achi”, which comprises the traditional prime minster and other titled chiefs who represent the various villages within the autonomous community.

It could be opined that mural art formed part of most traditional architecture of many cultural regions and clans in Africa. However, due to the influence of Christianity, colonization and globalization which ushered in modern architecture with new techniques and materials in wall decoration, the existence of traditional mural art in these areas is threatened. In Obingwa only few of such murals could be found. As a result, most youths who are indigenes of Obingwa are not aware of the functions of the mural art. Unfortunately, there are no available literature through which these youths could be informed. It is in the light of these that the study intends to among other things, investigate the functions of traditional mural art of the Obingwa.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There are literature on Igbo mural art, but the specifications and uniqueness of some communities in terms of traditions and culture have not been emphasized . It is observed that many authors have written about the Igbo mural art including Cole (1982), “Mbari Art and Life among the Owerri Igbo”, Isichei (1977), “The Igbo worlds”, Itanyi (2014), “Archaeology and Traditional Mural Painting in Nsukka Area of Northern Igbo Land”, Ejiogu (1971), “Body Decoration and Mural Painting in Orafite and Aguleri: Their Growth and Adaptation”, Oziogu (2012), “Building Mbari Home in Igbo Land”, Aniakor (2002) “Igbo Architecture”, Ikwuemesi and Areh (2007), “Uli: History, Essence and Prospects”. The existing literature are mostly on “Uli” wall decoration, which is the mural art tradition of some Southern Igbo Communities such as Owerri area and Northern Igbo land, while no literature has been documented on the traditional mural art of the Obingwa.

The continuous existence of traditional mural art of Obingwa is being threatened, due to the effects of modernization and globalization. The presence of modern designs in buildings and decoration materials has made the people to have contempt on traditional architecture and traditional wall decorations. In view of this, the problem of this study is the lack of literature in documenting the traditional mural art of the Obingwa.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this research is to examine the traditional mural art of Obingwa, while the objectives are to:

  1. Identify the mural artists, materials and motifs used in the murals.
  2. Highlight the process of creating the murals.
  3. Enumerate the functions of traditional mural art among the Obingwa communities.
  4. Ascertain the present state of mural art of the Obingwa.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How can the mural artists of Obingwa, their art materials and motifs be identified?
  2. What are the procedures for creating Obingwa murals?
  3. How can the functions of Obingwa traditional murals be enumerated?
  4. Is the present state of the Obingwa murals going into extinction or evolving?

1.5 Justification of the Study

Obingwa has a number of art traditions. Among them is the traditional mural art (Agwugwa Ulo) which according to oral traditions is an age-long practice; which has existed alongside

“Uli”art tradition of part of southern Igbo like Owerri area and Northern Igbo land that has attracted various scholarly attentions. In Obingwa, the new trends in architecture has posed serious threat to the continuous existence of traditional mural art. As a result, only a few of the art exist today. Inthis regard, the neglect, possible extinction, stagnation and lack of literature of the Obingwa murals justify this study.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This research brought to light the singular motifs design devoid of background colours, which makes the Obingwa mural art unique from other mural traditions within Nigeria and South Saharan Africa, such as Owerri Northern Igbo, Yoruba, Pedi and Sirigu.

The research is expected to serve as a relevant literature for the younger generations, the artists, historians and the general public who are not aware of the significance of the mural art. Thirdly, subsequent researches could be based on the recommendations of this research. Fourthly, it could be a guide for studio artists who are interested in adapting and drawing inspirations from motifs and designs derived from traditional mural art of the Obingwa.

Finally, the materials used for the mural design of Obingwa are sourced within the immediate environment from natural sources, which remains a tradition to this day.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is Obingwa Local Government Area in Abia South Senatorial zone. Majority of the murals are on the exterior walls of buildings while a few of them are on the interior walls. Similarly, most of the works are painted with colours while some are created with incisions and low relief with the use of mud or cement.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

  • Afor – The fourth Igbo market day
  • Agwagwaulo – wall inscription, wall decoration or mural art.Aname ascribed to the mural tradition of the Obingwa
  • Ahianjoku – god of fertility
  • Aja ngwu olu – red laterite
  • Ajaoto – mud slip (watery mixture of mud)
  • Aja – sand or earth
  • Akrika – thatch roof made with raffia palm-leaves
  • Akwukwougo – a kind of leaf with wide and thick features
  • Ala – mother earth
  • Amadioha – god of thunder
  • Amala – village assembly
  • Amaukwu – village square where communal activities are held.
  • Anyantolukwu – a kind of dance
  • Chineke – supreme God and creator of universe who dwells in heaven
  • Eke – second Igbo market day
  • Ekeravu – a kind of dance group
  • Ekpe – traditional society
  • Ekpete – a drum covered with animal skin or membrane
  • Ekwe – slit wooden drum, a musical instrument also use by town criers
  • Eruonyi – a plant where ochre is extracted
  • Ese – traditional musical band usually performed during burial rites of a titled man.
  • Eze – traditional ruler and head of autonomous community.
  • Ezeji – king of yams: a great farmer who have upto 20bans of yams and is honoured with prestigious title of Ezeji
  • Ichunta – hunting expedition
  • Igbo – a major Nigerian ethnic group that occupies South East Nigeria language speak by the ethnic group
  • Ihuala – ancestral shrine, the abode of deities, spirits and gods
  • Inyi – charcoal
  • Ituanya – a kind of secret cult.
  • Mgbede – maiden‟s kind of dance
  • Mmanwu – a kind of masquerade society
  • Ndiche – ancestors
  • Njagwa – a plant where yellow ochre is extracted
  • Nkwo – the first Igbo market day
  • Nnenkita – a female dog (bitch)
  • Nmayioku – locally brewed gin
  • Ntite – clothe rag.
  • Nzu – white clay
  • Ogele – metal gong, a kind of musical instrument
  • Oja – aerophone made of animal horn, a kind of musical instrument
  • Ono – trifoliate, a forbidden kind of yam by Ibeme group
  • Opi – aerophone made of animal bone, a kind of musical instrument
  • Ofo na ogu – god of righteousness and conscience
  • Obingwa – the area of study. A Local Government Area in Abia State
  • Ojubo – Shrinein Yoruba Language
  • Oba – Traditional ruler in Yoruba
  • Orie – third Igbo market day
  • Ofo – staff of office
  • Okonko – Traditional society for maintenance of law and order
  • Oso-eze-achi – members of traditional rulers cabinet
  • Pelenma – A kind of dance for maidens
  • Ukom – musical band performed during the burial rites of a titled woman
  • Uli – the mural art tradition of the Oweri area and northern Igbo
  • Ulo blok – a house built with concrete
  • Umummuo – spirits
  • Umunna – assembly of male adults within a kindred
  • Uri – a plant where black is extracted

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Introduction

This chapter contains the summary of chapters one to four of this study. The conclusionis briefly highlighted as well as the recommendation.


5.1 Summary

The mural art of the Obingwa is an old tradition that has been handed over from one general to the other. The art has many functions which include religious worship and curing of ailments.The mural artists are mostly women who paint with earth and plant colours sourced from immediate environments, while a few men are wall relief artists with the use of mud, clay and cement. The motifs are influenced by belief system, mythology, religion and culture and are dominated by stylized objects and geometric patterns. The art tradition is almost at its extinction stage due to influence of modernization, globalization and Christianity.


5.2 Conclusion

The objectives of this research “An Examination of Traditional Mural Art of the Obingwa” has been achieved. The mural tradition in Obingwa is ascertained as old as the period of initial migrants settlement in the area, about one thousand years ago. It has remained partof the belief system, religion, communication and mythology of Obingwa society and has also been handed over from one generation to the other. The traditional mural artist is identified as a creator whose creations are so important for the continuous existence of culture and tradition. The artistic style of Obingwa mural has stylizations and bold outline without repeated patterns and background colours which are not common in other mural traditions like “Uli” of Owerri Igbo, Northern Igbo land, Yoruba and Ndebele mural traditions.

Similarly, the functions of the murals have opened new dimensions in understanding the unique continuation of the intents of the prehistoric cave painters especially in religious worship, communication, curing of ailments, education and aesthetic. It is the opinion of the researcher that this study should be useful to researchers who may wish to go into more research studies about Obingwa murals and other forms of art within the area. It could also be a guide to studio artists who may be interested in drawing inspirations from the motifs derived from the traditional mural art of Obingwa.


5.3 Recommendations

  1. The people of Obingwa through their communal assemblies (amala), elders and traditional rulers should pass a resolution on cultural revival and involve the existing Christian missions in the campaign for the survival of traditional arts. This could allow the mural traditions to functionsimultaneously with Christian beliefs.
  2. The mural artists should endeavor to cultivate and rear within their respective homes, various plants through which the painting colours are extracted. This would make the materials to be at their disposal always, especially when the farmers clear the distant bush and cut the plants in preparation for a new farming season.
  3. Indigene of Obingwa should be educated on the importance of preserving cultural heritage and traditions of their society through mass media, art historians and socio-cultural organizations of various communities in Obingwa.
  4. Further studies are encouraged in other aspects of art of the Obingwa that are on their way to extinction. These include sculpture, music and dance.

An Examination Of Traditional Mural Art Of The Obingwa


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