Television As An Instrument Of Educational Advancement
The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of television educational programme on children. One hundred and eighty respondents were randomly selected for the study in Enugu Sate and questionnaires were distributed to them. To accomplish this task, the following hypothesis were tested. H1: Educational Programmes stimulate interest of school children in education, H2: The timing and suitability of educational programmes on NTA channel 8 to children in Enugu State H3: Visual aids used in educational programmes are sufficient to enhance understanding of educational programmes H4: educational programmes on television are more effective in educating school children than academic activities in the school.The tabularized and percentage statistical technique was used to test the above –formulated hypothesis.After a carefully analysis, it was discovered that three of the formulated hypotheses received statistical support while the remaining one upheld the null hypothesis. Based on the above findings, the researchers recommended among other things, that there is need for N.T.A. Channel 8 Enugu to bring back to our television educational programme that will improve the standard of the education in the state.The researchers also suggest that for a more valid appraisals of this research a similar study should be carried out in other parts of the country.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education in Nigeria today, has assumed a very important position in the country’s development programme. This accounts for the introduction of the universal free primary education (U.P.E.) in 1976 and the establishment of new primary, secondary and post secondary schools all over the country.
Education could be defined in various ways. In a very broad sense, education includes every agency, which enables an individual to master his physical and social environment of which he is a member. But for the purpose of this education will be defined as an organized and formal instruction, which is given in educational establishments such as schools, colleges and universities.
Education has an important role to play in the economy of a nation. The most important economic function as that of ensuring that the nation’s need for a labour force is satisfied.
However, formal education in Nigeria is no longer confirmed to education establishments only. The mass media have, in recent times, taken a held and positive step towards enhancing educational development in the country. An example is that Enugu State Broadcasting (ESBS)
Mass media communication comprised the institutions and techniques by which specialized groups employ technological devices, that is the press, TV, Radio, Film ETC, to disseminate information to large heterogeneous and widely disperse audience.
This study is particularly concerned with TV and its contribution to educational advancement in the country especially Enugu state.
Television Broadcasting was first established in Nigeria (indeed Africa) on October 31st 1956 in Ibadan, by the their government of the western region of Nigeria.
This station now called Nigeria Television Ibadan (NTA Ibadan) was run as an aim of the former western Nigeria government Broadcasting corporation initially under the trading name western Nigeria Radio services limited, in partnership with oversees rediffusion limited of U.K
Two years after its inception, the regional Government bought over the shares of the foreign partners, and became the proprietor. A year after the establishment of the Ibadan station, the former government of Eastern Nigeria, in October 1960, set up the second Nigeria Television service then known as ENTV.
This later become NTA Enugu shortly after, on 1967 the Northern Region Government established a television station as an aim of the Broadcasting company of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) located in Kaduna, the station was known as Radio Kaduna Television (RKTV) and was also owned jointly by the regional government and a British Television Company. The Federal Government in 1962, established its own station, the Nigeria Television service (NTS) under a management agreement with an American Network. This services was confirmed to the federal capital, and soon came under the Nigeria Broadcasting corporation, (NBC) when the management contract with the Americans was determined.
The advert of television brought with it a new dimension to broadcasting in Africa within the first decade of its arrival twenty –two African countries established their own television stations.
The creation of states in Nigeria meant that the new state administrators could set- up television net works in their states. The old government of the Mid-Western states in 1973 went ahead by establishing the Mid-West Television (MTV) now NTA Benin, but emerged, transmitting in colour. It therefore becomes the first station in the country to broadcast in colour.
In 1975, the federal military government announced its intention to take over television station in Nigeria. It then set up a machinery within the federal ministry of information t give effect to its plan. At this time, ten stations, Ibadan, Enugu, Kaduna, Lagos, Benin, Jos, Port –Harcourt, Kano, Sokoto and Owerri (Aba), in order had been set-up the Nigeria Television Authority was finally inaugurated in May, 1977 although Decree 24 of 1977 which establish it was promulgated in March 1977 but effect from April 1976. by that Decree the Nigeria Television Authority become the only body empowered to undertake televisions broadcasting in the country, indeed the federal government has begun to fund all the station from the first April, 1976, when networking of news also commenced of Nigeria Television, Via Domestic Satellite (Domsat). By December 1979, there was scheduled broadcasts from every state capitalization of broadcasting station and the creation of new states many new television education services has come to stay in Nigeria.
The programming of Television Educational progrmmes came shortly after the establishment of Television industry, The cardinal point of the NTA’S programming is its public service nature.
The enabling low stipulates that NTA be independent and impartial: Its programming and coverage polices should therefore be available oriented, but guided by the nation’s social, political , moral cultural, scientific, educational and economic goals.
The purpose of programme objections in dual, firstly, it facilitates, the monitoring of programmes on the basis of a recognized fame of reference and secondly, it serves to focus the producers mind on the purpose of the programme he is making.
The following decision on classification on programmes should not in any way be seen to be mutually, ecclesial application. Rather, they are meant to serve as guided posts to success and effective programming.
- Children’s programme
- Youth programme
- Family matters programmes
- News and current affairs programmes
- Sports programmes
- Drama Programms
- Light entertainment Programmes
- The arts Programmes.
According to Uchenna Odoh of NTA Channel and presentation Unit, at the time of this research, the NTA broadcast the following educational programme.
On Mondays, quiz time by 5.00pm, Wednesday, Do-it –yourself by 4.3pm, Thursdays, set /Network by 6.30pm, Fridays, speak out by 6.30pm.
According to him, instructional television, which was usually, shown on Monday’s by 6.30 pm is presently problems and will come back to air immediately the problem is rectified.
According to him. NTA formal educational objectives are as follows:
- To complement and supplement classroom education.
- To broaden an deepen knowledge
- To bring to light bread through in knowledge
- To encourage intellectual development
- To encourage and teach lavational skills
- To provide tutorials on curricular subjects
This study on Television as an instrument of educational advancement focuses on effectiveness of Television educational programmes on educational advancement of children in Enugu-state.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
In this study, it is not easy to get accurate responses from audiences due to the massive poverty prevalent in the area. Many are unable to afford the sets.
Questionnaire data through television get only to the minority due to non-availability of electricity.
Inadequate responses from the respondents delay the research questionnaire.
Television has the particular problem of technical expertise, in terms of NTA channel 8 Enugu, the programmes are not shown all the time due to technical problem.
Televisions set and has time to watched the NTA Channel 8 progrmmes.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
- The purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness of Television educational programmes on children.
- How these educational progrmmes can be improved to suit the target audience
- This is to find out if visual aids used in educational progrmmes on TV are sufficient to enhance understanding of educational programmes.
- This study equally strive to find out if educational programmes on Television are more effective in educating schools children than academic activities in schools.
- Moreover, the study was aimed at finding out if the timing of educational programmes are suitable for the audience.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study was important bearing in mind that today’s children live in an audiovisual world and world of technological television.
Since NTA channel 8 Enugu has shown considerable interest in broadcasting educational programmes aimed at children and adult a like, it is important to examine the effect of these progrmmes on children in Enugu,
This study shows the extent which the children could benefit from these progrmmes.
The results of this study will add to the total body of knowledge and to the development of television educational programme from which the society as a whole is bound to benefit.
1.5 Research Questions
- Does the educational programmes on television stimulate interest of school children in Education?
- Does the timing of educational programmes on NTA channel 8 Enugu suitable to children in Enugu State?
- Does the visual aids used in educational programmes on TV sufficient to enhance understanding of educational programme.
- Are educational programmes on Television more effective in educating school children than academic activities in school?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
- Hi Educational programme on the television stimulate interest of school children in education.
Hoi Educational programme on the television does not stulate interest of children in Education
- H2: The timing of educational progrmmes on NTA Channel 8 Enugu is suitable to children in Enugu State.
Ho: The timing of educational programmes on NTA channel 8 Enugu is not suitable to children in Enugu- State.
- H3: Visual aids used in educational programmes on TV are sufficient to enhance understanding of educational programmesHo: Visual aid used in educational programmes on TV are not sufficient to enhance understanding of educational progrmmes.
- H4: Educational programmes are more effective in educating school children than academic activities in school,
Ho: Educational programmes are not more effective in educating school children than academic activities in school
In carrying out the study, the following assumptions were made;
- That the people (children) who constituted the sample watched televisions.
- That television educational programme was effective in educational advancement of children.
- That the previous study has been carried out on this topic thus there is much research work gathered in literature review.
1.8 Limitation of Study
This study is an assessment of how television educational programme could affect children and help them in educational advancement in children.
It was limited to children between the ages of 10-18 years. There are limitation of resource, material and sources needed for the work. The research work carried out was tedious, sometimes, risky and expensive.
Finance was also one of the limitations of the study. Not all the students can afford the amount to complete a project and the study was constrained by time, so the study will not be hundred percent reliable taking into consideration the above problems.
However, it is expected that a valid result would be obtained and this would add to the body of existing knowledge on the area of television viewing children’s behaviour.
1.9 Organization of the Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine television as an instrument for educational advancement. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given.
In this chapter, certain recommendations are made which in the opinion of the researcher are drawn from the findings of the study.
This study was undertaken to examine television as an instrument for educational advancement. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the chi-square statistical tool. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.
The following conclusions are made on findings and discussion of the study:
- Since students have a positive attitude towards the use of the instructional television (ITV) it shows that if there are adequate facilities and the quality of programmes improved, the medium would be utilized more effectively.
- Good operative educational materials and equipment that will achieve the aim and objectives of the use of ITV be sent to schools. In-services courses, seminars and workshops, updating the skills and knowledge on the use, and many advantages of the ITV and report funding should be carried out by the government, philanthropist, oil companies, well meaning bodies such as Parents’ Teachers’ Association (PTA), stakeholders etc.
Broadcasting As an Educational Delivery Tool
The potentials of broadcasting media as a powerful educational delivery tool is exemplified in its unique characteristics and advantages that differentiates it from similar electronic media. These are:
- According to Dike (2012) broadcast media as educational delivery tool has the feature to distribute signal to several audiences who are located at different places at the same time.
- It has the characteristic to present information and event with a sense of immediacy at the same time it is unfolding.
- Broadcast media have universal value because they can break the barrier of literacy and social class, as their signals do not discriminate human beings on the basis of socio-economic and educational backgrounds.
- In terms of flexibility, broadcast media allow different times to adapt to daily lifestyle of the audience/student so that learners can use them at their convenience.
- They are useful in giving a sense of reality in subject content conceptualization. They provide necessary condition whereby students can capture and relay actualities and real life experiences with audio-visual equipment rather than just telling or describing them abstractly.
- Broadcast media provide access to information at low cost, i.e. it is economical to convey knowledge, since a single teacher could teach millions of students simultaneously nationwide/globally.
- Radio and TV sets are cheap, when compared to computer sets/systems and less cumbersome to handle worldwide. It helps to preserve expert teaching skills of teachers on video for later use.
- Annaih (2012) observed that the use of radio and TV promotes developmental objectives and can be aired to enhance good quality education in literacy, problem solving, skill acquisition value, attitudes and other range of knowledge to a large section of the population.
- According to Yusuf (2002) broadcast media have the capacity of presenting vividly physical teaching because of its audio-visual nature, thus have great direct and indirect influence on the audiences making learning livelier, more motivating, more concrete, more efficient and more effective.
- Broadcast media provide possible close-up magnification of small objects. Components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, and so on, give students a “front-row-sent” message. The forgoing characteristics and advantages may have been considered among other ways in making or formulating the National Policy of Education, (FRN, 2004) which highlighted that the broadcast media are a veritable instrument for the achievement of the national educational objectives, moreover it is claimed what follows: Radio and television are products of technological age, designed among other things, to improve communication. They are also being used for the development and improvement of education as well as for the expansion of instructional techniques, where the facilities exist, radio and TV broadcasting will form a permanent feature of the education system… (Abimbade, 2006, p. 31).
The study has clearly portrayed students’ recognition of the potential of the television for instructional purposes and their readiness to use it by their positive attitude toward its use and so the following recommendation are positive attitude toward its use and so the following recommendations are made:
- According to Davis (2010) the “Television is a new and sophisticated technology. To prove useful, it has to be properly integrated within the educational system, which is old, traditional, closed, well-guarded and very slow to accept innovations. It is with worth mentioning that in spite of the above comment, the television has gained great acceptance and therefore the government and other well-meaning bodies should provide necessary fund and adequate facilities to see to its proper utilization in secondary schools.
- There should be more emphasis on the use of ITV in schools both at the primary and post primary levels. So that students will be familiar with its use before they get to the secondary schools.
- Television stations should be made to broadcast well planned and designed instructional lessons suitable to the learners’ level of education and their local environment in designing lessons i.e. common examples from every-day life.
- Teachers should be given pre-transmission so as to enable them prepare learners before broadcast.
- Educational programmes should be aired the afternoons so as to be useful during formal time.
- Speed of presentation and language use should be designed to suit learners.Videocassettes on different topics from different subject areas should be properly designed for school use.
- Each school, should have resource centres with necessary gadgets were every classroom teacher can go and prepare video lesson etc. for individual class use i.e. CCTV (closed circuit television within a school).
- In service courses, seminars, workshops etc are organized on regular basis for all categories of teachers to keep them abreast with new innovations in education specially pertaining to instructional design.
- Regular needs analysis and evaluation should be carried out to remove obsolete instructional television programmes and replaced by new ones introduced by Professionals in such areas.
- Educational technologist and technicians should be stationed in schools so as to maintain facilities.
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