Influence Of Western Television Programs On The Dress Code Of Youths, A Study Of Novena University Students
This study was carried out on the influence of western television programs on the dress code of youths using novena university students as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of Novena university students. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores, while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of exposure of youths to western television programmes is high. The study also revealed that what motivates youths in Novena University towards western television programmes includes: enhancement of knowledge on modern trends on dress code, passing time, It’s a hobby. Further findings showed that the extent youths in Novena University attitudes on dress code are influenced by content of western television programmes is high. Therefore, it is recommended that the regulatory agencies in Nigeria, like the Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) should ensure the strict compliance to the NBC code of broadcasting 60% local content and 40% foreign content. This action will protect our culture and tradition not to go into extinction. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organizations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The term “communication” takes its roots in the Latin word “communist”, signifying common. This means that, when we communicate, we are trying to establish commonness with someone. In other words, we are trying to share information, an idea or an attitude. (Konkwo, 2012). Television as one of the powerful instruments of communication, served as channels through which cultural norms and values are transmitted across cultural borders. Rodman (2016), submits that, “television remains the most time consuming activity, next to sleeping and it is the world main source of news and information. It is also the world’s most powerful sales tool”. According to Joyce (2008), “television has a captivating effect on viewers, such that, viewers, especially the youths would want to imitate their heroes on television by trying to do what such characters do on television screen? Mimiko (2010) argued that, traditional African cultural practices have paved ways for foreign ways of doing things. The social fabric was completely devastated and a new culture of violence was implanted. Sparks (2007), stated that, through the western programmes, that the people in developing nations are heavily exposed to, the people are directly or indirectly subjected to a subtle process of indoctrination into foreign or western, particularly American ways of life to the extent that, they tend to abandon or jettison their traditional behavior and values. The foreign programmes shown on NTA, cable television, Minaj channels, Cartoon Network, ESPN (Expanded Sports Programmes Network Channel), among others provided by numerous satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi-Tv, MyTv, and host of others are sweet enemies. These television stations and cable networks have succeeded in creating an avenue were Nigerians continue to raise-eye brows of Western television programmes, as they make the youths behave like television characters, through the way such characters exhibit their activities, especially their manner of dressing, which has over the years affected the dress code of students in institutions of higher learning, mostly, undergraduate university students. Undergraduate students in campuses of Nigerian universities tend to imitate the dress code of western music and movie American stars such as; Tupac, Beyonce, Ashante, Samuel Jackson, Sylvester Stallion, 50 Cent, Sean Paul, R-Kelly, Celine Dion, among others (Akindele and Lamide, 2014). According to Ekeanyanwu (2015), in most cases, the influence of the Western Media programmes appears to be heavily consume in developing countries, instead of countries producing their own programmes for local consumption, countries are forced to view the world through the eyes of Western values, ideas and civilization. The globalization and proliferation of the mass media confronted the risk of cultural uniformities with the possibilities of unprecedented cultural integration. The effect of television commercials, entertainment programmes and fashion have influenced the behavior of Nigerians, especially students, this trend, has posed a great concern in the society and institutions of higher learning such as Nigerian Universities. Nigerian clothing before civilization was unique and attractive, presenting responsible clothes for women like; buba, kaba, iro, gele, zani, iborun oripele and Nigerian clothing for men include; buba, fila, sokoto, abeti-aja and agbada, showing Nigeria’s culture, but presently, youths, particularly University of Jos Undergraduates prefer to dress like the western people or race. Western cultures and values have been made popular to the detriment of real African values and norms.(Akindele and Lamidi,2014). It is against this background that this study focuses on the influence of international media, especially television on the dress code or dressing code of youths in Novena University Students. Besides, it aims at outlining the damages done to both undergraduates, the Nigerian culture and ways out of this trend.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The media are powerful tools or instruments, in other words, media play important role on students, this means that, much of what youths learn globally, are gotten through media exposure. The cultivation theory says that, the frequent exposure to certain media contents leads audience to behave according to what they are exposed to (McQuail, 2005). There has been serious concern regarding the mode of dressing of youths over the years. These concerns are viewed both on religious and social grounds. The dressing habits of some people in the society are very offensive and also, morally and ethically unacceptable. The influence of Western Television programmes on the dress code of youths in Novena University Students has been a serious problem facing the state, especially, indecent dressing pattern, erosion of our cultural values and morals of dressing. Hence, to what extent has the media affected the dress sense of undergraduates?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objective is to conduct in-depth research on the influence of western television programs on the dress code of youths, a study of novena university students. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- To ascertain the extent of exposure of youths to western television programmes.
- To find out what motivates youths in Novena University towards western television programmes.
- To examine the extent youths in Novena University attitudes on dress code are influenced by content of western television programmes.
- To find out if youths in Novena University dress code is influenced by the content of western television programmes.
1.4 Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following questions:
- To what extent are youths in Novena University exposed to western television programmes?
- What motivates youths in Novena University towards western television programmes?
- To what extent are youths’ in Novena University attitudes on dress code influenced by content of western television programmes?
- Have western television programmes influenced youths’ in Novena University choice of dress code?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
An hypothesis refers to an experimental statement, tentative in nature, showing the relationship between two or more variables. It is open to testing and can be accepted or rejected depending on whether it agrees or disagrees with the statistical test.
The study will test the validity of the following hypothesis:
H0: The Western television programmes has no negative influence on the dress code of youths’ in Novena University.
Ha: The Western television programmes has a negative influence on the dress code of youths’ in Novena University.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The importance of this study in the Nigerian society is quite timely. The study will be beneficial to students of all levels. It will enable students understand the impact and helix effect of international media, especially television on their dress code and its implications. It will also create a platform for the government and policy makers on the need to put measures in controlling and regulating international media programmes in the state. Also, it will give room for media practitioners to censor and produce programmes that will not de-emphasize our cultural values among media consumers. The study will add to the existing body of literature on the effect of media programmes on youths.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study examines the influence of western television programs on the dress code of youths with a specific intent of ascertaining the extent of exposure of youths to western television programmes, finding out what motivates youths in Novena University towards western television programmes, examining the extent youths in Novena University attitudes on dress code are influenced by content of western television programmes, and finding out if youths in Novena University dress code is influenced by the content of western television programmes. Hence this study will be delimited to Novena University.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Television as an electronic medium has transformed the mass media and its main traditional functions of information, education and entertainment.
The word fashion refers to the meaning of new, popular, stylish designs for dresses, hair or other accessories for decorating a personality
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings to examine the influence of western television programs on the dress code of youths using novena university students as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of western television programs on the dress code of youths using novena university students as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain the extent of exposure of youths to western television programmes, find out what motivates youths in Novena University towards western television programmes, examine the extent youths in Novena University attitudes on dress code are influenced by content of western television programmes, and find out if youths in Novena University dress code is influenced by the content of western television programmes.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are Novena university students.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The extent of exposure of youths to western television programmes is high.
- Youths in Novena University are motivated to watch western television programmes because it enhances their knowledge on modern trends on dress code, they uses it to pass time, and some consider it a hobby.
- The extent youths in Novena University attitudes on dress code are influenced by content of western television programmes is high.
- Youths in Novena University dress code is influenced by the content of western television programmes.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- The regulatory agencies in Nigeria, like the Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) should ensure the strict compliance to the NBC code of broadcasting 60% local content and 40% western content. This action will protect our culture and tradition not to go into extinction.
- Tv station should transmit the cultural heritage of the society within which they operate. In order to realize this, both presenters and news casters should be on traditional attire when appearing on screen.
- Tv stations should discourage nudity on television screens, such as movie or musical programmes showing flirty and skimpy dresses of artiste. The broadcast of indecent dressing on television personalities as role models in the aspect of dressing.
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