Parental Knowledge Of Violence In Children’s Television Cartoon Programmes (A Study Of Parents In Minna Metropolis)

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Parental Knowledge Of Violence In Children’s Television Cartoon Programmes (A Study Of Parents In Minna Metropolis)


Abstract


This study was carried out on the examination of parental knowledge of violence in children’s television cartoon programmes using parents in Minna metropolis as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to assess the level of parents awareness on the presence of violence in children’s cartoon programmes, ascertain parents’ knowledge the on extent of exposure of children to violent scenes in cartoons programmes, and assess parents’ knowledge the impact of violent cartoon programmes on children. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of parents residents in the study area. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 125 respondents and 100 was validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypothesis was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the level of parents awareness on the presence of violence in children’s cartoon programmes is low. Furthermore, the study revealed that children’s exposure to violent scenes in cartoons programmes significantly affects their social behavior. Therefore, it is recommended that given that the children experience heavy exposure to violent cartoons daily, parents need to take in o cognizance that excessive exposure could lead to aggressive behaviour; hence they need to regulate their children’s exposure level. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cartoons are undoubtedly a part of cinema history from the time the foremost motion pictures were made in the late 1800s Cartoons are popular entertainment for children; currently, many TV channels broadcast different cartoons for children non-stop. Cartoons are often described as making movies by filming a sequence of slightly varying drawings or models to capture the viewers’ interest, who are mostly children. Nigeria’s future, its poverty, strength, and weakness depend on the case with which we build our children’s character and habit, Childhood is the most crucial period during which a child’s behaviour is often molded. Children learn and develop skills by interacting, observing, and experiencing the globe around them. Rideout et al. (2010) noted that children had increased thenumber of times they spend consuming cartoons and media by an hour and seventeen minutes daily. Nowadays, children’s physical activities are limited by excessive watching of television. Watching cartoons is the children’s favourite hobby. They choose to watch cartoons rather than engage in physical activities in their leisure time. Children’s brain at early ages always seek new experiences that is why what is delivered in cartoon gets toddlers glues to their seat while watching cartoons like PJ Mask, Batman, Spiderman, Scooby-do, Avarar, Green Lantern can make children more aggressive and jealous. The impact of a violent cartoon is more on boys since they like to watch the actions and imbibe the behaviou portrayed (Shakil, 2017). Meyrowitz, cited in Buonamo (2008, p.19), says television “escorts children across the world before they have permission to cross the streets.” This underscores the role that television plays in the life of a child. Cartoons are very entertaining, and cartoons also allow children to learn many things and expand their imagination. Shakil (2017) noted that most children begin watching cartoons on television at the early age of nine months, and by the age of two or three, they become enthusiastic viewers. Many of us grew up watching “Tom and Jeery” and the “Mickey and the road race” shows. These cartoons, too, had violent scenes but not blood spluttering or chopping or destruction; their violence was comic compared to scenes of the “Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles” or “X-men,” Superman, etc. which are platforms non-comic violence and thus impacts children in a very negative way given in the so-presumed comical way, any exposure to violence can have many adverse psychological effects on a child. Ideally, a child’s world should be devoid of any trace of unrest (Hassan & Daniyal, 2013). Violence in cartoons is an integral part of cartoon content. The frequency of violence in cartoons is more than in live-action dramas or comedies (Syed & Sarfraz, 2016]. Cartoon characters jump, dive, and fall from very great heights and land without being harmed, for instance, Lion King, Scooby-Do, Looney toons, Wylie Coyote seems to fall off a cliff or just have one of his inventions fail and cause a massive explosion. However, they manage to gather his teeth, dust him off and get up and attempt to catch the roadrunner. This seems funny until a child thinks it is all right to imitate these needs (Hassan & Daniyal, 2013). Based on the above, this study simply seek to assess parental knowledge of violence in children’s television cartoon programmes using parents in minna metropolis as a case study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Violence is widespread across different regions of the world and Nigeria is a good example. It is also increasingly cutting across different ages and genders. Children are affected by the media contents they take in. They learn faster than adults, and their portrayal of media messages is incomparable. There is generally an increasing trend of violent behavior among primary school pupils in Nigeria today which needs urgent attention else the children will grow up to be violent adults hindering peace and development of the society. Since most children TV programs are presented in entertainment form especially in the form of cartoons, and many parents are comfortable with it. It is important to examine the perceptions of parents on the influence these cartoons especially, those by which the characters exhibit violent behavior on children. In the light of the aforementioned this study seek to assess parental knowledge of violence in children’s television cartoon programmes using parents in minna metropolis as a case study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major of this study is to critically examine parental knowledge of violence in children’s television cartoon programmes using parents in Minna metropolis as a case study. By extension, this study will specifically;

  1. Assess the level of parents awareness on the presence of violence in children’s cartoon programmes.
  2. Ascertain parents’ knowledge on the extent children are exposed to violent scenes in cartoons programmes.
  3. Assess parents’ knowledge on the impact of violent cartoon programmes on children.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the level of parents awareness on the presence of violence in children’s cartoon programmes?
  2. What is the level of parents awareness on the extent children are exposed to violent scenes in cartoon programmes?
  3. Does children’s exposure to violent scenes in cartoons programmes significantly affects their social behavior?
  4. Does children’s exposure to violent scenes in cartoons programmes significantly contribute to development of violent behavior?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The level of parents awareness on the presence of violence in children’s cartoon programmes is low.
  • Ha: The level of parents awareness on the presence of violence in children’s cartoon programmes is high.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, it will contribute to knowledge of existing literature on animated cartoons.

Practically, the findings of this study will help to enlighten parents deeply on the extent and various ways violent and constant exposure of children to violent cartoon programmes affects their wards. And the need to censure what the children view on the television screen.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is to critically assess parents’ knowledge the impact of violent cartoon programmes on children. This study will be conducted in Minna metropolis, Niger State. Hence the respondents will be delimited to parents in the study location.


1.8. Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Cartoon:

This simply means a drawing used to illustrate a film or programs which are mostly used in entertaining children through television, comic books and magazines.

Children:

This is a term used to classify a male or female that is between the time of birth and the age of 12.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on parental knowledge of violence in children’s television cartoon programmes using parents in Minna metropolis as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine parental knowledge of violence in children’s television cartoon programmes using parents in Minna metropolis as a case study.The study is was specifically carried out to assess the level of parents awareness on the presence of violence in children’s cartoon programmes, ascertain parents’ knowledge the on extent of exposure of children to violent scenes in cartoons programmes, and assess parents’ knowledge the impact of violent cartoon programmes on children.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were parents residents in the study area.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The level of parents awareness on the presence of violence in children’s cartoon programmes is low.
  2. The level of parents’ awareness on the on extent to which children are exposedto violent scenes in cartoons programmes is low.
  3. Children’s exposure to violent scenes in cartoons programmes significantly affects their social behavior.
  4. Children’s exposure to violent scenes in cartoons programmes significantly contribute to their development of violent behavior.

5.4 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. Given that the children experience heavy exposure to violent cartoons daily, parents need to take in o cognizance that excessive exposure could lead to aggressive behaviour; hence they need to regulate their children’s exposure level.
  2. Considering that violent cartoons influence on children, parents should watch their children closely to checkmate their behaviour, and be reprimanded or corrected whenever they act defiantly
  3. Parents should scrutinize the contents of cartoon they provide for their children to ensure that they do not have elements of violence that can affect the children negatively.
  4. Parents should make conscious efforts to monitor the cartoons that their children are exposed to, in terms age appropriateness and portrayal of violent behavior in order to combat the negative influences such cartoons might have on their viewers.
  5. Parents and guardians should educate their children on acceptable family and societal values. Teach them the right things to do and what they should not do. This instruction should also be given to anyone that takes care of the children when the parents are not around.

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