Impact Of Television Programme In Rural Development: A Case Study Of NTA Osun

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Impact Of Television Programme In Rural Development: A Case Study Of NTA Osun


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the the impact of television programme in rural development using NTA Osun State as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain whether television programme contributes to socioeconomic development in Rural Areas, ascertain whether television programme contributes to infrastructural development in Rural Areas, ascertain whether television programme contributes to Agricultural development in Rural Areas, and ascertain whether television programme contributes to educational development in Rural areas. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. The population size comprise of staff of NTA Osun Statee. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that NTA television programme contributes to socioeconomic development in Rural Areas. Furthermore,the study also revealed that NTA television programme contributes to Agricultural development in Rural Areas. Therefore, it is recommended that time of airing development programmes should be in the evening when the people are most likely to be at home after the days activities. Above all, there is need for more research into development programming. Research is also needed in order to identify the needs, problems and wants of the community and then assisting by producing a programme towards improving the entire community. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Television has been given considerable importance in many countries as a source and a tool of teaching. The success stories of using television for development in many countries has negated the concept that television is basically an entertainment oriented medium and it is hostile to thoughts. Television is adaptable and can follow different approaches when used in the different developmental situations. (Sen Shitak, Rommani: 2011). This medium has been used for formal, non-formal and informal education. Importance of television to communicate information, idea, skills and attitudes has been affirmed by research studies. Television also continues to benefit the masses by making them conscious of the environment, rights, duties and privileges. It is a source of teaching etiquettes, language skills, hobbies, social relations and religious believes. Role of television is neither fixed nor easily tangible and measurable. The role is directly related to the question of how the planners are serious and determined to use television. The role could either be enormous or, on the contrary very meager depending upon the specific tasks and available resources. The media, with specific reference to the collective entity of newspapers, radio, television and the Internet play a very important role in development. Development involves changes or advancement in a nation aimed at improving the political, economic and social lives of the people. The real influence of the media in development will depend on the media themselves, the societies in which they operate, and the audience they reach. None of these factors are the same everywhere, at all times, or under all conditions. The media in dictatorships, for example, are not likely to exercise the same influence as those in democratic societies. Even among similar types of government, other factors, such as technology, the target audience and the message, may influence the extent of media impact in the society. In the 1960s, communication scholars and media experts were quite sure that television and the other media of mass communication would help national development. The media were considered the prime motivators of development. Eminent communication scholars such as Daniel Lerner, Wilbur Schramm and Everett M. Rogers, who based their theories of development and media efficacy on the important work of Walter Rostow, namely, The Stages of Economic Growth, stressed that the economic and technological development achieved by the Western nations were the result of increased media use (Vilanilam, 2005). The role of media in development communication is decisive. Media circulate knowledge that will inform people of significant events, opportunities, dangers and changes in their community, country and the world. They provide a forum where issues affecting the national or community life can be aired. They teach those ideas, skills and attitudes that people need to achieve a better life. They create and maintain a base of consensus that is needed for the stability of the state. (Sen Shitak, Rommani: 2011).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In a traditional African Society, communities undertook various form of development projects, these projects includes village hall, construction of access roads to farm – settlements, neighbouring villages and towns, and other traditional project. Added to this aforementioned projects are the provision of good drinking water, building of modern school, cottage hospitals, and health centres, post offices and even modern markets and electrification project.

More of ten the execution of such projects depend on effective leadership of the town and village heads (chief) and available resources of the community, and their level of awareness.

However, in the present circumstances, communities are beginning to be exposed to different influences of development. Government project are not found at every nook and crary in different rural communities. This is to say that our government have regarded these hardworking rurlaities as isolated or totally forgotten, especially as the government faces austere or harsh economic realities.

Although, electricity supply does not exist in Nzam community, the well-to-do individuals in this community make use of electric generating plants for their television sets, while others make use of chargeable motor batteries to that effect. To this community, television ownership is not confined to literate class, as illiterate but well-to-do villagers own television as luxury goods. Therefore, the community has exceeded the UNESCO’s, mark of 2 television receivers per 50 inhabitants.

In the usual village life, children and adults visit the homes of television owners to watch the latest in the days program. This helps them to relax their nerves after the days farming activities and other jobs. To those who cannot go to the homes of the well-to-do individuals or that of their relatives that has the television sets, the story of each days comes to them on second hand basis. To them, the much desired satisfaction and influenced in not there.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of television programme in rural development: a case study of NTA Osun State, but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following objectives;

  1. Ascertain whether television programme contributes to socioeconomic development in Rural Areas.
  2. Ascertain whether television programme contributes to infrastructural development in Rural Areas.
  3. Ascertain whether television programme contributes to Agricultural development in Rural Areas.
  4. Ascertain whether television programme contributes to educational development in Rural areas.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions will guide this study.

  1. Does NTA television programme contribute to socioeconomic development in Rural Areas in Osun State?
  2. Does NTA television programme contribute to infrastructural development in Rural Areas in Osun State?
  3. Does NTA television programme contribute to Agricultural development in Rural Areas in Osun State?
  4. Does NTA television programme contribute to educational development in Rural areas in Osun State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Television programme has no significant impact on rural development in Osun State.
  • Ha: Television programme has a significant impact on rural development in Osun State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research project tried to find out whether the hypotheses were supported through the available data, and give recommendation to government so as to help television to raise the standard of the rural areas and to an urban status by providing rural development projects to them.

In other words, various governments have been neglecting rural community in this country, and that is why most rural dwellers find life difficult, and subsequently rush to urban cities where they think that they can “enjoy” life.

The development nature of the socio-political structure in this country has made the broadcast media highly sensitive. The broadcast media such as television, do perform very crucial rules in shaping the destiny of the Nigerian audience. It is this vital role that has led to heavy reliance of the masses on the apparent “credibility” of the broadcast media. Such confidence – carrying remarks like “I saw it on the television (screen)” go long way to unveiling the extent to which the masses took upon the broadcast media for guidance and development.

Therefore, examined in this study was the role played by these broadcast me (television) in raising the rural community awareness of development project.

The important of this present research is to show the relationship or pattern of inter-connections between television messages as agent of rural development. For instance, agriculture is mostly practice in rural areas of Nigeria. This community lack electricity and therefore seemingly denied the use of some mass media like television, expect the few well-to-do, that find it difficult to be exposed to new farming techniques and newly advertiser farm products, implements etc. on the television.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the impact of television programme in rural development: a case study of NTA Osun State. Hence the study will be delimited to NTA Osun State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Media

Media is the collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information or data. It is either associated with communication media, or the specialized mass media communication businesses such as print media and the press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television) and publishing

Television

Television or TV is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black-and-white), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program (“TV show”), or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for entertainment, education, news, politics, gossip, and advertising


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of television programme in rural development using NTA Osun State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the the impact of television programme in rural development using NTA Osun State as a case study. The study was specifically focus to ascertain whether television programme contributes to socioeconomic development in Rural Areas, ascertain whether television programme contributes to infrastructural development in Rural Areas, ascertain whether television programme contributes to Agricultural development in Rural Areas, and ascertain whether television programme contributes to educational development in Rural areas.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of NTA Osun State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. NTA television programme contributes to socioeconomic development in Rural Areas.
  2. NTA television programme contributes to infrastructural development in Rural Areas.
  3. NTA television programme contributes to Agricultural development in Rural Areas.
  4. NTA television programme contributes to educational development in Rural areas.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. It is imperative for broadcasting stations to produce programmes that can contribute to community development, They should also consider the taste of listeners so that they would be able to carry the audience along.
  2. Programmes should be broadcast in simple flowing language since most listeners and viewers may find it difficult to grasp messages in high faulting language. There is also the need to increase the number and improve the quality of vernacular programmes so as to help the illiterate people in the community to get and understand information easily.
  3. Time of airing development programmes should be in the evening when the people are most likely to be at home after the days activities. Above all, there is need for more research into development programming. Research is also needed in order to identify the needs, problems and wants of the community and then assisting by producing a programme towards improving the entire community.
  4. The choice of rural development projects should be that of the rural dweller. Development agencies and governments should no longer allocate projects to rural areas without the people saying that it is what they want.
  5. Radio is the preferred source of rural-development-information. Its use should therefore be enhanced by improving participation, reach, message content and clarity and cultural relevance.

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