Problems And Prospects Of Live Broadcast Of Television Programmes (A Case Study Of NTA Calabar)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Problems And Prospects Of Live Broadcast Of Television Programmes (A Case Study Of NTA Calabar)


This study is titled problems and prospects of live broadcasting of television programs. The Nigerian Television Authority Calabar was chosen as the case study, here the researcher aim at unveiling the numerous challenges associated with broadcasting on air live programs. For the purpose of this study, a total questionnaires of one Hundred and thirty-three (133) were distributed and were returned. The research work is made of five chapters. Chapter one deals with introductions, which discusses the purpose of the study, statement of the problem and objectives of the study. Chapter two focuses on the literature review and which present the theoretical review on the project topic. Chapter three also deals with research methodology, research design, characteristics of the study population, sample size, data collection instrument and data analysis procedure. Chapter four based on analysis, demography of respondents, responses of respondent and analysis. Chapter five, which is the concluding chapter, will be summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Live broadcasting of television programs is here to stay. Whether we like it or refuse to acknowledge it, whether we are conscious or not conscious of it, it’s already practiced in our country today. Livebroadcasting is involved in our everyday human activities, as people float the social media today with current news and happenings around the world.

Live broadcasting all over the world has been undergoing significant technological and structural changes. These transformations have given consumers access to a greater variety of communications and media services than ever before. For example, in the past television content could be accessed by the viewer at a specific point in time and only at a fixed location. However, convergence is changing the way in which consumers use communications services and consume content as broadcasting content is increasingly available over the Internet and on various wireless portable devices. Generally, broadcasting as an industry produces programs as goods and services for the consumption of the audiences which may be scattered over a given environment.

Broadcasting can be defined as an establishment principally meant to inform, educate and entertain the audience. The industry is made up of persons and materials who work together to achieve the station’s purpose by structuring programs to recreate events and society which tend to give satisfaction to the audience who react to them the way they are affected or the way the audience react to such events. The persons in the broadcast station come together and use materials to produce programs that meet the needs of the audience who in turn tend to appreciate the efforts of the station. If the content of the programs meets the desire of the audience, the station works the harder to provide more and more of such programs.

Television program according to Wikipedia is a segment of content intended for broadcast on over-the-air, cable television, or Internet television, other than a commercial, trailer, or any other segment of content not serving as attraction for viewership.

Ensuring widespread access to live television broadcasting is important for a number of economic and non-economic reasons both to the industry and the general public. Economically speaking, broadcasting is a significant economic sector in its own, and it can produce significant spill-over benefits in many related markets. Moreover, while radio and television broadcasting continues to be the major source of information in general, it constitutes “a principal source of information for illiterate segments of the population”, which becomes particularly important in times of emergencies.

In response to challenges brought by live broadcasting as well as a growing number of competition concerns many countries decided to carefully scrutinize their media markets, or at least some segments of it.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

The problem under investigation is the challenges facing live broadcasting media in the new millennium. As regard to the National Television Authority (NTA) Calabar. The study will examine how these challenges affect the Nigerian live broadcasting programmes and activities in gathering and dissemination of information. It will also reveal all the impediments that lead to ineffective coverage’s of live broadcasting television as regard to NTA channels in Nigeria as a whole. The world of TV and video undergoes tremendous changes. Live broadcasting of TV programs is faced with the challenge of lower advertising revenues, and consumers spending more time on the Internet rather than in front of TV screens. However, also the medium ‘Internet’ still is experimenting with new revenue streams and many services as e.g. Facebook do not generate revenue. Within a period of years in Nigeria and abroad, the Journal has published dozens of articles on “Issues in live Broadcasting.” Many different topics have been discussed, many problems have been “resolved” yet many new ones have risen. As a matter of urgency, the problems of broadcasting define or delimit the broadcasting industry itself. It is hard to know which problems are most bothering our immediate colleagues and the profession as a whole in NTA Calabar. To find out, a recent survey of Journal subscribers asked “What are the most important problems facing live broadcasting and broadcasters today?” Which develop interest to embark on a research topic as relevance as problems and prospects of live broadcasting television programs.

1.2 Objectives of the Study

This study generally aims to find out the problems and prospects of live broadcast of television programs, comparing the recent occurrence in the industry to their previous way of performing its statutory role since inception. Specifically, the study is meant to find out the following:

  1. To examine the problems and prospects of live broadcast of television programs in (NTA) Calabar.
  2. To examine the level of decadence in television broadcasting in this era of trending social media in Nigeria.
  3. To examine the extent at which the National television authority in Nigeria has been able to perform its monitoring role as a watchdog of the broadcast industry
  4. To proffer possible solution to problems and challenges associated with live broadcast of television program in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

The following null and alternate hypotheses was outlined by the researcher for in depth research testing.

  1. H0: the National television authority in Calabar has been able to perform its monitoring role as a watchdog of the broadcast industry in the state.
    H1: the National television authority in Calabar has been able to perform its monitoring role as a watchdog of the broadcast industry in the state.
  2. H0: trending activities from the social media today is not posing serious challenges to live broadcasting of television programs in Nigeria.
    H2: trending activities from the social media today is posing serious challenges to live broadcasting of television programs in Nigeria.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The Nigerian television authority in the last century could be assessed to have lived reality for shadow, in terms of performance. But they still have a lot problems and challenges to reckon with due to certain factors emanating from the trending of online videos. It is therefore believed that at the end of this study, the findings will go a long way to motivate broadcasters to put in more effort in rebranding their live broadcasts, so as to attract the public back to developing interest in television programs. To the government it will set up policies that will aid proficiency in the broadcasting industries in Nigeria. To the general public the findings of this study will be an awakening material or a wakeup call to the level of decadence in our broadcasting corporation in Nigeria. To the department of mass communication and scholars the finding of this study will acts as a reference material for future research to the subject of live broadcast in Nigeria.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

For a study of this nature which centers on the problems and prospects of live broadcast of television programs, as broad as the scope of this study is the researcher only centers on Nigerian television authority. The researcher was constrained in the following ways:

  1. The limited resources and time for this kind of study would not allow for gathering of adequate data from the entire newspaper houses, advertising agencies and radio/television houses in Nigeria. This has also constrained the researcher from using a combination of methods of data collection for the study.
  2. A major limitation encountered during the administration of the questionnaire was the gratification or reward expected by the respondents from the researcher so that the copies could be filled. It almost made the elicitation of the data impossible.
  3. It is expected that by the purposive sampling method employed for the study, the respondents actually know about the deregulation of the broadcast industry and the role of the NBC.

Nevertheless, it is difficult to ascertain the amount of bias introduced into the findings of the study because the respondents may not be truthful in answering the questionnaire.

1.7 Definition of Terms


Those things NTA need, to have a more dynamic, responsive and effective coverage and broad casting

Broadcast Industry:

This refers to the public and private radio and television stations, including cable television services, direct satellite broadcast and any other medium of broadcasting in Nigeria.

Live broadcast:

Technology: That is NTA to more for the growth and development of modern and supersonic equipment. Hence to too aside the adapted and analogue broadcast equipment and imbibe the use of digital equip0ment.


The extent of NTA audience coverage in Nigeria and the need to cover the rest of the world like BBC, VOA, CNN and radio France international, Nigerian launched its satellites.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

1.9 Brief History of the Nigerian Television Authority

The Nigerian Television Authority – also known as NTA is a Nigerian government-owned and partly commercial broadcaster that was inaugurated in 1977, at inauguration it had monopoly on television broadcasting in the country. The NTA runs the biggest television network in Nigeria with stations in several parts of Nigeria. Formerly known as Nigerian Television (NTV), the network began with a takeover of regional television stations in 1976 by the then Nigerian military authorities, and is widely viewed as the authentic voice of the Nigerian government. NTA’s monopoly was broken in the 1990s.

Nigerian Television Authority began broadcasting on 31 October 1959 under the name Western Nigerian Government Broadcasting Corporation (WNTV) with Olapade Obisesan as its first Chairman. It was based in Ibadan and was the first television station in Tropical Africa. Other Northern parts of Africa already had a television station.

NTA was founded in 1977. By 1979, it had reached about 20% of the population.

Chapter Five

Summary Conclusion and Recommendation


5.1 Introduction

It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at finding out the future prospect, problems and challenges involved in live broadcasting of television programs in Nigeria, thus the topic “problems and prospects of live broadcast of television programs”.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with live broadcasting of television programs in Nigeria.

5.2 Summary

The studyargues that over the past years there has been a steady decline in the attention given to live broadcast by viewers across Nigeria. The findings of this study revealed that, viewers no longer solely want a passive experience with a TV programme in their front room. They want to watch catch-up TV on a laptop, download a phone app on the move engage with content on a tablet or talk about their experiences on social media sites. They want different experiences on each platform, different flavours of content, and they want it all on their personal schedules!

An ‘access anywhere, any time and on any platform’ consumer is having a profound impact on broadcasters, content owners and post houses – and they need to radically re-think how they set up and integrate their workflows and business processes.

While it’s clear that a multi-screen environment brings a wealth of opportunities for content owners, it also brings many challenges. Never has the phrase ‘content is king’ been truer. But with an explosion in content and platforms to view that media on, content owners have to fight much harder for the consumer’s attention. The winners will be the ones who have a strong brand identity, who can remain relevant and adapt best to how consumers want to engage with their brand. The quality of the user experience and the relevance of the content will ultimately determine who wins this battle of the eyeballs. Traditional broadcasters have had to re-think their business models as ad revenue is now dispersed across so many more channels and platforms diluting their traditional revenue stream. They can’t solely rely on TV alive streaming anymore and have to adapt to find new revenue opportunities.

5.3 Conclusion

Viewers are becoming more demanding and have higher quality expectations from the media they interact with. It’s not just a question of repurposing a piece of TV content to fit a TV screen. Viewers want a different experience with each piece of media depending on when and how they access it. So television live broadcasters and post houses are faced with a conundrum – the amount of production effort has increased, specific viewership has gone down (although aggregate viewership is on an increase it is now spread over many more outlets), and budgets have been squeezed. They’re forced to do more for less. This means they have to work smarter using more adaptive and collaborative workflows.

Findings have ascertain that, for the last two decades the television and broadcasting sectors have undergone significant changes partly due to changes in technology leading to more and better choice for viewers. The changes, such as digitization, convergence and the rapid growth of pay-tv give rise to new challenges and put pressure on past business models. The evolving practices and behavior of market operators continue to require close monitoring under merger control, State aid and antitrust rules to ensure that anti-competitive practices do not hamper innovation or prevent consumers from benefitting from the rich variety of available services at the best possible conditions. The researcher try to find out what the media industry is doing to address these opportunities and challenges facing live broadcasting in the country. Since we’re beginning to see the development of multi-role user production platforms. Unified toolsets, which present themselves in different ways depending on the application, function and user, now becomes the norm of the day by viewers and this poses a lot of changes to the broadcasting industry.

5.4 Recommendations

To help broadcasters match up with latest experience and trending in the media the researcher suggest the following;

  1. Broadcasting industry need to improve intra-facility collaboration so everyone involved has better access to the core live content as raw as it happens.
  2. Workflows among broadcaster need to be agile as facilities just cannot possibly know what the future of the media landscape will hold. Since viewers are fickle, and technology is moving rapidly, and new formats and platforms are being introduced all the time.
  3. Broadcasters and Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation need to make sure that their upfront investments can be quickly and easily adapted to take advantage of future opportunities and technologies.
  4. Finally, an effective enterprise system needs to be open. Gone are the days of the ‘hero suite.’ In today’s media environment, everything needs to work with everything else, and no one system can do everything. Facilities want to be able to pick and choose best of breed technologies to get the best quality results and most efficient workflows.

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