The Impact Of Anti-HIV / AIDS Programmes Of ABS Television On The Sexual Habits Of Youths

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

The Impact Of Anti-HIV / AIDS Programmes Of ABS Television On The Sexual Habits Of Youths


Abstract


(Bilteneven 1973:11) says that a mass media can take message around the world. The stimulus for this on the research is to find out the impact of ANTI – HIV/AIDS on the sexual habits of youths especially youth that reside in Ekwulobia Aguata local Government Area. As the saying goes “that youth are the leader of tomorrow”. The first chapter of these my study gives background information on the study. And also, looked at the introductory rational for the study, and the purpose/significance of the study. In addition to the limitations the second chapter surveyed the review of literature and summary of literature e. t c.

The thirds chapter deals with the research question, research method, design population and sample. Data was gathered with help of questionnaires given to 160 correspondents, survey research method was used. Sample size was 120 and the population 720 youths resident of Ekwulobia local government area. The fourth chapter deals with the analysis of demography and hypothesis test, and it is presented in tables and also research questions were assessed and presented. The fifth chapter and also the final chapter has the summary, reference, conclusion, appendix and questionnaire derived from the findings of the study


Chapter One


Introduction

Before the advent of mass communication, the process of communication employed was interpersonal communication that is face to face communication. Interpersonal communication reaches limited audience but mass media make it possible for message to reach far beyond the immediate proximity of the sender. A few hundred feet may be all the distance the human voice prospect to a crowd, without the aid of a public address system. But a mass media can take the same message around the world (Bittenevn 1973: 11). But for this research work, we are narrowing it down to a particular mass media known as television. Although, there are other mass media like (radio) even the print media. The presence of television has influenced the society communication pattern, large audience now believes on television to provide a continuous flow of information, education, communication, entertainment and many others may depend on television for truth in complication and complex situation and when it is not granted they felt deprived.

The impact of television in changing and shaping attitude and behaviours of the masses is the subject of debate because television influence modified by many factors. It is probably less powerful than many people think. But television do have an indirect influence on attitude at least they make people conscious. We witness the horror of war, crime, religious crises, ethnic and racial discrimination and so many societal ills it’s in the privacy and comfort of our living rooms. We learn new things, ideas and concepts when we listen and view television. This medium in its frequent reporting is about the issues like HIV/AIDS makes us to be aware of dreaded disease. The symptoms and signs, ways of contracting it, dangers it poses on immediate and future implication as well as prevention and treatment. Publicity in a corrupt society is believed to be a vital step to finding the cure of many societal ills. In line with this, it is believed that an existence courage and true information on ANTI-AIDS campaigns will get to perhaps, shape and mould the sexual habits of people more especially the youths.


1.1 Background of the Study

We do not know how many people that have contracted this dreaded disease. AIDS in the 1970s and probably do not were AIDS virus HIV was originated from. The dominant feature of this first period was silence. HIV was unknown and transmission was not accompanied by signs and symptoms. Salient enough to be noticed seroarchaclogical studies have documented human infections with HIV prior to 1970s available data suggest that the current pandemic started in the mid to date 1970s. By 1980, HIV has spread to at least five continents such as Northern America, Southern American, Europe, Africa and Australia. In April 1981, there is an increase in case of rare lung, Infection pnuemocystic carnii pneumonia (PCP) at the center for disease control in Atlanta in June. The CDC published a report about the occurrence without indefinable cause of PCP.

This report is sometimes referred to the beginning of AIDS, but it might be more accurate to describe it as the beginning of the general awareness of AIDS in the U.S.A. Around this time, a number of theories were developed about the possible cause of the opportunistic infections and cancers knowledge about this new disease was changing so quickly that certain assumption made at this time were shown to be unfounded just a few months later. In July, 1981, Dr Curran reported that no apparent dangers to non-homosexual from contagion. He said that no cases have been reported to data outside the homosexual community or in women. In June, 1982, report of a group of cases amongst gay men in southern California suggested that the disease might be caused by an infectious agent that was sexually transmitted. By the beginning of July, a total of 452 cases from 23 states had been reported to the CDC. Later that month, the report appeared that the disease was occurring in Haitian as well as in hemophilia. It is at the acronym AIDS was suggested at the meeting at Washington dc.

By August, this name was being used in newspaper and scientific journals. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) was first properly defined by the CDC in September, doctors though AIDS was an appropriate name because people acquired the situation rather than inherited it, because it resulted in a deficiency within the immune system, because it was syndrome with a number of manifestations, rather than a single disease. It was also becoming clear that AIDS was throughout 1982 there were separate reports of the disease occurring in a number of European countries on the same 1982, a number of AIDS specific voluntary organizations had been set up in the U.S.A. These include the san Francisco AIDS foundation (ASFAF), AIDS project los Angeles (APLA) and gay men’s health crisis (GMNC). In November, 1982, the first AIDS organization is the terrenes Higgins trust was formally established in the UK, and by this time a number of AIDS organization were already producing safer sex advice for guy men.


1.2 Statement of Problems

An Anti – HIV/AIDS advocacy programme which comprises publicity announcement, advertisement and ANTI-AIDS campaign was geared towards curbing the spread of the disease. Again it expected to help in changing and shaping the behaviours pattern of youth towards sex. This has called for ascertaining how these ANTI-HIV/AIDS programmers have influenced the sexual habits of youth or not.


1.3 Objectives or Purpose of the Study

This research work was aimed at examining the extent to which ABS T.V encourage on ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES have affected the youths residing in Ekwulobia, if it has changed their attitudes towards sex. This is also interested if their age, sex martial status and educational qualifications influence the way they receive the media message. Are the youths getting enough information on the disease?


1.4 Significance of the Study

It is expected that the outcome of this study will help alert the youth on the dangers of HIV/AIDS and contribute to existing literature in the area of mass media effect. The study will help the health sector in monitoring and determine the type of media campaign to employ in corroboration of ANTI-AIDS information.


1.5 Research Question

Four standard research questions are formulated for this study;

  1. Do exposure of ANTI-HIV/AIDS programmes encourage youths from sexual promiscuity?
  2. Do youths who are single expose themselves more to HIV/AIDS than those who are married?
  3. How often do the youths have access to information about HIV/AIDS from ABS Awka television?
  4. Do their programmes on ANTI-HIV/ AIDS related to the use of condom during sexual intercourse among youths?

1.6 Limitation on the Study

Finance of transport from Ekwulobia to Onitsha was a limiting factor in the course of this research work. How the return of questionnaire could be managed was another limiting factor. Apathy on the part of these researcher interviewed could also posed a threat to the study. Again, some questionnaires suffered mortality.


1.7 Delimitation of the Study

Ekwulobia town in Aguata local Government area has nine(9) villages. However, this study would be delimited to only four villages namely; Ula, Umuchiana, Okpo and Eziagulu. Since it would be difficult, if not impossible to study the entire villages in Ekwulobia.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Impact: for the purpose of the study, it means strong impression or a compelling effect of ANTI-HIV/AIDs programmes on youths enough to make them change their sexual habits.

HIV / AIDS:

humane immune virus\Acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

Anti-HIV / AIDS Programmes:

Programmes aimed at curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS disease.

Sexual Habits:

The immoral attitude practices towards sex.

Youths:

The age of adolescence ranging from 18 to 30 years of age.

Television:

A piece of electrical equipment with a screen on which you watch programmes with moving pictures and sound.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

A survey research of this nature does not lay claim to determining the whole gamut of media effects on the audience but the research work in the youths resident in Ekwulobia town, give a clear picture of media effectiveness in dissemination of information and persuasive messages specifically, the study focused on the sexual habits of the youth resident in nine villages that make up of Ekwulobia town located in Aguata local government Area in Anambra state.

In the real course of executing this research a total of 120 copies of questionnaires was distributed across four (4) villages in Ekwulobiatown, The sample for the study was randomly selected, the data collected by this study were analyzed using the sample percentage technique. This was done to ensure that all categories of youths in the sample were selected, of the 120 respondents, 120 questionnaires were filled and returned, 80 were females while 40 were male, Also 90 of the respondents were single while 30 were married- most of the respondents fell within the age bracket of 18-25, which comprised of traders, students and professionals.

The findings of the research study have shown that mass media really help in creating the much-needed awareness of the AIDS message amongst the youths of EKwulobia in Aguata local government.

It also revealed that campaign actually influenced the sexual habits of youths as regards to sexual relations. The result also revealed that youths now make use of condom if they must engage in casual sex. Television no doubt publicity, announcement of message to the residents by way of reputation hence there was such great level of awareness and effects on the sexual behaviour of youths residents in Ekwulobia town.


5.2 Conclusion

The information available from the survey of the literature on the impact of media coverage of ANTI-HIV/AIDS programme on sexual habit of youths residents in Ekwulobia which is located in Aguata local government area suggested that the efficiency of television channels is dependent upon various characteristics of the media, the message, the message source and prevailing popular sentiment about or towards the message content.

The limitation of this study besides time and finance is the underline claim of most studies that the television media has enormous power to induce attitudinal change, which subsequently leads to a modified behaviour of modern man. But studies in the area of mass communication effects seem to point to the contrary.
Wapper Joseph (1963) who did the major contribution in the area of mass communication as changes in attitude and behaviour in individual as a result of exposure to persuasive message carried by the media.


5.3 Recommendation

From his submission, it can be seen that whenever attempts have been made to change attitude through mass communication, researches have found that the media act only its contributory agent of change.

The media are relatively weak persuasive instruments. This appears to be especially the case if media (television) are relied upon as sole persuasive vehicle. It is understood in the course of the literature reviewed that personal face-to-face communication (interpersonal) is consistently more effective as a persuasive device than any mass media.

The television medium basic goal is to find fact and give fact but the findings of the study indicated that people are more influenced by the media message, they received in television in form of ANTI-AIDS campaign, public announcement and advertisement people say that it destroys the autonomy of man and how best it spread can be.

Ekwulobia as majority of the Nigeria population are rural dwellers and they lack basic information. It should be equally noted that interpersonal approaches could be best used in enhancing effectives in changing youths sexual habits, as this will help in no little way to educate the youths on the implication of HIV/AIDS spreading and its dangers in the society.


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