Viewers’ Perception To Tele-Evangelism On Orient Television, Owerri, Imo State

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Viewers’ Perception To Tele-Evangelism On Orient Television, Owerri, Imo State


Abstract


This project, Viewers’ Perception to Tele-Evangelism on Orient Television, Owerri, Imo State. The need for the study has arisen from the recognition of the viewers’ perception to tele-evangelical programme which affect the staff and management of orient TV.

The research study is divided into five (5) sections. Chapter one has the introduction, which introduces the subject matter. It also contains the background of the study where the researcher unveiled those viewers’ perception to tele-evangelical programme on the lives of staff and management of orient TV.

This is followed by the statement of the problems were the research enumerated the problem the viewers observes that impale her to embark on the research work. It is also has the objectives of the study, research questions, significance and scope of the study.

Chapter two contains all related literature of different authors who have written on the subject matter.

Chapter three emphases on the research methodology.

In Chapter four, the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data was formulated.

Chapter five has the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 The concept of tele-evangelism
  • 2.2 Habitual viewing
  • 2.3 Needs and values
  • 2.4 Social identity
  • 2.5 Needs in a multi-channel environment
  • 2.6 Negative impact of tele-evangelism
  • 2.7 Theoretical framework

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Population of study
  • 3.3 Sample size
  • 3.4 Sampling procedure
  • 3.5 Sources of data
  • 3.6 Instruments for data collection
  • 3.7 Validity instruments
  • 3.8 Administration of the instrument
  • 3.9 Methods of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation of Data and Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Discussion of findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation.

  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

For if the trumpet gives an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle? So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue words easy to be understood, how shall it be know what is spoken? For ye shall speak into the air. There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them is without signification (1 Corinthians 14:8-10).

Televangelism had become increasingly popular and prevalent in Nigeria; orient TV to be precise over past years. The prevalence arises from the fact televangelists rightly recognize the power of television to instantaneously surmount both natural and artificial barriers, as well as human obstacles to spreading the “Good news” of the gospel. For emphasis, televangelists understood that within a transmitter’s service area, televangelist cost no more to reach an audience of two million than an audience of one; the audience members having voluntarily defrayed part of the cost by purchasing and operating their own receivers.

The operator of the “electronic church” also recognizes the ability of the broadcast message to enter direct into the home, once a receiver has been installed. For instance, consider yourself unable to attend the church service on Sunday, you are in your home relaxing at a time the church service is supposed to be going on, and there, on the screen, is your pastor addressing you instantaneously. This shows ht ubiquitous potentials of televangelism.

Emphasizing the sophisticated nature of television, David Frost, a British reported in awake (2006, pp.5) that: “television is an invention that permits you to be entertained in your home by people you would not have in your home”. Televangelism aims at bringing Christianity to both non-Christian and Christian audience, as well as igniting the fire of revival in weak Christians, and the church as a corporate entity. Today, different denominations among Christendom bring various strategies to bear in their effort to carry out the instruction which Christ gave them from time memorial in the gospel of Mathew, chapter 28 verses 19. In this verse of the bible, Christ urged them: “Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptize them in the name of the father, son and of the Holy Spirit”. This implies that they must make Christ known to all parts of the world and convince them to accept Christ in their lives.

Televangelism began as a peculiar American phenomenon, resulting from a largely deregulated media where access to television network is open to virtually anyone who can afford it, combined with a large Christian population that is able to provide the necessary funding. Christianity has always emphasized preaching the gospel to the whole world and attempting to convert as many people as possible. The first television preacher of note was Fulton J. sheen, a Roman Catholic arch bishop who successfully switched to television in 1951 after two decades of popular radio broadcasts. Another pioneer in television evangelism was Rex Humbard. Oral Roberts put the largest broadcast of the time that, by 1957, reached 80% of the possible television audience through 135 of the possible 500 stations, (Harry potter (n.d))

The 1960’s and early 1970’s saw television replace radio as the primary home entertainment medium. But also corresponded with a further rise in evangelical protestant Christianity, particularly through the international television ministry of Billy Graham. Many well-known televangelists began during this period, developing their own media networks, news exposure and political influence. Although, one major reason advanced by televangelist to justify the use of televangelism has been to utilize the enormous potentials of television to reach a larger audience in an attempt to spread the Gospel and convert souls to Christ; nonetheless, the extent to which this objectives has been realized remains a subject of debate. Thus, the increasing waves of social ills in the society keep researchers wondering about the effect of televangelism on the people.

Research findings show that the pressure on the paid-time religious broadcasters to maintain the specific structure of their audience because it is the most financially supportive for them has had the effect of shaping the character of their programmes away from their original intention of evangelism, even though they keep the intent of evangelism as a masthead. The dominant needs being met by their programmes are now quite different from those that would be consistent with genuine evangelism. Horsefield (1984:9) has shown that a significant proportion of televangelism programmes are actually consumed by the churches rather than those people that are un-churched (outside the church). In effect, televangelism fails in its objectives.

However, one major defense offered by televangelism according to Taylor (1977:382) to justify the religious use of the mass media especially television for evangelism is that “We must well face the fact that more and more, who wanted otherwise have belonged to our churches are going to be born again out of televisions experimental womb. Here, television ability to reach diverse and heterogeneous population at a time, can take the gospel to a wider audience more than the churches combined can do. Since the publication of Katz’s (1958:2) mandate that “less attention be paid to what media do to people and more to what people do with the media” the perception of media consumers as active or purposeful selectors and recipients in mass communication has gathered much support in the scientific literature.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

The broadcast evangelist envisages television as a Go-given tool by which to reach “the world” with their message. Research on religious programmes is highly segmented and that those who watch usually do so for very specific reasons. The recent eruption of paid time religious programmes on the audience of these programmes. What do viewers’ in Owerri do with the contents of televangelism programmes? Furthermore to what extent do televangelism programmes affect their lives?


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objective of this study is to:

  1. To ascertain if the staff and management of orient TV view televangelism programmes and how often they view the programmes.
  2. To ascertain if they have reasons for viewing televangelisms.
  3. To ascertain the televangelism program the staff of orient TV prefers.
  4. To ascertain what the staff of orient Tv do with the contents of televangelism programmes.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Do staff and management of orient TV view televangelism programmes and how often do they view the programmes?
  2. Why do they view televangelism programmes?
  3. What televangelism programmes does the staff of orient TV prefer?
  4. What do they do with the content of the televangelism programmes?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

Televangelism is highly attractive to Nigerian preachers. Many yearn to preach the gospel on air but financial problem. Yet, neither the operator of the “electronic church” nor the medium, know exactly what viewers’ perception to tele-evangelical programmes have on the viewers.

Except televangelism and broadcasters learn about how viewers use the programmes, they may not be able to improve upon their current exploits the findings of this investigation will furnish televangelists and television stations with data on what is being done with their programmes.

It will also add the available literature on the effects of televangelism in general and its application to religious programmes, which is unique from other forms of programmes.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

This research discusses the effects of televangelism in general but confines itself in staff and management of orient TV. Within Nigeria, the research limited itself to the staff and management of orient TV who either own a television sets or regular access to one in Imo state.

The study is an attempt to access what the staff of orient TV does with the contents of televangelism programmes.

The staff of orient TV were used in this study since the researches cannot test the universe one by one, the scope of the study therefore, is considered adequate for this study.


1.7 Limitations Of The Study

It is a known fact that researchers encounter a lot of problem, which are inherent in our society and this research is no exception. This problem will range from personal constraints to environment problems.

Time for instance will be constraints. A lot of time will be consumed before this researcher has to forfeit a lot of appointments especially during the collection of information that will be used for the literature review.

Lack of statistic will be another major setback to this research. It will be due to the impossibility of obtaining some accurate information required. It should be noted that lack of accurate statistic limits accuracy of any research work. They seriously guided most information considered confidential to the organization.


1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

Evangelism:

This means to propagate the gospel of Jesus Christ with the aim to converting the non-Christian the non-Christians to faith.

Electronic Church:

Churches that sponsor tele-evangelical programmes, especially the programming of church service and sermons.

Televangelism:

This refers to all sponsored religious programmes aimed at spreading the gospel and advancing the course of Christianity.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Summary Of Findings

One need to say this plainly, the faith healers and health-and-wealth preachers who dominate religious television are shameless frauds. Their message is not the true Gospel of Jesus Christ. There is nothing spiritual or miraculous about their on-stage chicanery. It is all a devious ruse designed to take advantage of desperate people.

They are not Godly ministers but greedy impostors who corrupt the word of God for money’s sake. They are not real pastors who shepherd the flock of God but hirelings whose only design is to fleece the sheep. Their love of money is glaringly obvious in what they say as well as how they live. They claim to posse’s great spiritual power, but in reality they are rank materialists and enemies of everything holy.


5.2 Conclusion

Tele-evangelism often strongly disputes these criticisms and says they are doing God’s work. They cite declining attendance at traditional church services and the growth of global mass media as factors necessitating the use of television tic fulfill the “Great commission” of the gospel of our lord Jesus Christ to the generation of the 21st century.


5.3 Recommendations

  1. Government, organizations and individuals should help to sponsor tele-evangelical programmes.
  2. Television houses should provide concessions to religious bodies/individuals that make use of their studios for tele-evangelism.
  3. A censorship body should be established to ensure that quality programmes are aired always.
  4. Individuals and religious bodies involves in tele-evangelical work should endeavor to de-emphasize church or denomination. They should concentrate on moral, religious faith and God and the Almighty father.
  5. Nigeria is a circular state. Religions other than Christianity should be encouraged to participate in tele-evangelism.
  6. More publication should be carried out in this area to encourage future researchers.

Viewers’ Perception To Tele-Evangelism On Orient Television, Owerri, Imo State


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