Analysis Of Poverty Determinant And Coping Strategies Among Rural Farming Households
This study was carried out toanalyse poverty determinant and coping strategies among rural farming households using Ethiope West is a Local Government Area of Delta State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine the extent of the poverty status among farming households, ascertain the determinants of poverty among farming households in Nigeria and find out the possible poverty coping strategies among rural farming households. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of farmer in Ethiope West is a Local Government Area of Delta State.In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of the poverty status among farming households is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the determinants of poverty among farming households in Nigeria includes: household size, educational level, size of cultivable land, ineffectiveness of extension agents and cropping pattern.Therefore,it is recommended that the rural farmers should be encouraged to diversify their source of earning income as a strategy against income risk. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Poverty is a global phenomenon but the effects manifest most in the rural areas of sub Saharan Africa and South East Asia (.(Okumadewa, 2007). Nigeria one of the sub Saharan Africa despite its natural resources endowment, yet poverty keeps on spreading widely. This is true when it is realized that according to Iheke, (2010), over 70% of the Nigerian population is classified as poor with 35% living in absolute poverty. Poverty is said to exist, when people live and survive in less than $1 per day or and deprivation of access to basic necessities of life (Igbuzor, 2006). The characteristics of poverty according to Lele and Adu-Nyako, (1991) are low income and investment racket underutilized and/or unutilized natural resources, rapidly increasing population, near absence of social infrastructures such as portable water, school and access roads pervasive gullibility, powerlessness, disease, insecurity and ignorance and high level of vulnerability. Poverty as reported by Obadan, (2001) has many manifestations and dimension, include joblessness, over indebtedness, economics dependence, lack of freedom, inability to provide the basic needs or own assets, and lives in dirty localities and this puts pressure on a physical environment contributing to the environmental degradation.
The effect of poverty in rural households are disturbing as they (household) are easily predisposed to negative changes in environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic conditions which make them more impoverished. These conditions according to Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) (2001) and Iheke (2010), include worse hit by food insecurity, risk averse to avoid losing the mearge resources at their disposal, earn low income because of poor social amenities and unfavorable government policies.
The high vulnerability of the rural households to poverty nictitated on the dire need to alleviate their poverty status through among others initiating programmes that will boost their source of livelihoods. In most rural areas of sub Saharan Africa, agriculture is their major vocation and the need to raise the productivity of the agriculture through the use of improved technology and to improve their capability to market and distribute their products to enhance their income is essential .(Okumadewa, 2007).
In Nigeria, successive governments in the state , Local Governments and Federal have formulated numerous poverty alleviation programmes and policies. Chiefly among them, include Agricultural Development Programmes (ADP), the National Agriculture and Land Development Authority (NALDA), and the Strategic Grains Reserves Programmes (SGRP). (Aneke, 2006) Despite these numerous poverty alleviation programmes and policies in Nigeria, yet no significant impact had been recorded on the welfare of the people. The reasonsfor this include corruption and poor targeting as the poor nor the rural populace benefited but the bureaucrats and absentee farmers (Kadurumba et al, 2010). In many rural area of Africa,, households over decades have adapted various coping strategies to adverse effects of poverty on their livelihoods. However, information on level of poverty and its determinants and they coopingn strategies adopted by farming households in the study area are lacking. It is these knowledge gaps that this study tends to fill.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Agriculture is the economic stronghold of the majority of households in Nigeria. It contributes about 45 per cent of GDP and employs nearly two-thirds of the country’s total labour force. Further, it is the source of livelihood for about 90 per cent of the rural population and provides raw materials for agro-allied industries. Nigeria’s huge agricultural resource base offers great potential for growth not only for the rural sector but the entire economy. However, in spite of the enormous natural resources in the country, rising poverty remains a real challenge. For example, aggregate poverty rose from 27.2 per cent in 1980 to 65.6 per cent in 1996. It declined to 54.4 per cent in 2004 and increased to about 62.6 per cent in 2010 based on preliminary estimates by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The rural poverty trend closely mirrors aggregate poverty. It increased from 28.3 per cent in 1980 to 69.3 per cent in 1996, declined to 63.3 per cent in 2004 and increased to 69.0 per cent in 2010. Though, urban poverty has equally been on the increase (from 17.2 per cent in 1980 to 58.2 per cent in 1996; down to 43.2 per cent in 2004 and rose to 51.2 per cent in 2010) the incidence and severity of poverty have been more in the rural than in urban areas. For instance, after more than a decade of reforms, since the return to civilian rule in 1999, and despite the resurgence of the middle class, poverty has defied several policy measures put in place to check it. Rural poverty seems, therefore, to be a major driver of aggregate poverty in Nigeria. Poverty has many causes, all of which reinforce one another. The sources include lack of assets, such as land, tools, credit and supportive networks of friends and family; lack of basic services, such as clean water, education and health care; and lack of employment income, to provide food, shelter, clothing and empowerment. Some of these factors directly cause poverty. Others contribute indirectly by producing inequality – by stiffling the political power of certain sectors of the population, for example or denying them their human rights (Chukwuemeka, 2008). Since the sources of poverty are diverse, it should be seen as a multi-dimensional problem that calls for a solution with a multi-pronged approach, especially as it affects farming households who face multiple disadvantages.The foregoing implies that identifying the determinants of poverty in rural areas is very crucial to understanding not only the causes of poverty, but for formulating policies directed at its reduction. The bulk of agricultural production in Nigeria takes place in the rural areas where ironically, the level and incidence of poverty are most pronounced. Since poverty is a major constraining factor among farming households, it is important to investigate the trend, structure and determinants of poverty among farming households in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major of this study is to critically analysis of poverty determinant and coping strategies among rural farming households. By extension, this study will specifically;
- Determine the extent of the poverty status among farming households.
- Ascertain the determinants of poverty among farming households in Nigeria.
- Find out the possible poverty coping strategies among rural farming households.
1.4 Research Question
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- What is the extent of the poverty status among farming households?
- What are the determinants of poverty among farming households in Nigeria?
- What are the possible poverty coping strategies among rural farming households?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: There are no possible poverty coping strategies among rural farming households.
- Ha: There are possible poverty coping strategies among rural farming households.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be useful in different major ways.
- First, this study will critically unveil the root causes of poverty among household farmers.
- Secondly, the study will disclose the severity of poverty among household farmers.
- Furthermore, the study will help to analyse and recommend possible strategies for coping with poverty among household farmers.
- Lastly, this study will be useful to the academic community.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is to critically analysis of poverty determinant and coping strategies among rural farming households.
The study will be delimited to Ethiope West is a Local Government Area of Delta State. The respondents for the study will be obtained among farmers in the study location.
1.8. Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Poverty includes a lack of health and education, insufficient access to clean water and sanitation, insufficient physical security, a lack of a voice, and a lack of capacity and chance to improve one’s life
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter summarizes the findings on analysis of poverty determinant and coping strategies among rural farming households using Ethiope West is a Local Government Area of Delta State as a case study.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was toanalyse poverty determinant and coping strategies among rural farming households using Ethiope West is a Local Government Area of Delta State as a case study.The study specifically was aimed to determine the extent of the poverty status among farming households, ascertain the determinants of poverty among farming households in Nigeria and find out the possible poverty coping strategies among rural farming households.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are farmer in Ethiope West is a Local Government Area of Delta State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The extent of the poverty status among farming households is high.
- The determinants of poverty among farming households in Nigeria includes: household size, educational level, size of cultivable land, ineffectiveness of extension agents and cropping pattern.
- The possible poverty coping strategies among rural farming households includes: engaging in different farming activities, increasing commercial farming, engaging in non-farming economic activities and undertaking farming labour.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- The rural farmers should be encouraged to diversify their source of earning income as a strategy against income risk.
- There is need to increase farmers’ access to market so as to avoid selling their produce at farm gate where prices are lower in order to boost their income.
- Provision of rural employment opportunities outside farming is essential as this will increase the income of the household in order to cater for their basic needs.
- Government should encourage new entrants and experienced ones to remain in farming through increasing their access to improved production inputs and credit.
- Rural road network should be rehabilitated and new ones should be constructed should for easy evacuation of farmers’ output to urban areas and transportation of agricultural inputs into the rural areas for farmers’ easy access.
- There is need for policy options that will encourage formation of cooperative societies by the farming households. Cooperative aids in capacity building, acquisition of credit and provision of production inputs at low costs.
- Encouraging farmers to engage in educational progarmmes such as adult education and conferences and workshop in order to increase their adoption behavior, managerial skills and versatility for high farm output.
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