Examining The Causes And Implication Of Indecent Dressing Among Undergraduate Students In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Examining The Causes And Implication Of Indecent Dressing Among Undergraduate Students In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the causes and implication of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Imo State University as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine the possible causes of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria, find out the forms of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria, ascertain if indecent dressing has any significant impact on the academic performance of undergraduates students in Nigeria, and proffer possible solutions to the issue of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of undergraduate students of Imo State University. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi- square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the possible causes of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria includes: peer pressure, poor parenting, celebrity dressing pattern, social media influence and wrong use of internet, and foreign influence and modernity. Furthermore, the study revealed that the forms of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria includes: sleeveless tops, short knickers, OFF shoulders, and transparent clothes. Therefore, it is recommended that the stakeholders of tertiary institutions should be involved in instituting measures to harmonize dressing in all tertiary institutions. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Indecent appearance has come to characterize the dress pattern of many students on the campuses of higher learning in Nigeria. There is hardly any higher institution of learning in this country that is not faced with this nauseating problem. The way students on these campuses of learning particularly, the female ones, dress seductively leaves much to be desired. What the girls call skirts that they wear is just “one inch” longer than their pants. When they put on such dresses, they struggle to sit down, find difficulty in climbing machines, cross gutters as well as pick anything from the ground. Apart from the skimpy and tight fitting nature of these dresses, they are again transparent; revealing certain parts of the bodies that under normal dressing patterns ought to be hidden away from the glare of people. In the case of boys, their pattern of dress is different. It makes them to look so dirty and very unattractive with unkempt hairs and dirty jeans having pockets of holes deliberately created around the knees and the lower part of the trousers allowed to flow on the ground because they go through their heals into their legs as socks. The waist of their trousers are lowered and fastened tightly at the middle of the two bottom lobes to reveal their boxers (pants). And when they are walking, they drag their legs and one of their hands particularly, the left one, cupping their invisible scrotum as if they will fall to the ground if not supported. Many of them because of how they dressed had at one time or the other become victims of rape, lured into prostitution, used for ritual purpose, unable to complete their education or training and also engaged in other ancillary social and moral problems like cultism and lying to mention these few. Although, there are no universally acceptable way or ways of dressing, dresses are meant to serve some definable purposes, country or region notwithstanding. They are part of a peoples’ culture and they define their tribal or ethnic identity. Apart from dresses being a means for cultural identity, they are for ornamental or aesthetic purposes, for protection of the body against harsh weather conditions as well as for covering the intimate parts of the body (Answer.com, 2011; &Articlesbase.com, 2011). These purposes are important especially as they form major aspects of a person’s personality. But as important as these purposes are, they have been defeated by the generation of Nigerian youths (Articlesbase.com, 2011). Their dress patterns are most times anti-African, and are invented. They usually dress in a manner that does not show that they are responsible (nigerianfilms.com, 2009). The African culture and particularly that of Nigeria encourage modesty in appearance as do the Christian and Islamic religions where the larger population of these youths claim to be worshipping God.

The Dress Code on campuses is simply a law passed by the authorities of some universities and other tertiary institutions in order to ensure that students dress properly and decently. The Dress code, which has been passed in many institutions, notably the University of Lagos, Federal University of Technology, Minna, University of Abuja among others, prohibits certain types of dressing considered to be indecent for the students on campus. It goes further to specify specific uniform dress for students in some professional courses such as Law and Accounting among others.

Furthermore, in order to ensure compliance to the dress code law, the school authorities have empowered the school security personnel to turn back any student not properly dressed from the school premises. This was operational at the University of Abuja where students were checked at the main gate before being allowed to go in. Apart from the security, lecturers have also been empowered to send out student from lecture halls, students who do not comply with the dress code.

This UN-African dress pattern among the youths of this generation has generated lots of concern and worry among the citizenry of the country. Religious institutions as well as institutions of learning are not resting on their oars to watch this immoral act being perpetuated, but they speak against it. For instance, Olori (2003) reported that at the College of Education, Ekiadolor, Edo state rules were made that any dress won must cover intimate parts of the body, must not expose the breast, stomach, navel and bare chest.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is increasingly becoming obvious that indecent dressing has gradually taken over the dress pattern of students in higher institutions of learning in Nigeria, and College of Education, Ekiadolor, Edo state is no exception. It has become like an epidemic spreading so fast and the earlier something is done about it, the better for the future of our desperate and vulnerable youth. Furthermore, celebrity dresses and accessories are typically imported and sold in high-end stores or boutiques at exorbitant prices which contributes to indecent dressing. Students who are still financially dependent on their parents unnecessarily limit themselves to purchasing such clothing, and at this point their purchasing behavior becomes more impulsive and credit-based, which is detrimental to their academic needs. Most of these clothing is not easily obtained or seen in markets, so students must go the extra mile by ordering online for a specific design or style. Others who want but are unable to order go in search of the cheapest lookalikes in order to have some form of identity with celebrities, even if it is beyond their means. The overwhelming aspect is that most students are so preoccupied with beauty and fashion that they hardly focus on their studies; most of the time, they are so preoccupied with what is trending and social activities in institutions that they neglect their academics.

One is not however surprised because what is typical of most Nigerian administrators is always a wide gap between policy formulation and execution. Indecent dressing even though is not accepted as the normality, is seen to be gaining ascendancy. One then wonders what becomes of the society tomorrow with the caliber of students that are being trained. If rules are made for people, they are supposed to be adequately informed why such rules are made. It is for this very reason and against this background that the problem of the study is to investigate the causes and implication of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria as well as suggests solutions that could remedy the further spread of this immoral act on campuses of learning in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the causes and implication of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria.

Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the possible causes of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria.
  2. Find out the forms of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria.
  3. Ascertain if indecent dressing has any significant impact on the academic performance of undergraduates students in Nigeria.
  4. Proffer possible solutions to the issue of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

These research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What are the possible causes of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria?
  2. What are the forms of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria?
  3. Does indecent dressing has any significant impact on the academic performance of undergraduates students in Nigeria?
  4. What are possible solutions to the issue of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: Indecent dressing does not have any significant impact on the academic performance of undergraduates students in Nigeria.
  • Ha: Indecent dressing has a significant impact on the academic performance of undergraduates students in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to educational stakeholders in university communities, lecturers, and university students as a whole,. To educational stakeholders, the study will enable them to develop policies inside the student handbook that will explicitly kick against indecent dressing and set up a task force to ensure effective implementation. For lecturers, the study will enlighten them on the need to be on guard by helping the management to ensure no student dressed indecently enters their lecture. To students, the study will serve as an eye opener to them on the short and long term effects of indecent dressing. More so, this study will contribute to existing literature, serving as a reference material to both students and academia in related studies.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the causes and implication of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria. However the study will be delimited to undergraduate students in Imo State University.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As every human endeavor is once faced with a constraint, the same was tenable during the period of this study. In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other tertiary institutions in other , states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Dressing:

Dressing is an act of covering the body with clothes. It is also known as clothing, which means items worn on the body to beautify, decorate or cover the body.

Indecent Dressing:

Indecent dressing simply means deliberate exposure of one’s body to the public. This practice is contrary to the acceptable norms and values of society.

Undergraduate:

An undergraduate is a college or university student who is not a graduate student.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the causes and implication of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Imo State University as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the causes and implication of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Imo State University as a case study. Specifically the study was set to determine the possible causes of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria, find out the forms of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria, ascertain if indecent dressing has any significant impact on the academic performance of undergraduates students in Nigeria, and proffer possible solutions to the issue of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are undergraduate students of Imo State University.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion

  1. The possible causes of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria includes: peer pressure, poor parenting, celebrity dressing pattern, social media influence and wrong use of internet, and foreign influence and modernity.
  2. The forms of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria includes: sleeveless tops, short knickers, OFF shoulders, and transparent clothes.
  3. Indecent dressing has a significant impact on the academic performance of undergraduates students in Nigeria.
  4. The possible solutions to the issue of indecent dressing among undergraduate students in Nigeria includes: parents should serve as role models to their Children and enforce moral discipline, the stakeholders of tertiary institutions should be involved in instituting measures to harmonize dressing in all tertiary institutions, students who dress indecently to lectures should be sacked from the lecture halls, and advised to dress decently before returning back to the lecture halls, and a dress code or a uniform in consultation with the fashion department should be introduced.

5.4 Recommendations

In order to curb indecent dressing on Imo State University Campus, very practical initiatives must be embarked upon to educate the student populace about the potential dangers associated with it. This is necessary to prevent further decline in the academic performance of Imo State University students. Recommendations aimed at addressing indecent dressing are directed towards finding a lasting solution to this menace as thus;

Recommendations aimed at addressing indecent dressing are directed towards finding a lasting solution to this menace as thus;

  1. Since it is evident that indecent dressing bothers so much on morality, it will be prudent that Imo State University students are taught lessons on morality and the strict adherence to our cultural norms.
  2. Students who dress indecently to lectures should be sacked from the lecture halls, and advised to dress decently before returning back to the lecture halls.
  3. A dress code or a uniform in consultation with the fashion department should be introduced.
  4. There should be an award for decently dressed students at the end of every academic year.
  5. The stakeholders of tertiary institutions should be involved in instituting measures to harmonize dressing in all tertiary institutions.
  6. The Guidance and Counseling unit of Imo State University should organize programmes to educate students about indecent dressing.
  7. The government should domesticate Nigerian films and regulate the in-flow of foreign films. They should monitor the internet by blocking some sites that contain nudity, pornography, and indecent materials. The government should promote the African culture, values, and norms through conferences, seminars, and even television programmes. Government and other stakeholders in the education sector should encourage high institutions in developing enforcing policies to curb this menace (e.g. dress code policy).
  8. Schools management should give orientation to new students immediately after their admission and registration exercise. Conference, seminars, and workshops should be organized for both the students and staff to create public awareness on the importance of dress code. The management should give rewards for decent dressers. Penalty for indecent dressing should be spelled out and strictly implemented. This will prevent further flouting of the law.
  9. Lecturers and staff should be reminded and encouraged to help in implementing the dress code. Human development Counsellors should organize group and individual counselling and help young people understand the effects of indecent dressing.
  10. Parents should be good examples to their children, spending quality time with them, monitoring what they wear and carefully selecting clothes they buy for their children from a young age, and being careful with what they expose their children to especially on media or the internet. The students should see themselves as role models; therefore they should be conscious of their mode of dressing.

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