Addressing The Menace Of Nudity And Improper Dress Pattern Amongst Theatre Arts Students

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Addressing The Menace Of Nudity And Improper Dress Pattern Amongst Theatre Arts Students


Abstract


This study was carried out to critically address the menace of nudity and improper dress pattern amongst theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, investigate the types of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, investigate the effects of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka and ascertain the possible ways of curbing nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that he prevalence of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka is high. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that the types of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka includes: exposing the breast and chest, wearing of short dresses that expose thigh and underwear, pulling of trousers to the buttocks and exposing armpits and pubic hairs. Therefore, it is recommended that the school management in tertiary institutions should organize seminars, conferences, workshops and public enlightenment programmes regularly to sensitize and enlighten undergraduates on the need to dress decently in the society. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Dressing is an act of putting on clothes. Importance of wearing a clothe on the body is in order to protect, beautify or adorn it. Clothes are one of the basic necessities of man. In its widest sense, it includes a great range of material that man wears or applies to the body. Clothing includes dresses, shoes, jewellery, hairdo and make- up. Clothing is also used to show people’s status and the roles they play in society (Anyakoha & Eluwa, 2008). They further explained that the clothe someone decides to wear influences the impression people have about such an individual. It also tells about the family such a person comes from. It can also affect the person’s comfort and self-confidence. The dressing pattern of an individual is a kind of “sign language” that communicates a complete set of information and is usually the basis on which immediate impressions are formed (Kiran, 2002).

A dress is therefore said to be indecent when it has provocative or stimulating influence on almost all those that happen to view it on the user.(Egwim (2010). Although, there are no universally acceptable ways of dressing, dresses are meant to serve some definable purposes, notwithstanding one’s country or region. They are part of people’s culture and they define their tribal or ethnic identity. Apart from dresses being a means for cultural identity, they are for ornamental or aesthetic purposes, for protection of the body against harsh weather conditions as well as for covering the intimate part of the body (Omede, 2011). These purposes are important especially as they form major aspects of a person’s personality. Indecent appearance has come to characterize the dress pattern of many students on the campuses of higher learning in Nigeria. There is hardly any higher institution of learning in this country that is not faced with this nauseating problem. Taking a close study of some of the Nigerian Daily Newspapers, one would see series of pictures that testify to the fact that dressing among young people is sexy and indecent. Uba (2006) states that in the past years, when men were men and women were submissive, the basic essence of covering the female anatomy was of grave importance. Women were proud to cover up themselves, but today all that seem to have been swept off the dust of history. Wherever you turn, on the street, in the bus, in the campus, in the market places, there all shapes and types of breast rudely and embarrassingly stare at everyone in sight. The way students on these campuses of learning particularly, the female ones, dress seductively leaves much to be desired. What the girls call skirts that they wear is just “one inch” longer than their pants. When they put on such dresses, they struggle to sit down, find difficulty in climbing machines, cross gutters as well as pick anything from the ground. Apart from the skimpy and tight fitting nature of these dresses, they are again transparent; revealing certain parts of the bodies that under normal dressing patterns ought to be hidden away from the glare of people (Omede, 2011).
Obilo and Okugo (2013) observed that public Nigerian universities are battling with the wave of indecency, notably among female students. The authors explained the situation as the reign of skimpy dresses on campus which has turned many campuses to fashion runways. Beside that wearing short skirts some female undergraduates throw caution to the wind by displaying their boobs as a cheap means of getting attention. Dress to kill is now a popular slogan in lecture halls with the intention of looking sexy or classy, forgetting that they ought to look responsible.The dressing patterns of students have been viewed as anti-African and are invented. This un-African dressing pattern among undergraduates of this generation has generated lots of concern and worry among the citizens.

Olori (2003) viewed that the dressing pattern of undergraduate students are determined by factors such as mass media, peer pressure, religious, culture among others. Indecent dressing is the major cause of the various assault and sexual harassment recorded in the society over time. Iheanacho (2005) states that skimpy, transparent and sexy dresses worn by female undergraduates elicit sexual responses in males; such dresses were dresses that expose the legs, dress that expose the breast and dresses that show the exact size and shape of the buttocks. Ibanga (1991) collaborates “exposing sensitive parts of the female body send wrong signals to the males” These forms of dresses suggestthat such ladies need attention and that they are irresponsible and so there are always irresponsible men to dialogue, lure or force them to bed for sex. The tertiary institutions are described as both an academic and social institution. It is viewed by the public as a panacea for the ills of the society. It is also expected to solve one’s social, economic and political problems (Esiowu & Igbo, 2008). In higher institutions of learning, due to influence of peers and other environmental pressure, they have exaggerated need to appear and belong. The more fashionable and well-dressed the undergraduates, the higher status they achieve in the institution. Most Nigerian students have dropped their traditional clothing styles to foreign styles. People of many countries have dropped their cultural clothing styles and adopted western dress styles for everyday wears. These dressing patterns or styles are regarded as sexy fashion which allowed a degree of display of the body for appraisal and approval from the opposite sex. These styles or patterns were not previously experienced in the streets because they were seemed the ultimate in decadent behaviour. The undergraduates have completely shifted to this crazy dressing pattern that makes them appear half naked most of the time. Indecent appearance has come to characterize the dress pattern of many students on the campuses of higher learning in Nigeria. There is hardly any higher institution of learning in this country that is not faced with this nauseating problem. The way students on these campuses of learning particularly, the female ones, dress seductively leaves much to be desired. What the girls call skirts that they wear is just “one inch” longer than their pants. When they put on such dresses, they struggle to sit down, find difficulty in climbing machines, cross gutters as well as pick anything from the ground. Apart from the skimpy and tight fitting nature of these dresses, they are again transparent; revealing certain parts of the bodies that under normal dressing patterns ought to be hidden away from the glare of people (Omede, 2011). In the case of boys, their pattern of dress is different. It makes them to look so dirty and very unattractive with unkempt hairs and dirty jeans having pockets of holes deliberately created around the knees and the lower part of the trousers allowed to flow on the ground because they go through their heals into their legs as socks (Omede, 2011). The waist of their trousers are lowered and fastened tightly at the middle of the two bottom lobes to reveal their boxers (pants). And when they are walking, they drag their legs and one of their hands particularly, the left one, cupping their invisible scrotum as if they will fall to the ground if not supported. Many of them because of how they dressed had at one time or the other become victims of rape, lured into prostitution, used for ritual purpose, unable to complete their education or training and also engaged in other ancillary social and moral problems like cultism and lying to mention these few. Although, there are no universally acceptable way or ways of dressing, dresses are meant to serve some definable purposes, country or region notwithstanding. They are part of a peoples’ culture and they define their tribal or ethnic identity (Omede, 2011).

Apart from dresses being a means for cultural identity, they are for ornamental or aesthetic purposes, for protection of the body against harsh weather conditions as well as for covering the intimate parts of the body (Answer.com, 2011; &Articlesbase.com, 2011). These purposes are important especially as they form major aspects of a person’s personality. But as important as these purposes are, they have been defeated by the generation of Nigerian youths (Articlesbase.com 2011). Their dress patterns are most times anti-African, and are invented. They usually dress in manners that do not show that they are responsible (nigerianfilms.com, 2009). The African culture and particularly that of Nigeria encourage modesty in appearance as do the Christian and Islamic religions where the larger population of these youths claim t obe worshipping God. This un-African dress pattern among the youths of this generation has generated lots of concern and worry among the citizenry of the country. Religious institutions as well as institutions of learning are not resting on their oars to watch this immoral act being perpetuated, but they speak against it. For instance, Olori (2003) reported that at the University of Abuja rules were made that any dress won must cover intimate parts of the body, must not expose the breast, stomach, navel and bare chest. In the same vein, it seems that the introduction of a dress code was misinterpreted by the students to mean they should dress indecently. This is because what became obvious with students in this college after the introduction of this dress code was the alarming and arrant ways that they began to dress indecently. One is not however surprised because what is typical of most Nigerian administrators is always a wide gap between policy formulation and execution. Indecent dressing even though is not accepted as the normality, is seen to be gaining ascendancy. One then wonders what becomes of the society tomorrow with the calibre of students that are being trained. If rules are made for people, they supposed to be adequately informed why such rules are made. It is for this very reason that this paper attempts to address the menace of nudity and improper dress pattern amongst theatre arts students.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Indecent dressing is the major cause of the various assault and sexual harassments recorded in the society, overtime. In the name of fashion, ladies dress half naked to functions for instance; Nigerian ladies derive pleasure in wearing miniskirts, bumper shorts, armless tops etc. Innocent boys have been subject to arrests along with hooligans because of this ill. Boys nowadays fix hairs, pierce ears making them look like hardened criminals, so one cannot really blame police for arresting them. Many of them because of how they dressed had at one time or the other become victims of rape, lured into prostitution, used for ritual purpose, unable to complete their education or training and also engaged in other ancillary social and moral problems like cultism and lying to mention these few. Nowadays, there are different boy styles like sagging, hot bosom, low west and the likes. Although to say the least, these unfortunate societal ill has now eaten deep into both the young and the old, it is also common amongst artistes especially while they are on stage. It is therefore the aim of this study to address the menace of nudity and improper dress pattern amongst theatre arts students.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically address the menace of nudity and improper dress pattern amongst theatre arts students.

Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine the prevalence of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
  2. Investigate the types of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
  3. Investigate the effects of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
  4. Ascertain the possible ways of curbing nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research question will guide the study:

  1. What is the prevalence of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka?
  2. What are the types of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka?
  3. What are the effects of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.?
  4. What are the possible ways of curbing nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka?

1.4 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There are no possible ways of curbing nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students.
  • Ha: There are possible ways of curbing nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Decent dressing can be explained as the proper way of dressing or the generally accepted way of dressing without exposing vital parts of the human body. Indecent dressing on the other hand is the improper and provocative way of dressing relative to the society or culture in which it is being perpetrated. This is to say that indecent dressing cannot be properly defined in isolation of the societal norms or religious boundaries.

This is so because students who dress indecently have divided attention for their studies and are therefore unable to receive adequate practical training which is a prerequisite for employment by most companies. And because such companies are not ready to spend extra money training such partiallygroomed graduates, the latter find themselves joining the Unemployed Graduate Association of Nigeria.This study will be of benefit to students as it tries to curb the problem of indecent dressing in Nigerian higher institutions. Lastly, this study will be used as research study for other researchers and academics seeking valuable information related to this topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is hinged on addressing the menace of nudity and improper dress pattern amongst theatre arts students. The study will further uncover the prevalence, causes and effect of nudity and improper dress pattern amongst theatre arts students. The respondents to this study will be obtained from theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

As every human endeavor is once faced with a constraint, the same was tenable during the period of this study. In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other tertiary institutions in other , states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Effects:

This is a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Dress:

This is an apparel, clothing or an outer garment (as for a woman or girl) usually consisting of a one-piece bodice and skirt.

Indecent Dressing:

Indecent dressing simply means deliberate exposure of one’s body to the public. This practice is contrary to the acceptable norms and values of the society. A dress is said to be indecent when it has provocative or stimulating influence on almost all those that happen to view it on the user (Egwim (2010).


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the menace of nudity and improper dress pattern amongsttheatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to critically address the menace of nudity and improper dress pattern amongst theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The study specifically was aimed to determine the prevalence of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, investigate the types of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, investigate the effects of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka and ascertain the possible ways of curbing nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka is high.
  2. The types of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka includes: exposing the breast and chest, wearing of short dresses that expose thigh and underwear, pulling of trousers to the buttocks and exposing armpits and pubic hairs.
  3. The effects of nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka includes: lack of concentration in class, seduction of lecturers, victimisation of students and awarding of marks for sexual favours.
  4. The possible ways of curbing nudity and improper dress pattern among theatre arts students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka includes: lessons on morality should be taught, students who dress indecently to lecturers should be sacked from lecture halls, A dress code or a uniform in consultation with the fashion department should be introduced, there should be an award for decently dressed student at the end of every academic year and the guidance and counselling unit of schools should organise programmes to educate students about indecent dressing.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The mass media is a very strong agent of socialization. Televisions, radio, magazines and newspapers should be used as channels of communication to control the rate of indecent dressing among females. The display of some indecently dressed young girls for adverts should be discouraged.
  2. The school management in tertiary institutions should organize seminars, conferences, workshops and public enlightenment programmes regularly to sensitize and enlighten undergraduates on the need to dress decently in the society.
  3. As role models, parents should dress decently. The behaviour of parents impacts on their children more greatly than what they tell them to do or not to do. Parents should monitor the films their children watch. Proper parental upbringing is very important to prevent children from succumbing quickly to pressure from peers.
  4. University management staff, lecturers and security personnel should ensure that rules on dress code are enforced in higher institutions. Some universities in Nigeria have introduced dress codes for their students; the problem is not making the rules but enforcement. The university should set up disciplinary committee to handle cases of indecent dressing among female students.

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