Television As A Tool For Evangelization

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Television As A Tool For Evangelization


Abstract


In this study, our focus was on television as a tool for evangelization, Enugu urban as case study. The study is was specifically focused on establishing the factors which shape their choice of programmes; ascertaining if televangelism worth the airtime allotted to the programme; To know factors that encourage their viewers attitude and knowing the impact and influence of televangelism on them.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are men and women from Enugu Urban, Enugu State. Findings based on data generated and analyzed showed that respondents accepted that Televangelism was responsible for the repentance of christens, while respondents also accepted that viewers had benefited from watching Televangelism. The researcher therefore recommended that the gospel preacher should concentrate on gospel messages rather than canvassing for prosperity messages because Televangelism is responsible for repentance of Christians. Also, viewers need gospel messages to grow in their Christian faith.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Television as a medium of mass communication has gained acceptance among the clergy and gospel preachers globally, hence its use by them. Evangelism has become a household trend as television viewers irrespective of their diverse and pre-existing knowledge are exposed to gospel and Christian messages from the confines of their homes.
Nwogbunyama (2006, p. 90) observes that television started in the late 19th century and 20th century, many lands contributed to the development of Television. In 1884 Nikpow, a German, patented a scanning disk for transmitting pictures by wireless.

In USA Jenkins began his study of the subject about 1890. Rigeneux and Fourneir conducted television experiments in France in the 1900’s. In 1915, Maconi, predicted “visible telephone” in 1923, Zworykin applied for a patent on the iconoscope (television camera tube). Two years later Jenkins demonstrated mechanical television apparatus. They were experiments by Alexanderson, Fransworth and Baird in 1926 – 1927. An experimental television was sent by wire between New York and Washington by the bell Telephone Laboratories in 1977, in which Herbert Hooven, the secretary of commerce, participated. The next year the same laboratories experimentally televised outdoor programme. In 1939, Milwaukee Journal filled the first application to broadcast television programmes on a commercial basis. At an industry divided on the question of whether television was ready for commercial use. A National Television System Committee was considered standardized and reported in 1941.

Okunna (1993, p. 55) contends that television in Nigeria in 1959 with the establishment of the Western Nigerian television (WNBS/WNTV). In 1960 the Eastern region established the Eastern Nigerian television (ENTV) and two years later the then Northern regional Television Kaduna Service known as Radio Television Kaduna Started transmission. In April 1962 the NBC – TV known at that time as Nigerian Service Channel 10 (ten) Lagos came on air to mark a new era in television broadcasting in Nigeria. When the country was divided into twelve states in 1967, there was a proliferation of TV stations, a phenomenon which took a new dimension. In 1976, the number of states increases to nineteen. The direct result of this was the emergence of state owned television stations. However, in 1997 a Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) was established to function separately.

Televangelism as a trend has its roots in the United States of America where deregulation and liberal press was dominant. Eze (2008, p. 68) submits that socio-economic system accepts freedom of the press”. Some of the early pioneers of television evangelism are Sheen who won numerous Emmy Awards for his programme that ran from the early 1950’s until the late 1960s. Oral Roberts was the largest broadcast of the time. In 1957, he reached 80% of the possible 500 stations. The 1960s and early 1970’sbut corresponded with a further rise in the evangelical protestant Christianity, many through the international television of Billy Graham. Many well known televangelist gospel preachers began during this period, most notably are Jimmy Swaggart, Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker, Jerry Fallwell, and Pat Robertson. Most of them developed their own media networks, news exposure and political influence in the 21st century, the television church services of Joel Osteen’s Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas, and Robert Schuller Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California continue to attract large audiences.

Some of the pioneer church stations in Nigeria are Believers Love Word aka Christ Embassy, the Living Faith church aka Winners Chapels, the Redeemed Christian Church of God and the Synagogue and some ministries like Adoration Ministry. Some televangelist are also regular pastors or ministers in their own places of worship often a Mega Church, but the majority of their followers come from their Television audiences. Others do not have a conventional congregation as such and solely work through television to preach the gospel.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In this study, the researcher will ascertain the diverse views of viewers on the effects of televangelism on them. Defleur (1970, p. 22) agrees that individual differences occur because people vary greatly in their things, therefore the media influence differs from person to person.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine Television As a Tool For Evangelization.

Specifically, the study aims

  1. To establish factors which shape their choice of programmes.
  2. To ascertain if televangelism worth the airtime allotted to the programme.
  3. To know factors that encourage their viewers attitude.
  4. To know the impact and influence of televangelism on them.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions will be answered in order to achieve the research objective

  1. To what extent does Television impact evangelism ?
  2. Does television improve the reach of evangelism?
  3. Do people believe the evangelical messages on television?
  4. How often do they watch tele-evangelism programmes ?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The following research Hypothesis was formulated and tested

  • Ho: Television has no significant relationship with the growth of evangelism in Nigeria
  • Hi: Television has significant relationship with the growth of evangelism in Nigeria

1.6 Significance of the Study

The essence of this study is to ascertain the effectiveness of televangelism communication to viewers, and to know the opinion of viewers on how televangelism has affected their lives with the gospel messages and how it has changed their attitude and encourage their viewing.

Asika (2004, p. 44) submits that with cluster sampling, one can divide the state into districts, villages, countries and select group of people from these areas. It is the process of selecting one unit or subject at a given population.

Enugu Urban will be divided into (6) six zones. Zone A comprises of Abakpa, Zone C comprises of Ogui, Fire Service, 82 Division. Zone D comprises of New Haven, Chime Avenue, Upper Chime. Zone E comprises of independence Layout, Agric bank, ESBS, Nkponkiti, Zone F comprises of Uwani, Keyetta, Amaokwe, Amaubia. This research will be a guide for Academic purpose, policy makers and practitioners, if successfully concluded.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This work is limited to People’s Perception of Televangelism satisfy viewers of Enugu urban. It will not be extended to other television programmes. It is limited to Enugu Urban which would be divided into clusters and will not be operational to other places where televangelism is watched. It will only focus on six Enugu Urban places which are Abakpa, Ogui, GRA, Uwani, New Haven and Independence Layout. Asika (2004, p. 44) Ibid that with cluster sampling one can divided the state into districts, villages, countries and select group of people from these areas. It concentrates mainly on Enugu Urban because of want of time and resources.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research work is specifically on Television As a Tool For Evangelization. In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation. Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.

Cost:

The cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.

Time:

The time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.

Scarcity of Literature:

The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank History and operations. This are hindered the smooth running of this work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Viewer:

A person watching television

Perception:

People’s perception of visual reality; an idea, a belief or an image viewers have as a result of how they see televangelism.

Televangelist:

A person that comes air regularly to persuade people to become Christians

Televangelism:

The practice of taking gospel message to homes with television.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on television as a tool for evangelization, Enugu urban as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on television as a tool for evangelization, Enugu urban as case study. The study is was specifically focused on establishing the factors which shape their choice of programmes; ascertaining if televangelism worth the airtime allotted to the programme; To know factors that encourage their viewers attitude and knowing the impact and influence of televangelism on them.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are men and women from Enugu Urban, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

From the study relationship between televangelism and worship habits can be understood as; Televangelism is an important source of Christian messages and has been embraced by nearly all Christians in Enugu Urban. Many Christians prefer to watch the messages to grow as Christians and to feel closer to God which amounts to complimenting their church physical church teachings.

If some people miss church and use televangelistic messages as an option it is not a permanent option for them but a stop gap measure to spiritually nourish them till the next time they attend church. The traditional churches still have a strong grip on the Christian fraternity and most Christians are not willing to give that up for the TV preachers exclusively.

Televangelism has profound effects on societal values through the type of messages delivered (the messages are considered to be more charismatic and populist than church messages) way they are delivered. This has resulted to lack of trust. The worshippers don‟t trust the preachers enough to donate money to them because there is lack of transparency on how the money will be spent. Most worshippers feel that the preachers might use the money for their own personal prosperity and not for the church. There is a general feeling that the messages presented are valid to a large extent except when they are geared towards obtaining money. That is why a majority of worshippers do watch televangelistic messages but a minority give donations. Further the few that do give donations, most of them do so because they want to give to God and not the individual.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. To deliver more compelling messages televangelists should read widely and conduct research about their needs of the target audience. This means that the preaching of messages with one theme (prosperity) should be dealt with because the worshippers have more needs than this. Other areas of the Bible should be explored and taught with as much emphasis as the prosperity, deliverance and miracle messages are given.
  2. To change improve the credibility perception among Christians, Televangelists should be open and willing to be accountable to their worshippers by providing adequate information that would encourage viewers to support their ministries. The perception that any form of donation is for personal gain of the preacher has an origin and for these televangelists to be supported financially then they should deal with this problem of perception.
  3. The government should also establish and enforce policies and regulations that encourages genuine televangelism programming and deters televangelists who are driven by fraud and self-gain by registering all the churches and holding them accountable to their actions.

Television As A Tool For Evangelization


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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the scope of the media in evangelization?

The scope of the Media is to project the message of evangelization beyond the confines of our habitual spaces, churches, and Religious Institutions. Here we must highlight the spectrum and potential of the methods and means which man, the fundamental medium of evangelization could appropriate today for effective evangelization.

Is the liturgy a stand-back media for evangelization?

This is often not forthcoming and the “stand-back” attitude needs to change. The Liturgy as media for evangelization. Pope Benedict once said that the liturgy, when well prepared and celebrated can act as an effective medium of evangelization.

How can laypeople participate in the church’s evangelization task?

In a recent article published in many Catholic Media organs, Professor Michael Ogunu had a comprehensive list of the ways in which laypeople can participate in the Church’s task of evangelization. The long list comprises: Regular (weekly) Confessions to purify themselves and be effective witnesses to the faith.

What is evangelization and why is it important?

To our topic here, evangelization, in very simple terms, is the dissemination of the Gospel to the ends of the earth for the purpose of drawing humanity closer to God, to live a life of holiness “so that all might be saved” (Jn 3:16). This dissemination of the Good News is aimed at “making disciples of all nations” for Jesus. 

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