Impact Of Women In Advertisement (A Case Study Of Delta Soap Television Advertisement)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Impact Of Women In Advertisement (A Case Study Of Delta Soap Television Advertisement)


Abstract


This research venture is aimed at not only x-raying the impact of women in advertisements but also in everyday endeavor both in modern and ancient times, outlining reasons and explanations and aligning such roles and activities of women. The field survey research method, which was adopted for this research was deemed appropriate considering the nature of the topic. The primary data contained information extracted from the questionnaires in which the respondents were required to give specific answer to a question by ticking in front of an appropriate answer and administered the same on staff of the two organizations. The questionnaires contained about 16 structured questions which was divided into sections A and B. The end being the use of the required data to understand the various situations it is with a view to making valuable recommendations and contributions.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

It is rare these days to see adverts broadcast on television without women playing prominent and visible roles, such roles range from complementary, subjective, subordinate to major actors in most television adverts. These roles as may be ascribed by men, not only enhance the product advertised, but add colour, glamour and pleasant feelings to viewers whose interest, attention and patronage are very much sought after. Thus, women could see oftentimes in the back grand performing seductive roles in Delta soap. The sole attraction and the major actors were the women shown at the pitch where the glamour was most manifest. Although, there were men there, but women was first of there sole attraction. Women are, therefore, beginning to get involved in adverts not only as subordinates but also as major characters and most times found themselves in decision-making positions. The term advertising and advertisement can be defined in many different ways. One widely used definition appropriate for many years by no longer so was simply “salesmanship print”. Perhaps a more precise definition of the subject would be: Advertising, the paid use of any channel of communication to identify, explains or urges the use of adoption of a product, service or idea. An identified sponsor could also define it as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services.

Although, modern advertising is only about 100 years old, the use of advertising actually dates back at least to the 10th century BC. The use of picture in advertisements is necessary. Advertisements with names and symbols on them are always easy for both illiterates and literates to identify. With the developing of printing, advertising made its first appearance in a form more nearly related to its present one.

A small poster by William Claxton promoted the sale of a service book published in 1450. The first known newspaper advertisement also was a book notice, which appeared in a German News book in 1591.

It is of note that the common forms of advertising at that time were newspaper, street signs, posters, hand bills. The use was made of by United States government of advertisement during the civil war to sell bonds.

The radio made its incursion into the advertisement world and began to challenge, seriously, newspapers and others. Television became very controversial because it changed the role of radio, as it became the major source of in-home entertainments since the 1950’s.The scientific nature of advertising perhaps has created a broad and wide room which impropriated the women folk, and exploitation of their intricate characters and quality. Women traditionally are seen in terms of their appearance, sexually and domestic relations.Accordingly, feminist researchers like inch man et al and Busty, conclusively submit that women tend to be shown as submissive, passive and are portrayed largely in term of their sexuality or domestic city, while men tend to be shown as dominant, active and authoritative.This perhaps explains to a great extent why the role-played by women carrier on were mere sub ordinate to men. As it has been the practice until perhaps to recent times, the males take major decisions, handle senior executive parts, think and map out strategies for execution plan on a complementary basis.Nowadays, the impact of women in advertisements has generated a lot of controversy in many parts of the world. Some argue that women are used as followers in the advertisements. They see women as ornaments that are used to beautify the advertisement. They further went to say that women garnish the advertisements and make the adverts appealing to the eyes. To them the seductive nature of women helps a lot in creating interest in the product. Perhaps, this accounts for why must advert agencies see or feel the impact of women in advertisements as a powerful polarized force of feminine attraction over masculine, a phenomenon well cherished for quick awareness of advert and sale of product.The argument here reveals a situation of attraction and sustenance as a major factor in any advertisement. These agencies use renowned women, since men and even women alike admire television advertised. There are advanced examples as that of monarch beer and cannon beer, which use women widely despite the fact that men actually consume the product more that the females. Also product adverts like Delta soap, Joy soap etc call to mind what effects womanish roles on advertisements can play on the audience.The impact of women in advertisements, and indeed other endeavors, are perceived differently, from community to community and according to position of women in the traditional society to which they belong.In a country like Greece, women basically occupy themselves with domestic chores, and keeping the family religiously alive, while their male counterparts have the duly of providing things from the outside world that deep the family alive and going.In Germany, women play tougher role: they go to hunt with their male flock, go to war most times with them, farm and prepare the food for the husband and the family. Women here are often times treated same as men, though both do not enjoy equal rights and privilege especially in inheritance.The American situation may perhaps be a little different; women were initially subjected to ascribed roles. This gradually began to wane as women liberation movements became rampart and the roles of women in such places became more recognized and appreciated.

To African and Nigerian society, women should remain in their traditional position and remain in the background, unseen and unheard. The African society perceives exposure of women as a most unwelcome thing.

In certain parts of African traditional society, exposing of a female’s body is termed a taboo, just like the Muslim community forbid women from exposing themselves to certain practices which they term evil and ungodly.

Thus, it is not only in advertising by in other fields of endeavor where pronounced roles are seen at not for women. But in modern times, women are beginning to be exposed and can now engage in activities without much criticism. Perhaps, advertisements are now so negligently perused that it has become necessary to gain eloquence and glamour or for some other reasons, sometimes sublime, and sometimes pathetic, that women play these controversial roles in virtually every advertisement broadcast.

This research venture is aimed at not only x-raying the impact of women in adverts but in everyday endeavor both in modern and ancient times, outlining reasons and explanations and aligning such roles and activities of women in various parts of the globe. The fields survey research method, which was adopted for this research was deemed appropriate considering the nature of the topic. There was the need to interview men, women and other members of the society on matters relevant to study


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Nowadays, the impact of women in advertisements has generated a lot of controversy in many parts of the world. Some argue that women are used as followers in the advertisements. They see women as ornaments that are used to beautify the advertisement. They further went to say that women garnish the advertisements and make the adverts appealing to the eyes. To them the seductive nature of women helps a lot in creating interest in the product. Perhaps, this accounts for why must advert agencies see or feel the impact of women in advertisements as a powerful polarized force of feminine attraction over masculine, a phenomenon well cherished for quick awareness of advert and sale of product. It is in view of this that the researcher intend to investigate the impact of women on advertisement.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of women in advertisement, but for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intend to achieve the following sub-objective;

  1. To ascertain the impact of women on television advertisement
  2. To investigate the role of women on the acceptability of product advertised on TV
  3. To investigate the effect of feminism on television advertisement
  4. To proffer some possible solution to the identified problem

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher

  1. H0: women has no significant impact on television advertisement
    H2: women has a significant impact on television advertisement
  2. H0: feminism does not play any significant role on the acceptability of product advertised on TV
    H2: feminism plays a significant role on the acceptability of product advertised on TV.

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the marketing profession as the study seek to explore the impact of feminism in influencing the choice of the consumer, the study will also be of great importance to all marketers as the study seek to enumerate the importance of advertising on the marketing profession and the role of women. , The study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to the researcher.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of this study covers the impact of women in advertisement with emphasis on TV advert in Delta state. In the cause of the study, there were ssome factorsb

Some factors which limited the scope;

(a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

(b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

(c) Finance:

The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover


1.7 Definition of Terms

Advertisement

Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who wish to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the message

Women

A woman is a female human and may also refer to a person’s gender identity. The term woman is usually reserved for an adult, with the term girl being the usual term for a female child or adolescent. The term woman is also sometimes used to identify a female human, regardless of age, as in phrases such as “women’s rights”. Women with typical genetic development are usually capable of giving birthfrom puberty until menopause

Marketing

Marketing is a form of communication between you and your customers with the goal of selling your product or service to them. Communicating the value of your product or service is a key aspect of marketing.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the datacollection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of women in advertisement.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the impact of women in advertisement.


5.2 Summary

It is apparent that television advertising exerts substantial influence on attitude and behaviors of consumers. These effects reach well beyond moving product desire from one brand to another. Effective television adverts can successfully influence even the most intelligent adult. Thus, female who lack the ability to attribute persuasive intent to television advertising are uniquely vulnerable to such effects. Female client, tend to accept television adverts claims and appeals as truthful and accurate because they fail to comprehend the advertiser‟s motive to exaggerate and embellish. When advertised products appeal to them, they are more likely to focus on the concrete aspects of the product and consequently overlook the abstract nature of the relationship between the advertiser and the audience, especially viewers. In the words of Shellberger, D. (2003). advertising to audience does not only bring in funds from the clients but importantly, it generates desirefor the product advertised.


5.3 Conclusion

The findings on the impact of women in advertising by Nigerian advertisements were in consonance with what Courtney and Whipple (1983, p.14) found out in Lexington about female gender–role stereotypes in advertising. 110 These finding are also in line with similar research result like Dominck and Ranch (1973, p.260) who investigated how women were portrayed in television commercial and concluded that stereotypes of women did exist, “in the world of advertising, women are housewives of how-level employees when she does appear, the typical female is a young house wife, a kind of picture in the home, helping to sell some products found in the kitchen and bathroom…In advertisement featuring both sexes, females were generally given background roles with significantly more males than females taking the dominant roles. Whenever females were given lead they were not identified as owners of any business” They also noted that “women were under–represented in the area of banking, managements, executive posts and professions like law, engineering and medical professions.


5.4 Recommendations

The study recommends that advertisement in any media should enhance the public morality and living standards of the general public. It is recommended to the media owners that only the advertisement which will give more prestige, code of conduct, moral values and thereby increase the standard of living and maintaining good living style of the consumers should be permitted to be aired. It is suggested that the advertisement should create awareness and influence the consumers by providing valuable suggestions to make their purchase decision and not gender specific. Thus the advertisements shall not be so framed as to abuse the trust of consumers or exploit their lack of knowledge.


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