Objectivity In The Role Of Nigerian Television Authority In The Mobilization Of Electorate For 2019 Oyo Gubernatorial Election

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Objectivity In The Role Of Nigerian Television Authority In The Mobilization Of Electorate For 2019 Oyo Gubernatorial Election


Abstract


The broad objective of this study is to examine objectivity in the role of Nigerian television authority in the mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election. The study further examine the primary role of media in a democratic elected government, ascertained the extent at which NTA created electoral awareness during Oyo State Gubernatorial election., established whether NTA maintained objectivity in their mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election. The study adopted a survey research design and with the aid of convenient sampling method, the researcher enrolled 36 participants for the study who are staff in Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) in Oyo State. Well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which a total of 30 responses were received and validated for the study. Data was analyzed in simple percentage using frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23). Findings of the study established that although 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election was heavily and comprehensively covered by the media, certain elements of the media were stated to have attempted to report objectively, ethically, professionally, and in accordance with the Electoral Act, many others were accused of prejudice, denial of access, and professional misconduct. The study therefore recommends that Government owned television channel should ensure to give prominence to new broadcast on political issues and as well integrate the masses about participating in election process this would require them to give in their support. More so, therefore, media practitioners should be vociferous, vocal and vigorous in Nigeria media to help improve political campaign based on issues and ideology by the masses.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Studies

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The expansion and development of the media sector has had a direct influence on political development. Nowadays, it is nearly difficult to find campaign, polical talks that do not include public relations like TV programs – chat shows, news, newspapers, magazines, and so on (Ngara and Esebonu2018). The major reason for this is that media and public relations are inextricably linked. It should be noted that the presence of public relations in media is greater during election campaigns because political parties and politicians attempt all they can to influence the editorial line of newscasts in order to achieve their political aims. According to Ogwezzy-Ndisika, (2018), in the political news industry, political parties and politicians would go to any length to influence the editorial line of media channels and other sources in order to achieve their goals. Politics, more than any other industry, imposes its own agenda on the media. As a consequence, you must follow their [the politicians’] agenda and, as a result, rely on news from press offices for political mobilization. Whereas in other industries, you have the freedom to pick your themes, in politics, politicians and their press offices set the agenda through the media.

Undoubtedly, the Nigerian democratic system relies heavily on the media. They have specifically played key roles in the election process by serving as major sources of information, offering essentially free and trustworthy details that have led to more balanced education and opinion formation among the voting population. In support of thi Omoera(2016) opined that the Nigerian media, recognized for their vibrancy, diversity, boisterousness, and, in the case of the public owned broadcast media, blind follower behavior, have done their responsibilities within current circumstances throughout electioneering times in the country. (Pate 2015 p3). Looking back to the history of Nigerian elections, the foregoing remark by Pate may be clearly appreciated. Because elections are the lifeblood of modern democracy, the frequency, fairness, and openness of such elections through public relations are critical to the polity’s political stability.

Since the country’s restoration to democratic government in 1999,the Nigerian media have been essential stakeholders in the country’s present political regime, particularly during elections. They have been actively involved in creating the agenda for political discourse, offering viewpoints and direction on political debates, framing the agenda for political choices, and mobilizing for public engagement in political activities. The country has evolved through a series of development efforts aimed at establishing her as a viable, independent state. The ingenuity with which government’s policy makers draft development policies and guidelines for development programs has been the starting off point to indicate the purpose such government’s seek to achieve. However when a government enjoys a good union with its developmental strategies, such a government more often than not, excels in elevating its society’s standards. But when a government does not get any support from the masses, this can become an impediment to the success of such development.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Nigerian political history is never complete without mentioning the critical role of Nigerian media. It is a well-known fact that under democratic dispensation, the mass media are not simply referred to as the fourth estate of the realm, but are recognized and accorded respect due to the privilege, that is to say, societies have granted the press its right and place in political and democratic processes, as well as function and responsibility in the administration or how men are governed globally. The above examples demonstrate why “societies” place a high value on election coverage. According to Orhewere (2003, p.140), in the past, the Nigerian media did not demonstrate enough dedication to professional ethnics, leading to the electoral crisis in western Nigeria in 1965 and following elections. Newson and Scolt (1981), on the other hand, believe that the most beneficial public relations effort is that which is intended to prevent or at least solve issues while they are minor. According to Jeffkin (1998:9), public relations also deals with a world of hatred, prejudice, indifference, and ignorance, which can lead to an unjust contemporary image. This frequently turns public relations into a problem-solving business, with the emphasis on how to obtain knowledge of one or more issues.

Examining the role of the mass media during the 2019 General Elections reveals a blatant disregard for not only the cardinal principle of journalistic practice by all stakeholders – politicians, mass media institutions, and their owners – but also a palpable assault on societal solidarity and harmony. Independent observers have given conflicting judgments of the media’s performance during the election. The Transition Monitoring Group, a coalition of civil society organizations, said that the election was heavily and comprehensively covered by the media (Zaggi, 2015).

They have allotted a lot of room and air time to the process, both individually and collectively. While certain elements of the media were stated to have attempted to report objectively, ethically, professionally, and in accordance with the Electoral Act, many others were accused of prejudice, denial of access, and professional misconduct.

Because political parties use massive public relations campaigns to gain public understanding and maintain mutual relationships, political parties must understand changes in the state structure and be able to choose an effective communication strategy to reach the target audience in order to influence political participation elections. Although there is a small body of literature on the influence of mass media on political participation, little attention has been paid to the role of public relations in recent elections; thus, in order to fill this perceived gap, the researcher seeks to investigateobjectivity in the role of Nigerian television authority in the mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine objectivity in the role of Nigerian television authority in the mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election.

Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. To examine the primary role of media in a democratic elected government.
  2. To ascertain the extent at which NTA created electoral awareness during Oyo State Gubernatorial election.
  3. To establish whether NTA maintained objectivity in their mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the primary role of media in a democratic elected government?
  2. What is extent at which NTA created electoral awareness during Oyo State Gubernatorial election?
  3. Does NTA maintained objectivity in their mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

HO: NTA does not maintained objectivity in their mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election.

H1: NTA does not maintained objectivity in their mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election.


1.6 Significance of the Study

Findings from the study will be relevant to government, policy makers and media personnel. The result of the study will enlighten television reporters on the need to give prominence to development issues as this would enable government gain support for the effectiveness of the programme. More so, the result of the study will enable personnel, journalist and communicators to promote objectivity during political report with the aim of ensuring social, political, and communication emancipation. Additionally, the findings of the study will enable Nigeria political parties in the 21st century not to afford to be technologically bankrupt in this information age hence the need for them to device mechanisms for electioneering and campaigning in other to influence the voting pattern of the masses. Finally, the findings of this study will contribute to the sustainable development of democracy in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on objectivity in the role of Nigerian television authority in the mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election.. The study is however delimited to Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) in Oyo State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scantiness of literature on the the role of public relations in general elections with reference to 2015 discourse. Thus much time and organization was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection. Also the study is limited in period as the study covered only the general campaign period in Nigeria between November 2014 and February 2015. On the respondent of the study, only members of political parties and media houses in Abuja was sample for the study Therefore findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for members of political part and media houses in other states which creates a gap in scope and gives room for further studies.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Relevance:

Relevance is the degree to which something is related or useful to what is happening or being talked about.

Media:

The term media, which is the plural of medium, refers to the communication channels through which we disseminate news, music, movies, education, promotional messages and other data.

Electronic Media:

Electronic media are media that use electronics or electro-mechanical means for the audience to access the content.

National Development:

National development is the capacity of the country to raise the standard of living of its residence. It can be achieved by providing individuals with basic livelihood requirements and supplying them with employment, etc.

Public Support:

Public support is vital for increasing pressure on governments to enact change and as well showing commitment towards helping them achieved a desired policy.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The broad objective of this study is to examine objectivity in the role of Nigerian television authority in the mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election. The study further examine the primary role of media in a democratic elected government, ascertained the extent at which NTA created electoral awareness during Oyo State Gubernatorial election., established whether NTA maintained objectivity in their mobilization of electorate for 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election.

The study adopted a survey research design and with the aid of convenient sampling method, the researcher enrolled 36 participants for the study who are staff in Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) in Oyo State. Well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which a total of 30 responses were received and validated for the study. Data was analyzed in simple percentage using frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23).


5.2 Conclusion

Majority of the world’s population engage with the media every day through the radio sets, television sets, newspapers, or online. In this sense, the media is considered a formidable tool which a lot of people can relate to whether through a favourite programme or article that connects them to their immediate environment.

Findings of the study established that the primary role of media in a democratic elected government which options are given thus: the press keeps the people and government informed, the press serves as watchdog on the activities of government, government officials and members of the public in general, the press provides a voice for the people by giving the strong, weak, rich, poor, young, and old the right to express their views irrespective of how primitive, sensible or irrational the view may be. the press is a medium of enormous influence on people’s views, attitudes, judgments, lifestyles and values, the press helps the people in the making of an informed decision.

The study also reveals the extent at which NTA created electoral awareness during Oyo State Gubernatorial election is high as the media possess power as an effective channel for achieving rapid political mobilization is further underscored in y deploying their strength to the advantage of the Nigerian populace by bringing to them regularly, relevant and impactful political development programmes.

Conclusively, the study established that although 2019 Oyo gubernatorial election was heavily and comprehensively covered by the media, certain elements of the media were stated to have attempted to report objectively, ethically, professionally, and in accordance with the Electoral Act, many others were accused of prejudice, denial of access, and professional misconduct.


5.3 Recommendation

Base on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were proffered:

  1. Television channels with a reputation of being the closest medium to the rural community must harness its potentials optimally in ensuring that those in remote rural areas of the country do not lack essential information on basic rights and entitlements, public services, public budgets, health, education and working opportunities, agricultural prices and other market information which would enable them to take control of their lives.
  2. The broadcast media as agent of change and promoter of national identity should therefore ensure that issues that pose as threat to the national development of Nigeria are tackled and addressed and raise strategies to promote, advocate and mobilize support on government activities in Nigeria.
  3. Government owned television channel should ensure to give prominence to new broadcast on political issues and as well integrate the masses about participating in election process this would require them to give in their support.
  4. Electronic media station and channels should ensure that even at the rural level they go for public interview, host reputable personnel of that locale on TV/Radio call-in and talk shows as this would enable the masses to familiarize with this updates and as well make them give in their support towards national development.
  5. There is the need, therefore, for media channels in Nigeria to redefine itself by refocusing communication radar on its democratic/civil responsibilities, which includes disseminating to the people in the rural areas, based on political information required in an all inclusive democratic process.
  6. The importance of media cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore, media practitioners should be vociferous, vocal and vigorous in Nigeria media to help improve political campaign based on issues and ideology by the masses.

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