The Review Of Application Of Gases In Biomass
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This seminar work is dedicated to God Almighty who granted me the opportunity to accomplish and execute this seminar.
I bow my knees before the highest God, the omniscient spirit and author and dispenser of knowledge and wisdom may his holy name be glorified for the blessings of humanity.
I will continually appreciate the support, encouragement and guidance zof my supervisor Nze Raph Amadi and my gratitude also goes to my HOD Mr. Omenikolo .A. and all the rest of my departmental lecturers for all their efforts in making me who I am today.
My special thanks to my mum and Dad Mr. and Mrs. Kehinde Ogundayomi for the achievement of this seminar. I am indebted also to my precious brothers and sisters, I love you all.
Finally success is complete without the help of my good friends Emeka, Peter, Amara, chidinma and chidera. Just to mention but a few, saying a big thanks and may god bless you all for me, Amen.
Biomass can be described as all materials that was or is a part of a living organism, for renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually listed to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agriculture residues 9e.g Wheat, straw, corn, stover) by products of industrial processes (e.g sawdust, sugar cane, bagase, pulp residues, distillers, grains0, or dedicated energy crops (e.g Switchgrass, sorghum, Mischanthus, short rotation woody crops). This paper describes robust application.
Keywords:Biomass, Application, Renewable energy, Residues.
Table Of Content
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Table of contents v
- Abstract vi
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 General issues on Biomass
- 1.3 Peculiarities
- 1.4 Environmental aspects
- 2.0 Product gas
- 2.1 Biosynthesis
- 3.0 Description of biomass
- 3.1 Biomass gasification
- 3.2 Future biomass technologies
- 3.3 Present Biomass market
- 3.4 Future Development
- 4.0 power Generation
- 4.1 Co- firing
- 4.2 Transportation
- 4.4 Fischer- Tropsch synthesis
- 4.5 Methanol
- 5.1 Conclusion
The central bank is the only financial institution established and charged with the day to day management and control of the nation’s monetary affairs, the supervisor and co-ordination of banking and financial activities of the country. Ever country has only one central bank whose motive is not to make profitable but to carry out the major financial operations of the central government of a country.
In the world, the central bank stands at the apex of every country’s financial system, acts as the only issuer of the country’s legal currency, and acts as the government representative in the banking industry. However, in West Africa before independent, the West African Currency Board was the highest financial institution established by the Colonial masters in various parts of the British Colonial empire to act as a quasi-central bank.
This board was meant to control the issue of currency in the member countries and to keep currencies of West African Nations at per (Standard) with the pound sterling. But the operation of this board especially the money supply function was too rigid and inelastic to allow for fast economic development of the countries concerned.
Also, it made the provision additional currency unreasonable burden some for the colonial territory and this situations clearly called for the establishment of the central bank to hasten economic growth and to play the role of promoting economic development and capital formation, and ensure the ger mination of growth of the vital institutions and practice that encourage savings mobilization.
With the dissolution of the West African Currency Board (WACB) and the submission of report by Mr. T.B Loynis in August 1957, the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) was established in 1958 as a state bank that undertakes the major financial operation of the government.
The (CBN) promotes the development of the monetary and financial mechanism appropriate to Nigeria’s need, issues and centrals the Nigerian currency, acts as the Federal Government Agent by Managing the public dept and floating short and long term credits, and opening a local channel of investment for the commercial banks. Also, it plays the role of controlling banks by directing their credit facilities to suit the economy. This role is achieved throught the credit guideline of the central bank.
1.1 Background Of The Study
The background of the study is concerned on the operations of the central bank and its impact in the economic development of Nigeria. The central bank is considered as the apex bank and head of the country’s banking system.
It is owned by the government which appoints its board of directors and its governor. In comparison, the central bank of Nigeria can be compared with the bank of England which is the apex bank or the Federal Reserve System that undertakes central banking in the United States.
The central bank of Nigeria performs the function of carrying out the country’s monetary policy. In order to perform this function, the (CBN) must work closely with the state and have some means of influencing the credit policy of the commercial banks.
Moreover, the (CBN) does not aim at making profit for itself nor to compete against the commercial banks in the state for ordinary banking business, but to supply cash required by commercial banks and to assist in the clearing of cheques.
1.2 The Statement Of The Study
The issue of the role of the (CBN) in influencing the economic development of Nigeria is an important issue which has become a problem to the entire nation.
Despite the fundamental and principle role of the central bank as the controller of the monetary policies of the country, yet a lot of interviewing variables have stopped in making it difficult for economic principles to operate in the Nigerian financial system. The central bank of Nigeria has a distinct role to play in directing the nations economic development, but unfortunately this can not be achieved because of the human factors as well as the un-conductive environmental factors.
The density of bribery and corruption as well as the galloping and spiral inflationary situation more or less neutralize the influence that the central banks exercise in the economic development of Nigeria. This project work will go in depth to identify the problems encountered by the central bank of Nigeria in the economic development of the country with a view to find;
- The role of the (CBN) to the entire economy particularly to financial sector.
- The extent that the central bank has helped in the development of the Nigeria financial sector.
- Whether the development of the Nigeria financial sector has contributed immensely to the development of other sectors of the economy.
It is on this note that this project is set to look into the role of CBN in the development of the financial subsector.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The purposes of this study are to;
- Find out the role of the Central Bank of Nigerian in the development of the Nigerian economy.
- Find out how the money deposit banks comply with the Central Bank of Nigeria’s rules in the controlling the money supply and credit creation.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the roles of CBN in the development of financial sector?
- Are the money deposit banks complied to the central bank’s rules in controlling the money supply and credit creation?
- HO: The CBN plays no role in development of Nigeria financial subsector.
Hi: The CBN plays Significant roles in developments of financial subsector. In Nigeria economy, (CBN) has provided enough currencies, price stabilized and inflation controlled.
- Ho: Money and Deposit Banks do not comply with CBN rules in controlling money supply.
Hi: The money deposit banks comply with the (CBN) rules for the controlling money supply.
1.6 The Delimitation Of The Study
The delimitation of the study will take into account of extent the central bank of Nigeria can spared its tentacles in solving the economic problems of the country.
The delimitation of this study will also deal with the extent the researcher can read. In some circumstances, the researcher will make effort through appropriate questionnaires to get technical and administrative staff as well as other categories of staff particularly, the senior and junior staff who have direct access to the central bank operational machinery.
Finally, the researcher who is a worker in the (CBN) will volunteer answers to some of the questions that might be thrown on them.
1.7 The Significance Of The Study
Like we said earlier the aim of this study is to find the role which the central bank of Nigeria plays in the development of the Nigeria financial sector, and the importance of the financial sector in Nigeria.
The purpose of having the central bank in Nigeria is to influence and control the conducted of commercial banks and other closely related institutions in the country. This study presents an overview of the Nigerian financial sector, its importance as an engine and growth. However, without the financial sector in Nigeria and any other country of the world, there will be no growth in other sectors of that country since no nation, business firm or individual can live without funds.
If Nigeria should live without the financial sector, it means that all revenue collected and fund generated within it will be scattered and fund will not be accounted for since there is no sector managing it. On the other hand, if Nigeria has a financial sector without having an institution at the apex to control it, there will also be a problem.
Therefore, the financial sector should not be overlooked in any nation as well as the central bank of that nation. Notwithstanding, it should be noted that the central bank of Nigeria has made great achievement in the development of the Nigeria economy.
1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms
1. Bank Advance:
This item in the balance sheet of the been accumulated up to a certain period.
2. Accrued Interest:
this represents interest on a security which has been accumulated up to a certain period.
3. Bank Acceptance:
This is a bill of exchange that has been accepted by a bank.
4. Bank Charges:
These are charges made by the bank to a customer for the management of his or her account. They are also known as bank commission.
5. Collateral Security:
This is a kind of asset required by the bank from the people to whom they lend the money to.
6. Financial Intermediaries:
These are all financial instructions that engage in some form of borrowing and lending.
This refers to the relationship between profit and the resources employed in earning it (profit). The resultant figure is usually express as a percentage.
8. Specialized Banks:
These include commercial, merchant, mortgage and other financial institution except (CBN).
This is the part of a company’s earnings that is actually paid out to equity share holders as a return on their investment.
This is the effective use of raw materials and other materials by the banks.
I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.