Studies On The Effect Of Garlic And Honey On Some Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

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Studies On The Effect Of Garlic And Honey On Some Upper Respiratory Tract Infections


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effect of garlic and honey on some upper respiratory tract infections. In Nigeria, different local communities use mixture of honey and garlic to treat coughing and other respiratory tract infections by traditional methods. Objective of the present study was to assess the antibacterial properties of mixture of honey and garlic extract against upper respiratory tract infection causing bacteria. The antibacterial activity of mixture of garlic extract and honey was evaluated by methods such as agar well diffusion method to observe zone of inhibition around the well as well as broth dilution method to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts against the tested organisms. Five respiratory tract infection causing bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Staphylococcus aureus were included in the study. Chloramphenicol was used as standard antibiotics. Mean inhibition zones of mixture of garlic extract and honey was significantly (P 0.05) greater than honey alone against the tested pathogens. The range of zone of inhibitions of mixture of garlic and honey against the tested bacteria was between 25 to 31 mm whereas the range of inhibition zone of chloramphenicol was from 9 to 30 mm. The inhibition capacity of mixture of garlic extract and honey was greater than the commercial antibiotics such as Co-trimoxazole, Cefoxitin and Erythromycin. Finally it may be possible to conclude that, mixture garlic extract and honey has the capacity to treat upper respiratory tract infection.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Collection and Extraction of Honey
  • 3.3 Collection and Preparation of Garlic Extract
  • 3.4 Bacterial Isolates
  • 3.5 Determination of Antibacterial Activity Honey and Garlic Mixture Using Agar Well Diffusion Method
  • 3.6 Determination of MIC and MBC
  • 3.7 Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Results and Discussion

Chapter Five:

Summary and Conclusions

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • References 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URI or URTI) are the illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx and larynx. This commonly includes: tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and the common cold (Jean-Baptiste de Panafieu P, 2007). Upper respiratory tract infection is usually caused by 150 serologically different viruses, the major share of the rhino viruses all of which belong to picrona virus family of small RNA viruses. Other than viruses certain bacterias also causes upper respiratory tract infection, this includes group A streptococci, corynebacterium diphtheria, N. meningitides, Myc. Pneumonia, N. gonorrhea, H. influenza, pneumococcus, and staphylococcus aureus (Treacy B, 2004)
Upper respiratory tract infection is a communicable disease and is transmitted via respiratory droplets or by virus-contaminated hands. Coughing and sneezing facilitates the spread of infection. (Rechsteiner EA, et al., National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2006).

Upper respiratory tract infection involves direct invasion of the mucosa lining the upper airway by the pathogens. After inoculation, virus and bacteria encounter several barriers, including physical, mechanical, humoral, and cellular immune defenses. Patients with suboptimal humoral and phagocytic immune function are at increased risk for contracting a URI. (Anne Meneghetti MD, 2011).

The manifestations of upper respiratory tract infections are nasal discharge which is watery or mucoid in nature, nasal congestion, low grade fever, malaise, cough, anorexia and sneezing (Tietze KJ, 2004). The allopathic medicine uses antibiotics to cure respiratory tract infections. However, the health authorities have been discouraging physicians to prescribe antibiotics to treat common upper respiratory tract infections because antibiotics do not significantly reduce recovery time for these viral infections. They also adopted the strategy of treating upper respiratory infections with rest, increased fluids, etc. However, the use of honey and garlic mixture has been said to significantly contributed to the cure of upper respiratory tract infections.

Honey and Garlic’s current principal medicinal uses are to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease by lowering blood pressure and cholesterol, as an antimicrobial, and as a preventive agent for cancer. The active constituents are several complex sulfur-containing compounds that are rapidly absorbed, transformed and metabolized. Pooled data from numerous randomized trials antibacterial effects, but these have not been evaluated in controlled trials in humans. Epidemiologic data, in vitro studies and animal data suggest that garlic may help prevent some solid tumors, but no randomized trials have evaluated its effectiveness as a therapeutic agent in oncology. There are no studies evaluating its effectiveness or safety in treating children or pregnant or nursing women. Garlic is safe when eaten as food, though in some sensitive persons, it can cause gastrointestinal irritation, and of course, halitosis. Prolonged topical use has been associated with moderate burns. Until the first part of the 20th century, honey dressings were part of everyday wound care practice.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In many developing countries, respiratory tract infection (RTI) is considered as one of the major public health problems leading to morbidity and mortality [1]. Over 50 million deaths recorded globally each year due to RIT which occurs in community as well as health care settings [2]. The most common bacteria which cause upper respiratory tract infection are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae [4]. These above listed bacteria are frequently resistant to commonly used antibiotics like ampicillin, amoxicillin and kanamycin [5]. Due to this fact, recently scientists are giving more attention to the extraction active biological compounds from natural species used in herbal medicine [6].

Honey is a natural product which has been used by different cultures for its medicinal value [7]. It has been used as an antibacterial agent to treat ulcers, bed sores, skin infections, wounds [8] and recently it used to treat respiratory tract infections [9]. on the other hand, Garlic has been used to combat infectious disease by various societies throughout the world [10]. It has a great antibacterial capacity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria [11,12]. It was also effective against antibiotics resistance as well as toxin producing bacterial strains [11]. Its extracts also show maximum inhibitory activities against different species that causes pneumonia [13].
In Nigeria, honey and garlic are used extensively as a foods and traditional medicines. So, it is desirable to determine their antimicrobialactivities. Different local communities use mixture of honey and garlic traditionally to treat coughing and other respiratory tract infection. So, based on the traditional knowledge and practice of communities, this study was design to assess the antimicrobial potentials of honeys and garlic’s against upper respiratory tract infection causedby pathogens.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the effect of garlic and honey on some upper respiratory tract infections. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Assess the antibacterial properties of mixture of honey and garlic extract against upper respiratory tract infection.
  2. Examine the antibacterial activity of mixture of garlic extract and honey.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the antibacterial properties of mixture of honey and garlic extract against upper respiratory tract infection?
  2. What is the antibacterial activity of mixture of garlic extract and honey?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is carried out to assess the use and effectiveness of honey and garlic extract in the cure of upper respiratory tract infection. The study will further unveil the antibacterial properties of mixture of honey and garlic extract that fights against upper respiratory tract infection causing bacteria. This study will also be beneficial to scholars and researchers as this study will serve as a reference point for further studies and future research.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study seek to assess the effect of garlic and honey on some upper respiratory tract infections. The study will be delimited to five respiratory tract infection causing bacteria including; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Staphylococcus aureus.


Chapter Five


Summary and Conclusions

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the effect of garlic and honey on some upper respiratory tract infections. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of garlic and honey on some upper respiratory tract infections.The study specifically was aimed at assessing the antibacterial properties of mixture of honey and garlic extract against upper respiratory tract infection, and examine the antibacterial activity of mixture of garlic extract and honey.
The study adopted the agar well diffusion method to observe zone of inhibition around the well as well as broth dilution method to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts against the tested organisms. Five respiratory tract infection causing bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Staphylococcus aureus were included in the study. Chloramphenicol was used as standard antibiotics.


5.3 Conclusions

The traditional use of honey alone, garlic alone or mixture of both against respiratory tract infection causing bacteria was evident in this study. Honey and garlic are used as food additives and supplements in daily diet. Nutritionally both of them are very useful. As it was stated on the result, their antibacterial properties were also effective, so it may be possible to use them as an alternative treatment method to treat URTI or can be used together with the pharmaceutically prescribed antibiotics. It is also evident Pneumonia is a common disease in our country so including garlic and honey in our diet may help to minimize the epidemic.


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