The Determination Of The Activities And Specificity Of Enzymes In Fermentation Of Starch – From Maize

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

The Determination Of The Activities And Specificity Of Enzymes In Fermentation Of Starch – From Maize


Abstract


The Anatomy of this project write-up encompasses the ordinary look of enzymes as organic molecules, rather it sheds more light into the comprehensive view and determination of the catalytic and specific activity enzymes particularly- DIASTASE, MALTASE and ZYMASE can exploit in industrial application, also critically important is the selective ways of providing fundamental data which allows the society-particularly small-scale brewers to understand and exploit the chemistry of fermentation by enzymes. The method employed in this project involves three processes namely.

  1. The preparation of the enzymes by fermentation
  2. The preparation of the starch substrate from maize
  3. The overall process development involving both the products of the 1st and 2nd processes.

The results of the  method and procedures employed in this project are. That enzyme activities in biochemical processes involves catalysis- through binding of the enzyme molecule and the substrates. Finally, all enzymes in fermentation of starch whose catalytic properties rely on their molecular structure and arrangement are stabilized by interactions between their constituents. This is conclusively evident in the chemistry of the fermentation process in starch which is later discussed and highlighted in this write-up.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Background Information
  • 1.2 Aim of the Study
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Statement of Problem

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature Review
  • 2.2 Chemistry of Fermentation
  • 2.3 The Role of the Enzymes

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Materials and Methodology
  • 3.1 Materials and equipments
  • 3.2 Methodology and procedures
  • 3.3 The Process Development
  • 3.4 Preparation of the Enzymes by Fermentation
  • 3.5 Preparation of the Starch Substrate from Maize Flowchart representing the Overall Process Development.

Chapter Four

  • Results
  • Conclusion

Chapter Five

  • Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

Background Information

The primary aim of this project is center on the determination of the catalytic and specific activities of enzymes in fermentation of starch from maize. These enzymes are DIATASE, MALTASE and ZYMASE. This determination study is made possible through certain unique properties which these collections of enzymes possess.

Speaking in concrete terms, ENZYMES serve as bio-catalysts, speeding up chemical reactions, like those involved with fermentation of starch. Enzyme molecules accelerate the rate of reactions, often by many orders of magnitude, thereby allowing the substance involved undergo a chemical breakdown.

Enzymes in fermentation of starch go about their work in an ASSEMBLY-LINE fashion; each enzyme performing a specific task at a particular stage of the fermentation process. For instance, the enzyme-MALTASE, breaks down MALTASE into two isomeric fermentable sugars namely Glucose and Fructose; thereby preparing another stage for another enzyme to act during the fermentation process. Enzymes in fermentation process especially in starch; perform their work at blinding speed.

A single molecule of enzyme can catalyze thousands of chemical reactions per second. This is because enzymes in fermentation reaction particularly in starch; have a marked ability to accelerate the reaction and also to promote the specific processes involved under the chemically mild conditions which prevails in the fermentation process.
In all ways, these enzymes readily make essentials physiochemical contributions to the fermentation process by virtue of their organized and involved three dimensional structure which reveals certain regions on the enzyme surface where small solute molecules or ions can bind reversibly. Such solutes are called LIGANDS; a farm borrowed from Organometalic Chemistry.

There may be many ligard binding sites on the surface of an enzyme, but each site usually possesses the power to bind only a limited range of ligards, by virtue of the character of the site. The term “CHARACTER” is there used to cover not only the three-dimensional shape of the site but also its charge characteristics and to what degree if is hydrophobic or hydrophilic.

The character of a binding site is clearly a function of the amino acid side chains that are brought together there by the folding of the polypeptide chain. Enzymes are distinguished from other protein molecules by having ACTIVE SITES. The substrate binds at the active site of its enzyme in much the same way as other ligards might do, but once bound there, a chemical reaction ensues because of the special nature of the enzyme active site in respect to their catalysis and specificity in fermentation bioprocess.


Aims of the Study

The aim of this project is to determine the catalytic and specific activities of enzymes in fermentation of starch-from maize.


Objectives of the Study

  1. To prepare the enzymes through the microbial fermentation of malt/sermination barley extracts in a culture media and a seed fomenter.
  2. To show the chemistry of fermentation process in starch by enzymic conversion.
  3. To show the relevance and usefulness of enzymes in industrial fermentation.

Limitation of the Study

The scope of this project work is limited to the determination of the catalytic and specific activities of enzymes in fermentation bioprocess of starch from maize.


Significance of the Study

The importance of the work is centered on the catalytic and specific activities of enzymes in fermentation of starch for industrial usage.


Statement of Problem

The cost of the enzymes and the inability of small scale brewers to understand and exploit the chemistry of fermentation by enzymic action.


Chapter Five


Conclusion

There are many products that are derived from the process of fermentation and the use of enzymes, alcohol is one product produced by enzymes and fermentation. The process of brewing and wine making produces alcohol. Other products include, cheese, yoghurt and bread. The microorganisms and enzymes cause the release of carbon dioxide and lactic acid. Fermentation changes the characteristics of the food by the action of the enzymes produced by bacteria, mould and yeasts, which can occur in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Fermentation can yield acetic acid, lactate, ethanol and other simple products.


The Determination Of The Activities And Specificity Of Enzymes In Fermentation Of Starch – From Maize


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