The Antibacterial Activity Of Azadarichta Indica (Neem Plant)
The antibacterial effect of Azadirachta indica (neem plant) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella ozanae, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was determined using the agar cup plate techniques. The phytochemical components of A. indica showed the presence of saponin and phlobatanin and the absence of alkaloids, tannis, phenolics, plycosides, flavonoids, and triterpenes, the result showed that the test organisms were susceptible to 500mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 5mg/ml of the plant extract. The minmum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined, the result showed that the MIC and MBC were 5mg and 50mg respectively for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, K. ozanae, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The result of the study suggest that extracts of A. indica could be suitable for the treatment of various infections caused by P. aeruginosa, K. ozanae, S. aureus and E. coli.
Plants contain many biologically active compounds which have potential for development as medicinal agents. Herbal medicines already form the basis of therapeutic use in the developing countries but on recent there has been an increase in the use of herbal medicine in the developed world too (De and Ifeoma, 2002; El-manhood et al, 2010) plants provide alternative strategy in search for new drug. There is a rich abundance of plant reported in traditional medicine to process protective and therapeutic properties (Kayode and Kayode, 2011). It is likely that plants will continue to be a valuable sources of new molecules which may, after possible chemical manipulation, provide new and improve drugs (Shah et al; 2006) Bacterial resistance to antibiotic represents a serious problem for clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry and great efforts are being made to reverse this trend and one of them is the widespread screening of medicinal plant from the traditional system to medicine hoping to get some newer, saver and more effective agents that can be used to fight infectious diseases (Natarian et al, 2003)
Azandirachta indica is one of such medical plants belonging to the meliaceae family and the indigenous to Southern Asia (Akula et al, 2003) Azadirachta indica commonly known as neem has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda Umani and homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine
Neem elaborates a fast array of biologically active compound that are chemically diverse and structurally complex.
More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits and roots and sac bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammations infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory anti-Inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, Antiurcer, antimalaria, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antiocidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties (Talwar et al;1997 Biswas et al 2002; Subapriya and Nagine; 2005).
Objective of the Study
The objective of this study therefore are to determine the phytochemical components of the leaf extract of A. Indica to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Nebsiella Ozanas, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
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