Extraction And Characterization Of Oil From Soybeans

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Extraction And Characterization Of Oil From Soybeans


Abstract


This project was carried out using ten grams of Soybeans seeds that was purchased from a local market in Enugu metropolis. The oil were extracted using solvent extraction method. Two different solvents were used in the extraction namely: Ethane and N-hexane to compare their yield, physical and chemical properties. The extraction was carried out using 320g of size-reduced Soybeans. At the end of the extraction operation, the amount of oil-extracted using N-hexane was observed to be far greater than the amount of oil extracted using ethanol.


Chapter One


Introduction

Extraction other-wise called leaching is the preferential solution of one or more constituents of a solid mixture by contact with a liquid solvent. This unit operation, is one of the oldest in the chemical industries, the have been given many names, depending to some extent upon the technique used for carrying it out extraction of oil from Soybeans seeds can be carried out using any of the two solid-liquid extraction methods namely: mechanical extraction method or the used of solvent other- wise called mass-transfer method. The yield of the second method is higher but contains more impurities than the first method and it requires another unit operation (distillation) in purifying it better.

The success of an extraction and the technique to be used will vary frequently depending upon any prior treatment which may be given to the solid. In some instance small particles of the soluble material are completely surrounded by a matrix of insoluble matter. The solvent must then diffuse into the mass, and the resulting solution must diffuse out before a separation can result. Crushing and grinding of such solids will greatly alliterate the leaching action, since then the soluble portions are made more accessible to the solvent. Seeds like Soybeans seeds and other vegetable seeds are cellular in structure, and the natural products to be leached from this material are usually found inside the cells, if the cell walls remain intact upon exposure to a suitable solvent, the leaching involves osmotic passage of the solute through the cell walls.

This may be slow, but is impractical and sometime undesirable to grind the material small enough to release the contents of individual cells. One constitutes a well-defined class of neutral organic substance, which are essential constituents of all forms of plant and animal life. They are soluble in other and organic solvents but not in water. Commercial oils are however from a relatively few member of the plant and animal kingdom available forms. They are primary a product of agriculture although these is also a considerably production from uncultivated – tropical plants and from mature animals. Oil can be grouped into edible and non-edible depending on the amount of unspecified matters and impurities.

Owing to the fact that the use of oil from crop seed as a major raw materials has increased, in recent years their has been the need for extended and numerous research works based on the extraction of these oil. From its seeds as economically efficiently as possible. The only possible way of obtaining large quality of oil from oil being vegetable or plant materials is by extraction and this could best be achieve using leaching process. This process can be accomplished by a variety of ways but as might be expected its efficiency depends to an extent and obtaining intimate contact between the liquid solvent and the solid containing the solute. Leaching reduces the oil content in the residue to about 0.5-1.5 percent as compared. With about 5-9 percent by mechanical process. The types of solvent available for leeching include 17-hexane, petroleum, ether, benzene ethyl ether etc which are high petroleum fractions. The choice of a solvent for extraction is a function of its volatility and relative volatility for easy separation by distillation. Soybeans oil is used primary in homes for cooking and also as an industrial raw material for other usefully products.


1.2 Aims / Objectives of the Project

To extract oil from Soybeans seeds and compare the yields obtained using different solvents and standard. Also the project is aimed at characterizing the extracted oil by determining the physical and chemical properties of the oil.


Chapter Five


Discussion of Findings, Conclusion / Recommendation

It is a known fact that a good proportion of oil can be extracted from Soybeans seeds by solvent extraction method known as leaching operation. The yield of oil extracted may vary depending on the solvent used in extraction. There are other factors that affect yield (oil yield) in leaching: some of these factors are; agitation, particle size, temperature, time etc. However, the physical and chemical constantly properties of the extracted oil are liner function of the extracting solvent used (Sustansia, 1981).


5.1 Conclusion

In this research project solvent extraction otherwise called leaching (solid-liquid extraction) was employed in the extraction. Leaching can be defined as the preferential separation of one or more constituents of a solid mixture by contact with a solvent.

Ten (10) cups of Soybeans seeds were purchased from a local market and was buried to increase the oil content ration this reduces the water content (moisture content) of the seed. However, the drying operation carried out enhances easy grinding of the seed which was done using a grinding machine producing desired texture of the size reduced seeds.

Two different types of solvent were used in yield of the different solvent extracts. The solvents used are ethanol and 17-hexane in consideration of their chemical stability within the extraction condition, low boiling points, non-toxicity, cheapness and availability. The efficiency of leaching operation and the technique to be used charges much depending on the factors which affect the rate of leaching: agitation, pretreatrnent, temperature/the type of solvent used and the size of the particles.

The preliminary treatment given to the seeds used for this extraction work is of utmost importance since without removal of small particles that are not soybeans seed actually may contribute to the weight (yield) of the oil in the seed, therefore leading to the falsification of oil content determination: Also, this follows by sun-dry which aimed at adjusting the moisture content so that the material or the size reduced particle will not be sticky.

The mixture of the solvent with the size reduced soybeans seed was allowed to stay for about 24hour to ensure intimate contact and enhance yield (oil yield)= After 24 hours, the mixture was filtered (sieved) to separate the solid part otherwise called the cake from the miscella (solvent + oil mixture).

The oil- solvent mixture was separated by applying distillation operation in which heat is applied making the solvent that are volatile to escape into the vapour leaving behind oil as the residue (non-distillable).

It was observed that the separation of 17-hexane extract by distillation was faster than that of ethanol because its lower boiling point and higher volatility.

However, the yield of 17-hexane extract is far higher given rise to more pure oil than the one extracted using ethanol. The colour of the oil extracted using 17-hexanne as extracting solvent is light yellow in colour this is the colour of soybeans oil. In contrast the colour of the oil extracted using ethanol as extracting solvent is brownish in colour. Ethanol is not a good solvent for oil extraction. It was used in this research work to prove the fact that ethanol is a bad solvent for oil extraction and also to compare its extract from that of 17- hexane extract.

The colour change of ethanol extract was as a result of the fact that ethanol bleached the pigments in the size- reduced soybeans. The cause of the, colour change or bleach ability of ethanol is as a result of its flask point and polarity.

However, in this research work, 480g of size reduced soybeans seed was mixed with 1.5litres of ethane! white only 32Qg was mixed or soaked with 1 litre of 17-hexane. Upon this difference in amount of size reduced soybeans and volume of solvents used, the yield of 17-hexane used as extracting solvent was more than that of ethanol. In fact, the oil extracted using ethanol is negligible.


5.3 Recommendation

If the oil is intended to be consumed as food, that of 17-hexane extract is recommended while that of ethanol extract may not be good for consumption as food because of its colour, impurity etc. both extracts are recommended for industrial uses such as in making of soap, candle paints and other down steam products. In overview, extracting solvents should not be toxic, reactive, corrosive etc.

In extraction of oil for both Industrial and domestic use, 17-hexane is highly recommended as extracting solvent. In the other way round, ethanol should not be used as extracting solvent.


5.4 Discussion

In this research project solvent extraction was used in the extraction. Two solvent were used namely; 17-hexane and ethanol respectively. At the end of the whole processes, it was deduced that ethanol is a bad solvent for oil extraction while 17-hexane remains the best solvent so far for oil extraction. This deduction was as a result of poor yield, colour change of the extract, low purity (iodine value) of ethanol extract. Moreover, the physical and chemical constants of ethanol extract and deviated wild from standard values while that of 17-hexane conforms closely to standard.


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