The Production Of Laundry Starch From Cassava Tubers

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

The Production Of Laundry Starch From Cassava Tubers


Abstract


This work is aimed at the production of laundry starch, using locally sourced raw material (cassava tuber), by extraction of the starch granules from the tubers, 80kg of the harvested fresh cassava tubers were peeled and washed twice to remove dirt and earth. The peeled cassava tubers were re-weighed. 75kg of the peeled tubers was grated manually using a locally made grater to form mash. Clean tap water was added to the mash and stirred. The mixture was sieved off using a mash of 0.25vm in the water to remove the long fibres. The filtrate was allowed to sediment for two hours, the supernatant was then decanted, esterifies to deodourize it and dried at normal temperature of 300C under the sun for 3 days. Another batch was dried at 550C in the oven. The laundry starch extracted was whitish and powdery in nature.

The comparism of the physical chemical characteristics of local and the imported laundry starch such as the colour, crispness and easy flow ironing was found out to be the same. The starch when applied to the fabric and ironed was very smooth, this therefore recommends that good patronage will lead to the emergence of small scale industries which will give employment to many jobless youths and equally generate revenue for the country.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Carbohydrate
  • 1.2 Nature of laundry starch
  • 1.3 Aims and objectives of study
  • 1.4 Statement of problem
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significances of study
  • 1.7 Limitations of work

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Material For The Production
  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Method
  • 3.3 Chart for cassava starch processing

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Result

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Discussion/Recommendations
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • Reference

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate is defined as a poly hydroaldehydes or poly hydroxy ketones or substances that field this on hydrolysis. They are called carbohydrate (hydrate carbon) because they contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same proportion as in water. Carbohydrates have a general formular (CH2O) n. where n, shows that it is a giant compound.

In terms of chemical properties it also contain nitrogen or sulphur in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are classified based on sugar molecules it contains and this classification is based into four groups. Monosacharide, which hydrolyzed into simple sugar molecules, Disaccharide which is formed by joining together of two molecules of sugar by glycosidic bonds. Oligosaccarides, which and hydrolysis yield 2 to 6 molecules of monosaccharides; polysaccharides are very long chain or polymers of monosaccharides.

Polysaccharides are starch, cellulose and glycogen, the most digestible polysaccharide. In plant, starch is polymer of glucose.


1.2 Nature of Laundry Starch

Laundry starch is a white crystalline substance that is used for stiffening of fabric before ironing. Starch is a heterogeneous material composes of the glucose polymers, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which accounted for about 80% of the starch of a plant cell is a linear polymer of glucose molecule connected by a glycosidic bonds between C-1 glucose molecule and C-4 of second glucose. Amylopectin is a highly branched amylose in which the braches are attached to C-6 hydroxyl group by α (1-6) glycosidic bonds (caret and Denniston 1982), also stated that the main chain consists of α (1-4) glycosidic bonds. Each branch consists of 20-25 glucose units.

There are many sources of starchy food used in different parts of the world. They are maize starch, rice starch, wheat starch, potato starch, and cassava starch etc.

Nathan (1976) stated that cassava tuber is most available source of starch. There are many species of cassava available, but the specie manihotutilisma is widely known for its economic importance. Cassava is believed to be a nature of South America and belong to the family euphobiacea. Cassava is also known as tapioca, madioca and tucca plant in many part of the world because of its economic importance.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

Aims

This research work is aimed at the production of laundry starch from locally sourced cassava tubers.

Objectives
  1. To encourage the growth of local industries.
  2. To encourage the use of locally produced starch, thereby reducing importation of any type of starch product.

1.4 Statemen of Problem

Individuals spend reasonable amount of money on imported starch. This action has negative effect on the growth of small-scale industries, it is hoped that when the laundry starch is produced locally, it will not only generate money country, but also employment for many jobless youths.


1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO : Locally made laundry starch from cassava tubers is of the same quality when compared to the imported ones.
  • H1 : Locally made laundry starch from cassava tubers is not of the same quality when compared to the imported ones.

1.6 Significance of Study

Laundry starches are of economic importance in our societies. They are used to strengthen, fabrics textiles industries, and also in pharmaceutical industries.


1.7 Limitation of Work

This work is limited to the production of dry powdered starch from locally sourced cassava tubers.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion and Conclusion

The viscosity obtained from this local production when compared to other available brands is the same in action but differ in texture. The locally produced starch has lumpy texture, which makes it coarse and hard, for the preservation of laundry starch against microorganisms growing on it. It must be dried in an oven at 550C for four hours, in the production of laundry starch, the cassava tubers, if soaked in water for a day or overnight will introduce some odour, which is unpleasant, to avoid this, perfumes are added to make it attractive. From the above discussions, it stands out to reason that starch production has systematically entrenched itself as a commercially feasible undertaking, which make use of our locally available material.

Moreover, government should always seize every opportunity to make citizens appreciate locally made products as they are of the same quality with the foreign ones, both in viscosity, crispiness and easy flow ironing.


5.1 Recommendation

Having carried out this project, we recommend that locally produced laundry starch and other available brand are almost the same in action but differ in texture. The degree of stiffness required varies with personal preference if more or less starch should be used. There are easy flow when ironing the local laundry starch and also the imported one. Both of them have crispiness; again the local laundry starch can be purchased at a very low cost. Since the local laundry starch and the imported one can do the same work and obtain similar result, it is therefore advisable to make use of our local product.


The Production Of Laundry Starch From Cassava Tubers


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