Production Of Emulsion Paint Using Dyed Cassava Starch As Pigment

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Production Of Emulsion Paint Using Dyed Cassava Starch As Pigment


Abstract


The aim of this research work is to produce emulsion paint using dyed cassava starch as pigment. The pigment used in the paint formulation is a combination of dyes and other constituents of the paint. The paint produced shows good properties such as good opacity, resistance, good viscosity and quick drying. The results have shown that the paint produced can be used for both indoor and outdoor painting. The dye industry in Nigeria should be reviewed so that cheaper dyes can be gotten for the production of these paints. Considering the high cost of importing or buying pigment from the paint market thereby making the paint more costly in the market, there are need to research and observe the usefulness of locally sourced materials in paint production.


Chapter One


Introdction

1.1 Background Study

Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consists of a pigment suspended or paste vehicle such as oil or water. However paint is often referred to as any material that may be applied as a continuous layer to a surface. It is commonly used to protect, colour, or provide texture to objects. With a brush or roller or spray gum, paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metals or stone. (www.madehow.com/paint.html)
Paint has been recognized to provide aesthetic and protective requirements. Although its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, it is also a form of decoration.

The components of paints are pigments, vehicles (solvents), extenders, binders and additives. However not all paints contain all the components e.g. gloss paint do not contain extenders which are organic coarse particle materials. The pigment gives the paint its colour, solvents makes it easier to apply, resins helps it to dry and additives adds to everything from fillers to antifungicidal agents. Hundreds of different pigments both natural and synthetic exist. The basic white pigment is titanium-di-oxideT_i O_(2 ), selected for its excellent concealing properties and black pigment is commonly made from carbon black. Other pigments used to make paints includes iron oxide and caldium sulfide for red, metallic salts for yellow and oranges and iron blue and chrome yellow for blue and green.

Solvents are various low viscous volatile liquid. They include petroleum, mineral spirits and aromatic solvents such as benzol, alcohols, esters, ketones and acetones. The natural resins commonly used are linseed coconut and soybean oil, while alkyd, acrylics, epoxies and polyurethane number among the most synthetic resins. Additives serve many purposes. Some like calcium carbonate and aluminum silicate are simply fillers that give the paint body and substance without changing its properties. Other additives produce certain desired characteristics in paint such as the thixotropic agents that gives paints its smooth texture, driers anti-settling agents, anti-skinning agents, defoamers, and a host of others that enables paint to cover well and last long.

Volatile organic carbons are (VOCs) are usually produced as a by-product during the production of paint when conventional chemicals are used. Inhaling these chemicals may pose serious health problems to both producers and users. Hence, serious care should be taken to avoid health hazards poised on both producers and consumers at the point of application.

Paint is generally custom made to fit the needs of industrial customers. For example, one might be especially interested in a fast- drying paint, while another might desire a paint that provides good coverage over a long life time. Paint intended for the customer can be custom made. Paint manufacturers provide such a wide range of colours that it is impossible to keep large quantities of each on hand. To meet a request for different colours of paint e.g. aquamarine, canary yellow or maroon, the manufacturer will select a base that is appropriate for the deepness of the colour required ( lighter paints bases will have high amount of titanium-di-oxide, the white pigment while darker tones will have less.). then according to pre determined formula, the manufacturer can introduce various pigments from calibrated cylinders to obtain proper colour.

We have different variant or varieties of paints. Some of them are as follows.

  • Primer: is a preparatory coating put on materials before applying the paint itself. The primed surface ensures better adhesion of the paint, thereby increasing the durability of the paint and providing improved protection for the painted surface.
  • Emulsion paint: Are water based paints in which the paint materials are dispersed in a liquid that consists mainly of water.
  • Flat finish: these are paints that are generally used on ceilings or walls that are in a bad shape. The finish is used for hiding imperfections in walls and it is economical in effectively covering relatively great areas.
  • Egg shell finish: It has some sheen supposedly like that of an egg shell. The finish provides great washability.
  • Vanish: They are paints without pigments. They provide protective coating without changing the colour of the surface.
  • Other variants includes glaze, pearl (satin), wood stain, semi gloss. Etc

1.2 Problem Statement

The problem statements of this research work are as follows

  1. Due to government policy on ban of imported goods there is need to use locally made material in the production of goods and services.
  2. The cost of importing paint pigments are becoming expensive due to increase in dollar, thereby increasing the cost of paint production.
  3. Beside cost, there is a need to research and observe the usefulness of locally sourced materials in paint production

1.3 Aim of the Research

  • The aim of the research work is to produce emulsion paint using dyed cassava starch as pigment.

1.4 Objectives of the Research

The objectives of this research work are as follows

  1. To carry out quality control measures on the paint produced.
  2. To reduce production cost/seek for alternative method of production.
  3. To compare the quality of the paint made with dyed cassava starch pigment to those made with normal conventional chemical pigment.

1.5 Scope of the Research

The scope of this project research work is organized to cover all vital aspects of emulsion paint formulation and production using dyed cassava starch as raw material as a replacement for the conventional chemical pigment used in emulsion paint production. However, emphasis will be laid on the systematic procedure for processing the local pigment used.


1.6 Relevance of Study

Considering the high cost of importing or buying pigment from the paint market thereby making the paint more costly in the market thereby causing economic constraint and untold hardship to consumers, there are need to look at our local materials and know if we can get some of these raw materials needed for the production of these paints, materials like cassava starch. Thereby reducing the cost of production. It can also be a source of income to our local cassava farmers. It can also be introduced in our higher institutions as a form of entrepreneurship course so as to allow student choose paint manufacturing as an occupation after school. This work promotes the utilization of local content.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

From the analysis of the result of the various test conducted, the work has shown that there was a good compatibility between the pigment (dyed cassava starch) and the other constituents of the paint during paint formulation which accounts for the good opacity of the paint formulated. The paint produced showed good properties such as good opacity, resistance, good viscosity and quick drying. The paint was found to have moderate viscosity which accounts for good flow properties.The results have shown that the paint produced can be used for both indoor and outdoor painting. Further test can be carried out to improve the properties of the paint
Although the paint made shows good properties, the cost of dye compared to normal pigment makes it very costly to use, so further research on dye should be carried out.


5.2 Recommendations

  1. Awareness should be made known on the importance of cassava as a raw materials for various production processes e.g production of flour, paint pigments etc.
  2. The dye industry in Nigeria should be reviewed so that cheaper dyes can be gotten for the production of the paint.
  3. Further work should be done in this research using another type of cheaper dye and varying the concentration.

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