Comparative Effectiveness Of Organic Manure And N.P.K Fertilizer On Soil Properties And Shoot Dry Matter Yield Of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta)

Project and Seminar Material for Soil Science

Comparative Effectiveness Of Organic Manure And N.P.K Fertilizer On Soil Properties And Shoot Dry Matter Yield Of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta)


Chapter One


Introduction

Cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous roots, a major source of carbohydrates. It is a shrub with an average height of one meter, and has a palmate leaf formation. Cassava belongs to the family of rubber plants with a white latex flowing out of its wounded stem and leaf stalk. The stem is the planting material from which grows the roots and shoots. Cassava produces bulky storage roots with a heavy concentration of carbohydrates, about 80 percent (Babaleye, 1999).

The shoots grow into leaves that constitute good vegetable rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals. New knowledge of the biochemistry of the crop has proved that the proteins embedded in the leaves are equal in quality to the protein in egg (Philip, 1984). Cassava leaves and roots, if properly processed can therefore provide a balanced diet protecting millions of African children against malnutrition. One of the major constraints to increased cassava production in Nigeria is declining soil fertility due to continuous cropping and erosion losses.

The use of chemical fertilizers alone to sustain high crop yield has not been quite successful due to enhancement of soil acidity, nutrient leaching, degradation of soil physical condition and organic matter status. Interest in the use of organic manures is increasing day by day. Malcolm (2011) reported that organic manures are fertilizer compound that contain one or more kinds of organic matter. The ingredients may be animal or vegetable matter or a combination of the two. It is possible to purchase commercial brands of organic rich fertilizer as well as prepare organic fertilizer at home by building a compost heap. Animal manure is a common ingredient in the creation of organic fertilizer.

Organic manure consists of plants and animal residues at various stages of decomposition. Organic manure is responsible for most desirable surface soil structure, promotes a greater proportion of larger pore size, improves water and air relations and reduces erosion by wind and water. It also improves nutrient status of soils, increases the level of organic matter in the soils and gives high residual effect on soil fertility. Roy et al. (1990) reported that animal manures are excellent soil amendments, but very little is applied to cultivated fields in the tropics and sub-tropics.

Although organic matter in most cultivated soil is only 1 – 5% in the top layer of soil (0-25cm) that small amount can modify the soil physical properties. Organic manures are excellent sources of organic matter but relatively low in nutrients; therefore, to obtain optimum yields from continuous cropping, additional nutrients from N.P.K. fertilizers will be needed to compliment organic fertilizer.

However, Akoroda (1990) reported that the use of organic manure and N.P.K. fertilizer supplies appreciable cash income to peasant farmers. Since the majority of farmers active in arable crop production in Nigeria are poor, agricultural practices which are cheaper and are more readily available to them should therefore be introduced to them. The response of cassava (Manihot escullenta) to various types of animals manure and N.P.K. fertilizer applied in combinations are not known to have been investigated in Nigeria.


Objectives of the Study

  1. To access the effectiveness of organic manure and N.P.K. fertilizer on soil properties and shoot dry matter yield of cassava (Manihot escullenta).
  2. To establish the optimum rate of combined use of organic manure and N.P.K. fertilizer for cassava production.

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The effect of organic manure and N.P.K fertilizer on soil properties and shoot dry matter yield of cassava was studied. The major objective of the study was to assess the effect of different animal manure and N.P.K fertilizer on soil properties and shoot dry matter yield of cassava.

The study was carried out at Ikot Abasi Effiom in Akpabuyo L.G.A in Cross River State. The experiment was comprised of eleven (11) treatmentsof sole and combinations of organic manure with N.P.K. The design used was randomized complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment was replicated three times giving a total of 33 plots. The soil properties and the dry matter yield were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Genstat and the means separated by Duncan New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) at 5% level of probability.

The effects of combined use of organic manure with N.P.K fertilizer were superior to the sole application and the control in improving soil condition. From the result, organic manure maintained more favorable soil chemical properties than inorganic fertilizer. Organic carbon, available P, calcium, were more under the organic manure than under the inorganic fertilizer treatment.


5.2 Conclusion

In conclusion, the combined use of organic manure supported plant growth and also created some favorable effects on soil chemical properties. And it also shows that the combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizer increased the shoot dry matter yield of cassava.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the results, it is recommended that combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizer should be practiced for increase and improvement in soil properties since organic manure is environmentally friendly and could be cheaper to obtain by farmers. It is also recommended that the combined use of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure should be practiced mostly where there is nitrogen deficiency in the soil in order to enhance favorable soil environment. The highest shoot dry matter yield of cassava was obtained from the combination of 400kgN/ha of poultry manure and 200kg/ha of N.P.K fertilizer and is therefore recommended.


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