Factors Associated With Prolong Labor Among Women Age 32-45 Years

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Factors Associated With Prolong Labor Among Women Age 32-45 Years

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Prolong labor or dystocia is a common birth complication and constitute the major indication of instrument deliveries and delivery by emergency caesarean section (CS) (J midwifery women health 2007). Prolong labors is inherently difficult and it is discussed ever since freedman introduced the graphic analysis of labor, on labor progress, they propose alternative approach to diagnose a stew progress of labor.

According to freedman’s graphic the latent phase of labor begins with the consent of labor and last until the beginning of the activities phase of labor cervical dilation averages of 35cm per hour at the end of the latent phase the cervix is dilated to about 3cm the latent phase in multigravida is 5.3 hours with upper limit of 4 hours a prolong latent phase does not mean that the active phase will be prolong the active phase begins the end of the latent phase and last until full dilation of the cervix.

The average length of the active phase of multigravida is 2.5 hour with upper limit 17.6 hours the rate of cervical dilation is at least 1.5cm per hours the maximum duration in multigravida at first stage is 20 hours and the second stage maximum is 50 minute friedmon the graphic analysis of labor 195,686. 1568-1575). Worldwide estimate that in every year marathon 500,000 women die on the complication of pregnancy and child birth at least 7 million women survive during child birth suffer serious health problem and further 50 million women suffer adverse health consequences after child birth. The over whelming majority of these death and complication occur in developing countries to support the upgrading of midwife skills so that the country respond to this situation by strengthening maternal and child health services. The training modules of midwifery were developed by world health organization (WHO).

The need for the modules was identified by midwives and teachers of midwives around the world who attend the pre-congress workshop on midwife education under the joint sponsorship of (WHO) the international confederation by midwives (ICM) and united nation of children education found (UNICEF)> the major constraint to prevent labor and obstructed labor is the accurate and easily recognition of possible cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) either before or during labor. Particularly in developing country on women in labor as cephalopelvic disproportion is the most common reason for intervention in course of labor. In many community or society mortify primigravida fatal head is not engaged at onset of labor even through the pelvic is adequate for this reason all women in labor should be monitored closely in order to identity problem or delay at early stage

1.1 Background of the Study

In Africa particularly Nigeria the major cause of mobility is obstructed or obstacle labor in Africa approximately half million women lose their life in every year. The risk of women dying as a result of complication reflected to pregnancy in developing countries can be much as hundred time than women in the western Europe or north American an average of 45 women dies for every 100,000 live birth in the developing world (cited world health organization maternal mobility rate 1991). This is the reason why it arouse my interest to study deep and search why prolong labor becoming common and the possible remedy in overcoming the problem in Badikko community. Because the goal of every pregnant woman is to deliver a healthy baby to a healthy mother more over this not always the case is due to several factors.

These factors may include inherit in the mother condition or the abnormalities in the baby care due to ignorance or over confidence seeking care from Untrained personnel or non conductive environment where facilities for emergency intervention are not closely (Dr. Tayo). Normal labor defines as uterine contraction that occur with frequency intensity and enforcement of the cervix (Young.12.2001) while prolong labour is said if women has been in spontaneous activities phase of labour with rapture membrane over 12 hours. The active phase of labour start from cervical dilation of 4cm. How ever the determining as on set of labour is nvery subjective by mother relatives (Dr. Tayo Abiara).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Prolong labour account for high rate of morbidity and mortality among women age 32 to 45 years of age. It is apparent that some people are either aware or ignorant of the damaging effect on their health due to prolong labour.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To find out how to reduce the rate of maternal mortality
  2. To identify the knowledge of women on the effect of prolonged labour.
  3. To identify how to have a safe motherhood
  4. To identify on how to encourage women and community to attending antenatal care.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study will encourage mother to know the effect of prolong labour and the measure to be taken in order to prevent the occurrence

1.5 Scope of the Study

The study will focus on enlightening traditional birth attendant and women of child bearing age o the effect of prolong labour for the are among people that should know about the prevalence of prolonged labour on that will help for solving nthe matters.

1.6 Research Questions

  1. What are the effects of prolonged labour?
  2. How do we prevent the occurrence of prolonged labour?
  3. How can maternal mortality rate be reduced?
  4. Why does pregnant women don’t want to attend antenatal care?
  5. How can women deliver successfully and have motherhood?

1.7 Limitation of Study

This study would have been carried out in Kaduna metropolis but was limited to Badikko community due to some factors thus;

Financial constraint:

Due to lack of enough fund for purchasing research material and transportation to the research area, the researcher find it difficult to arrive to appropriate findings


The time of this research study was short in view of this the researcher could not cover many area for more fact.

Language Barrier:

The researcher does not speak some of the respondents language thus makes him to use interpreter who could not adequately interpret the information needed well.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations


This chapter significantly deals with the restatement of problems, summary of the study, and discussion of the finding, implication of the finding, and recommendation for further study and limitation of the study and conclusion

Restatement of the problem

Prolong labour account for the high rate of maternal mobility and mortality among women 32-45 years of age. It is apparent (deadly seen) that some people are either aware or ignorant of the damaging effect on health due to prolong labour.

Summary of Procedure

Design of the study is conducted in this population of one hundred (100) cases of prolong labour in PHC Badikko Kaduna South Local Government of Kaduna State.

Sample Techniques

The sample used in this study is simple random sampling . Instrument use for collection of data is questionnaire.

Major Findings

  1. My respondents agree on lack of competent health workers contribute in the causes of maternal mortality rate.
  2. The respondents agree if the pregnant mother usually takes drugs accordingly and maintain mixed diet that may have successful delivery.
  3. The respondent agree that prolong labour can cause maternal and feotal death.

Discussion of Finding

If pregnant mother are attending (ANC) antenatal care receiving health education on the important of ANC, important of their prescribe drugs, mixed diet and important of family planning, important of personal hygiene they deliver successfully so as maternal and feotal death can be reduced during delivery.

Women should register for antenatal care when pregnant and attend regularly for optimal health monitoring and surveillance of the baby’s state of health (cited Dr. Tayo Abiora).

Recommendation of the Study

Parent should discourage easy marriage can cause a lot of problem to their druthers during delivery including prolong labour, and cause redo vaginal fistula. Woman should try to be attending antenatal care when ever pregnant because during antenatal care (ANC) they will be health education about the important of attending ANC. The important of family planning and to know the effect of home delivery.

  1. Husband should allow their wives and give them necessary support to enable them attend antenatal care whenever they are pregnant.
  2. School should also put more emphasis on teaching student to be able to know the right of patient before they become health workers, this will help the health workers to established good rapport with their patient help recovery.
  3. Government should improve health propaganda through media such as radio, television etc.

For the benefit of some women that are ignorant of the important of antenatal care, health worker should be advising pregnant mother that are attending antenatal care to pass all information to those that are not attending antenatal care because it help in successful delivery, that is having safe motherhood.


Obstructed labour remains an important cause of maternal and fetal mortality in many part of the world. Better understanding of obstructed labour will be minimized by ensuring adequate nutrition for girls and young women (British medical bulletin vol: 67 @ 2003).

The factors associated with prolong labour can be reduce when women know the important of attending antenatal care whenever they are pregnant, this prevent them from facing the effect of prolong labour such as maternal and fetal death and have successful delivery at the end of each pregnancy.

Recommendation for Further Study

Some of the health workers don’t want to answer my questionnaires saying that they are busy which is not true.

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