Water Cleaning Techniques

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Water Cleaning Techniques


Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

Water is of the materials require to sustain life. It is naturally, available and covers 70% of th earth’s crust.

With the increasing demand of clean, potable water for domestic and industrial use, developing, locating and maintaining a cost-effective water treatment techniques is imperative.

An obvious and fundamental pollution problem at any location is waste water discharge. Most waste waters contain sanitary wastes generated by employees at the sites, streams from kitchen wastes, gutters, sewage, as well as process waste waters.

Sanitary waste water and ground water can be treated satisfactorily by the municipal waste water treatment system.

Separate treatment is also given to industrial process waste water, the contaminants in industrial discharges that ae commonly regulated include total grease (FOG) PH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and certain metals.

Water treatment or cleaning I vital for industrial and technology is to identify any pathagenic organisms, dissolve and undissolved compainds that constitute hazards for the user and develop high quality, cost effective treatment procedures to meat regulated environmental protection agency (EPA), othe water quality contrial agencies – NAFBAC standards and specification.

Water cleaning technology can be grouped into two, namely; Convection and Non-convectional (advance technology).

The convectional technology is the pre or post cliloroination-filteration systems. The non-convectional or advance technology are the fenton chemistry technique, bio-oxidation system, membrane separation high pressure – centigugal system and ion-exchange system.

In this context, four water cleaning techniques are discussed. The pre/post chlorination / flocculation, sediment filteration, disinfectation and quality testing.

Fentoris chemistry technique uses hydrogen peroxide and an iron catacyst to destory contaminants.

High pressure – centrifugal system which involve the use of centrigufal force of high pressure to kill pathogens and microbes in a reactor contaning the unclean water. And membrane technology.

Finally, EPA standards on water quality are recommended.


1.2 Scope of Project

The project – water cleaning techniques is a esearch work to find out different water cleaning or treatment technologies employed in treating waste waters in order to raise its quality to the highest possible level for human conseumption and industry use.

Three different technology are researched here which include pre/post disintectation. – foltration systems, fentou’s chemistry system and hig pressure oxidative combustion. Centrigufal system EPA water quality standards are also presented.


1.3 Sources of Waste Water

Wastewater can be gotten through two main sources namely:

  • Domestic effluent water
  • Industrial effluent loads

Domestic Effluent Water

Domestic effluent water ae from hetchen, laundry, cavatory, gutters, stagnant water, contaninted streams, rivers. They contain both dissolved and undissolved organic and inorganic substances like paper, decayed mater, polymer pieces, detergent, oil & pigments, metal pieces.

Industrial Effluent Waters

These are wastewater from chemical rpocess industries. They contain dissolved and undissolved poisonous substances corrosive and obrasive fluid like hydrocarbone, flurolarbous, sulphates, sulphides, cyanides, etc.


Chapter Eight


Recommendation / Conclusion

From this research undertook on water cleaning techniques, the technique are ideas for proper raising the quality of water fit for human consumption and for industrial usage.

Notwithstanding, the following conclusion and recommendation are hereby enumerated.

  1. The materials of construction of any water cleaning system should as much as possible corrosion free.
  2. The sedimentation vessel should be kept tidy after any treatment. This would prevent rust, growth of algae microbes and allow conger life span.
  3. The grit in the filtration unit should be washed with clean water periodically and dried after treatment, and repack in the unit for future treatment.
  4. The chlorine dosage should be strictly regulated relative to the volume of water to be treated. This will inadvently prevent the adverse effects of high chlorine concentrations.
  5. Quality testing of water samples should be periodically done in order to see that water quality meets EPA standards.
  6. CPI plants need to be concerned above both indoor spills and outdoor spills into bodies of water. They should check their storage facilities for chemicals.

The primary factors associated with storage problems melude: corrosion of the contained walls due to material incompatability or inadequate maintenance, the absence of a level or weight measurement device, high / low alarms, faulty control logic leading to vessel over filling, lack of proper procedures, improper training of the operating personnel.

Properly designed and instrumented storage system and employee training can minimize release of harmful chemicals into the environment.

EPA should promulgate rules, regulate and monitor the management of water by all quarters with regards to high waters quality standards.

Fenton’s reaction is a good recommended alternatives to traditional remediation techniques. The limitations associated with it do not present serious obstacles to its application.

It is suitable for remediating sites contaminated with acids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, amines, dyes.

The use of chelating agents, electrochemical peroxidation, ultraviolet light are helping move the technology into a wider range of application.

In the oxidation combustion – centrifug technique, high pressure should be maintained.

The pressure shall not be reduced by component installations (reduced pipeline size, valves or filters) as such may influence the optimal operation in the water reactor.

The operation control of the pressure gauge and the air beam in the aerylic pipe is simple and can be kept under visible surveillance by any responsible personnel, without separate maintenance training. No regular service is required.

It require no additives.


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